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CHAPTER
30
The Vietnam War Years
Overview
Time Lines
SECTION
1 Moving Toward Conflict
SECTION
2 U.S. Involvement and Escalation
SECTION
3 A Nation Divided
SECTION
4 1968: A Tumultuous Year
SECTION
5 The End of the War and Its Legacy
Chapter Assessment
Transparencies
CHAPTER
30
The Vietnam War Years
“Vietnam is still with us. . . We paid an exorbitant price
for the decisions that were made.”
Henry Kissinger, U.S. national security advisor under President Nixon
THEMES IN CHAPTER 30
Expanding Democracy
Constitutional Concerns
Civil Rights
Cultural Diversity
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CHAPTER
30
The Vietnam War Years
“Vietnam is still with us. . . We paid an exorbitant price
for the decisions that were made.”
Henry Kissinger, U.S. national security advisor under President Nixon
What do you know?
• What do you already know about the Vietnam
War, especially its causes and effects both in
Vietnam and America?
Read the quote above and answer the following:
• What might Kissinger have meant by an
exorbitant price?
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CHAPTER
30
Time Line
The United States
1955 U.S. begins providing economic aid to
South Vietnam.
1964 Congress passes Tonkin Gulf Resolution.
1965 First U.S. ground troops arrive in Vietnam.
U.S. troops quell uprising in Dominican
Republic.
1968 The Vietcong launch the Tet offensive.
President Johnson announces he will
not seek reelection.
1969 U.S. troops begin withdrawal from Vietnam.
1970 Ohio National Guardsmen shoot and kill
four students at Kent State University.
President Nixon orders an invasion of
Cambodia.
1973 U.S. signs cease-fire with North Vietnam
and Vietcong, ending U.S. involvement in
Vietnam War.
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CHAPTER
30
Time Line
The World
1954 Vietminh defeat French at Dien Bien Phu.
1957 The National Liberation Front, or Vietcong,
forms in South Vietnam.
1962 The African nation of Uganda becomes
independent.
1964 Palestine Liberation Organization forms in the
Middle East.
1966 Mao Zedong begins Cultural Revolution
in China.
1970 Salvador Allende, a Marxist, is elected
president of Chile.
1972 Ferdinand Marcos declares martial law in the
Philippines.
1975 Saigon falls; South Vietnam surrenders
to the Communists.
HOME
SECTION
1
Moving Toward Conflict
HOME
Learn About
the early measures the United States took to stop the
spread of communism in Vietnam.
To Understand
how America slowly became involved in a war in
Vietnam.
SECTION
1
Moving Toward Conflict
Key Idea
America slowly involves itself in the war in
Vietnam as it seeks to halt the spread of
communism.
HOME
SECTION
1
Moving Toward Conflict
Section 1 Assessment
SUMMARIZING
What was the Vietnam policy for Presidents Truman,
Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson?
President
Vietnam Policy
Truman
economic aid to France
Eisenhower
economic and military aid to South Vietnam
Kennedy
economic and military aid to South Vietnam
Johnson
stepped-up U.S. military involvement
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SECTION
1
Moving Toward Conflict
Section 1 Assessment
ANALYZING EFFECTS
Why do you think the Geneva Accords of 1954 failed to
bring a lasting peace in Vietnam?
THINK ABOUT
• the provisions of the Geneva Accords
• Ho Chi Minh’s and Ngo Dinh Diem’s goals
• the role of the U.S. in Vietnam
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SECTION
1
Moving Toward Conflict
Section 1 Assessment
FORMING OPINIONS
Do you think Congress was justified in passing the Tonkin
Gulf Resolution?
THINK ABOUT
• the report of torpedo boat attacks on two U.S. destroyers
• the powers that the resolution would give the president
• the fact that the resolution was not a declaration of war
HOME
SECTION
2
U.S. Involvement and Escalation
HOME
Learn About
the reasons for U.S. escalation and the difficulty the
United States encountered in fighting the Vietcong.
To Understand
why the war lasted longer than expected and began to
lose support at home.
SECTION
2
U.S. Involvement and Escalation
Key Idea
The United States sends troops to fight in
Vietnam, but the war quickly turns into a
stalemate.
HOME
SECTION
2
U.S. Involvement and Escalation
HOME
Section 2 Assessment
SUMMARIZING
What key military tactics and weapons were used by the
Vietcong and the Americans?
Military Tactics and Weapons
VIETCONG
U.S.
TACTICS:
ambushes
hit-and-run attacks
TACTICS:
large-scale bombing
search-and-destroy missions
WEAPONS:
booby traps
land mines
WEAPONS:
napalm
Agent Orange
bombers
SECTION
2
U.S. Involvement and Escalation
Section 2 Assessment
EVALUATING
Evaluate the U.S. strategy for conducting the Vietnam War.
THINK ABOUT
• the war of attrition
• the battle for the “hearts and minds” of the South
Vietnamese
• the support for South Vietnamese leaders
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SECTION
2
U.S. Involvement and Escalation
Section 2 Assessment
GENERALIZING
What were the effects of the nightly TV coverage of the
Vietnam War?
THINK ABOUT
• television images of Americans in body bags
• the Johnson administration’s credibility gap
HOME
SECTION
3
A Nation Divided
Learn About
the growing antiwar movement in America.
To Understand
how the war sharply divided the American public.
