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New Directions in Government
and Society
2000 BC – 300 AD
Geography Affects Life: Sea, Land, Climate
City-States
Polis (city-state)- the
fundamental unit in
ancient Greece
Athens- democracy
Sparta- Military State
Forms of Government- Monarchy
 State ruled by a king
 Rule is hereditary
 Some rulers claim divine right
 Practiced in Mycenae by 2000 BCE
Forms of Government- Aristocracy
 State ruled by nobility
 Rule is hereditary and
based on family ties,
social rank, wealth
 Social status and wealth
support rulers’
authority
 Practiced n Athens prior
to 594 BCE
Forms of Government- Oligarchy
 State rule by a small group of citizens
 Rule based on wealth or ability
 Ruling group controls military
 Practiced in Sparta by 500 BCE
Forms of Government- Direct Democracy
 State ruled by its citizens
 Rule is based on citizenship
 Majority rule decides vote
 Practiced in Athens by about 500 BCE
Persian Wars
 Greece v. Persian
Empire
 Stand of the 300
Spartans
(Thermopylae)
 Results in formation
of the Delian
League- alliance of
Greek city-states
against Persia

Athens emerges as
leader
Peloponnesian War
 Athens vs Sparta
 Athens- stronger
navy
 Sparta- stronger
army
 Result- Athens
loses the war, it’s
empire, power, and
wealth
Alexander the Great
 Builds the greatest
empire to date
 Helps bring about the
blend of cultures known
as Hellenistic Culture
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Greek
Egyptian
Persian
Indian
Legacy of Greece
Culture




Greek language
Mythology
Olympic games
Philosophy
Arts

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
Drama and poetry
Sculpture portraying ideals of beauty
Classic architecture
Legacy of Greece
Science and Technology

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Sun or Earth at center of universe
Euclid’s geometry textbook
Accurate estimate of the Earth’s circumference
Development of lever, pump, pulley
Government

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Direct democracy
Citizens bring charges of wrongdoing
Code of laws
Expansion of citizenship to all free adult males, except
foreigners
Ancient Rome
The rise and fall of the Roman
Empire has a lasting effect on
culture, government, and
religion.
Rome
The Republic
Republic- power rests with
citizens who have the right to
vote for their leaders
In Rome:

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Patricians- wealthy
landowners (held most of the
power)
Plebeians- common farmers,
artisans, merchants
(majority of the population)
Tribunes- protected the
rights of the plebeians from
the unfair acts of patrician
officials
Twelve Tables
 Rome’s written law code
 Established that all free
citizens had a right to the
protection of the law
 Major victory for
plebeians
From Republic to Empire
What made the republic unstable?


Increasing wealth and expanding boundaries
Growing gap between rich and poor


Farmers lost lands to wealthy landowners
Breakdown in the military order

Fighting for pay/individual leader rather than the Republic
Result:


Civil War
Triumvirate- Julius Caesar, Crassus, Pompey
Julius Caesar
 Conquered Gaul
 Crosses the Rubicon
 Governs Rome as
absolute ruler
 Assassinated in the
Senate
Pax Romana
What it is: Roman peace
How long does it last: 207
years
Features:

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Efficient government
Able rulers
Vast trade network
Road system
Rise of Christianity
 Leader: Jesus of Nazzareth and 12 apostles
 Persecution and Diaspora
 Diaspora- dispersion of any people from their homeland
 Constantine- announces an end to the persecution of
Christians (313)
 Theodosius- makes it the official religion of the
Empire
Diocletian Attempts Reform
 Doubled the size of the
Roman army
 Reduced inflation
 Restored prestige to the
office of the Emperor
 Split Rome into East and
West
Constantine Moves the Capital
 Unites the East and West
parts of the Empire
 Moved capital from
Rome to Byzantium

Later renamed
Constantinople
Fall of the Western Roman Empire
Contributing Factors
Immediate Cause
 Political
 Invasion by Germanic
 Social
 Economic
 Military
tribes and by Huns
India and China Create Empires
India and China create advanced
empires.
India’s Mauryan Empire
Unites India politically for
the first time (circa 300
BCE)
Asoka- Became king in 269
BCE

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Spread Buddhism
Extensive road system
Policies of toleration and
nonviolence
India’s Gupta Empire
Oversaw a great flowering
of Indian civilizationespecially Hindu culture
Empire expanded through
conquest
Indian Trade
 Silk Roads- Vast network of caravan routes used by traders
to bring silk from China to western Asia and on to Rome
 Indians made great profits by acting as middlemen on the
Silk Roads
 Sea trade increased
Indian Trade
Effects


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Rise of banking in India
Cultural diffusion
Indian religions spread to
new regions
Hinduism northeast to
Nepal and southeast to Sri
Lanka and Borneo
 Buddhism influences
China

Han Emperors in China
Han Dynasty- ruled China for more than 400 years

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Centralized government- a central authority controls the
running of the state
Highly structured society
Complex bureaucracy
Civil service jobs
Confucianism
Han Dynasty
Technology

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Paper
Collar harness for horses
Water mills
Commerce

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Agriculture – most important
Government established monopolies on salt mining, iron
forging, coin minting, and alcohol brewing
Culture

Assimilation- making conquered peoples part of Chinese
culture
African Civilizations
African cultures adapted to harsh
environments, established
powerful kingdoms, and spread
cultures through major
migrations.
Diverse Societies in Africa
 Savanna and
Mediterranean areas are
most hospitable
 Nomadic lifestyles are
replaced with settled life
 Nearly all religions
include elements of
animism and belief in
one creator or god
Migration
 Environmental,
economic, or political
reasons cause migration
 Push-pull factors
influence migration
 Bantu-speaker
migrations influence
most of Africa and south
of the Sahara
Push-Pull Factors
Push Examples
Climate changes,
exhausted resources,
earthquakes, volcanoes,
drought/famine
Migration Factors
Environmental
Unemployment, slavery
Economic
Religious, ethnic, or
political persecution, war
Political
Pull Examples
Abundant land, new
resources, good climate
Employment
opportunities
Political and/or religious
freedom
The Kingdom of Aksum
 A major trade center on
the Indian Ocean trade
routes
 King Ezana converts to
Christianity
 Islamic invaders isolate
Aksum
The Americas
Early American civilizations
influenced future societies and
cultures.
Beringia and Migration
The Earliest Americans
 Hunter-Gatherers
 Lived in small, nomadic
groups
 Developed farming ->
settled down into large
communities
 Developed new skillsarts, crafts, architecture,
social and political
organization
 Gradually forged more
complex societies
Early Mesoamerican Societies
The Olmec



Pyramids, plazas,
monumental sculptures
Ceremonial centers, ritual
ball games, and a ruling class
Directed a large trade
network throughout
Mesoamerica
The Zapotec


Urban center at Monte Alban
Early forms of hieroglyphic
writing and a calendar
system