HOME
SECTION
3
A Nation Divided
Key Idea
An antiwar movement emerges in the United
States, pitting those who oppose the
government’s war policy against those who
support it.
HOME
SECTION
3
A Nation Divided
HOME
Section 3 Assessment
SUMMARIZING
What were examples of student organizations, issues, and
demonstrations of the New Left?
The New Left
Student
Organizations
•Students for a Democratic
Society
•Free Speech Movement
Issues
Demonstrations
•opposition to Vietnam War
•abolition of college
deferments
•campus issues
•march on Washington
(April 1965)
•protest rally in Washington
(November 1965)
•civil disobedience at
Selective Service centers
SECTION
3
A Nation Divided
Section 3 Assessment
3
MAKING DECISIONS
What choices did war draftees make during the Vietnam era?
THINK ABOUT
• university students
• antiwar demonstrators
• economically underprivileged whites and minorities
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SECTION
3
A Nation Divided
Section 3 Assessment
3
FORMING OPINIONS
Do you agree, as many did, that antiwar protests were “acts
of disloyalty”? Why or why not?
THINK ABOUT
• why protestors staged antiwar demonstrations
• comments that the protestors “didn’t really love this
country”
• the right to dissent in a democratic society
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SECTION
4
1968: A Tumultuous Year
HOME
Learn About
the Tet offensive, the assassination of two national
leaders, and the rioting at the Democratic national
Convention.
To Understand
why 1968 stands out as the most explosive year of the
1960s.
SECTION
4
1968: A Tumultuous Year
Key Idea
A shocking enemy attack in Vietnam, two
assassinations, and a chaotic political
convention help make 1968 the most
explosive year of the decade.
HOME
SECTION
4
1968: A Tumultuous Year
HOME
Section 4 Assessment
SUMMARIZING
What major events occurred in 1968?
January
Tet offensive.
April
King’s assassination;
urban riots.
March
Johnson’s withdrawal
from presidential race.
August
Clash between police and
protestors at Democratic
National Convention.
June
Robert Kennedy’s
assassination.
SECTION
4
1968: A Tumultuous Year
Section 4 Assessment
ANALYZING
Why do you think the Tet offensive might be considered the
turning point of the Vietnam War?
THINK ABOUT
• its effects on the Johnson administration’s credibility
• its effects on public opinion
• Johnson’s response to the split within the Democratic Party
HOME
SECTION
4
1968: A Tumultuous Year
Section 4 Assessment
COMPARING AND CONTRASTING
Do you think there might have been a relationship between
the violence of the Vietnam War and the growing climate of
violence in the United States during 1968? Why or why not?
THINK ABOUT
• the heavy casualties during the month-long Tet offensive
• peak U.S. involvement in Vietnam in 1968
HOME
SECTION
5
The End of the War and Its Legacy
HOME
Learn About
President Richard Nixon’s Vietnamization policy and
the end of the war.
To Understand
how the war had a lasting affect on America.
SECTION
5
The End of the War and Its Legacy
Key Idea
The nation’s longest war ends after nearly ten
years and leaves a lasting impact on U.S.
policy and American society.
HOME
SECTION
5
The End of the War and Its Legacy
Section 5 Assessment
SUMMARIZING
What are some possible newspaper headlines that summarize
the historical significance of each of the dates listed below?
Date
Headline
March 16, 1968
Massacre at My Lai
April 30, 1970
Nixon Announces Invasion of Cambodia
May 4, 1970
Kent State Tragedy
May 14, 1970
Two Students Killed at Jackson State
December 31, 1970
Congress Repeals Tonkin Gulf Resolution
January 27, 1973
U.S. Signs Agreement to End Vietnam War
March 29, 1973
Last U.S. Combat Troops Leave Vietnam
HOME
SECTION
5
The End of the War and Its Legacy
Section 5 Assessment
SYNTHESIZING
In your opinion, what was the effect of the U.S.
government’s deception about its policies and military
conduct in Vietnam?
THINK ABOUT
• the release of information surrounding the My Lai massacre
• the contents of the Pentagon Papers
• Nixon’s secrecy in authorizing military maneuvers
HOME
SECTION
5
The End of the War and Its Legacy
Section 5 Assessment
DRAWING CONCLUSIONS
How would you account for the cold homecoming American
soldiers received when they returned from Vietnam?
THINK ABOUT
• how the Vietnam War ended
• America’s divisiveness over its role in Vietnam
• the media coverage of the My Lai massacre
HOME
Chapter
30
Assessment
1. How did the Tonkin Gulf Resolution lead to greater
U.S. involvement in Vietnam?
2. What was President Eisenhower’s explanation of the
domino theory?
3. Why did much of the American public and many in the
Johnson administration support U.S. escalation in
Vietnam?
4. Name three factors that contributed to the sinking
morale among U.S. troops fighting in Vietnam.
5. What race-related problems existed for African
American soldiers who served in the Vietnam War?
HOME
Chapter
30
Assessment
6. What evidence was there that the country was sharply
divided between hawks and doves?
7. What circumstances set the stage for President
Johnson’s public announcement that he would not seek
another term as president?
8. What acts of violence occurred in the United States
during 1968 that dramatically altered the mood of the
country?
9. Briefly describe the military conflict in Vietnam soon
after the last U.S. combat troops departed in 1973.
10. What were the immediate effects and more lasting
legacies of the Vietnam War within America?
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