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```DIGITAL SYSTEMS
ECE-273, Digital Systems
Dr. Herb Kaufman
Electrical and Computer Engineering
UofM-Dearborn
www.engin.umd.umich.edu/~hkaufm/273files
1
Required Textbook
 Fundamentals of Logic Design 5th Edition



Charles H. Roth, Jr.
ISBN 0-534-37804-8
(C) 2004
-- See Syllabus for further information about the course
2
Analog versus Digital
Analog Voltage meter
Digital Voltage meter
103.5
3
Analog
Continuous Spectrum
Digital
Distinct Steps
4
Analog vs. Digital
 Analog

Continuous

Time
 Every time has a value associated with it, not just some times

Magnitude
 A variable can take on any value within a range

e.g.
 temperature, voltage, current, weight, length, brightness, color
5
Analog vs. Digital
 Digital

Discontinuous

Time (discretized)
 The variable is only defined at certain times

Magnitude (quantized)
 The variable can only take on values from a finite set

e.g.
 Switch position, digital logic, Dow-Jones Industrial, lottery,
batting-average
6
Analog to Digital
 A Continuous Signal is Sampled at Some
Time and Converted to a Quantized
Representation of its Magnitude at that Time


Samples are usually taken at regular intervals
and controlled by a clock signal
The magnitude of the signal is stored as a
sequence of binary valued (0,1) bits according to
some encoding scheme
7
Quantization
8
Digital to Analog
 A Binary Valued, B = { 0, 1 }, Code Word
can be Converted to its Analog Value
 Output of D/A Usually Passed Through
Analog Low Pass Filter to Approximate a
Continuous Signal
 Many Applications Construct a Signal
Digitally and then D/A

e.g., RF Transmitters, Signal Generators
9
Digital is Ubiquitous
 Electronic Circuits based on Digital
Principles are Widely Used






Automotive Engine/Speed Controllers
Microwave Oven Controllers
Heating Duct Controls
Digital Watches
Cellular Phones
Video Games
10
Why Digital?
 Increased Noise Immunity
 Reliable
 Inexpensive
 Programmable
 Easy to Compute Nonlinear Functions
 Reproducible
 Small
11
allow for detection and correction of errors
-- (EDAC – Error Detection and Correction)
 Digital data can be transmitted over a medium that
introduces errors that are corrected at receiving
end

Satellite transmission of Direct TV - each ‘screen’
image is digitally encoded; errors corrected when it
Picture.
12
Digital Design Process
 Computer Aided Design Tools






Design entry
Synthesis
Verification and simulation
Physical design
Fabrication
Testing
13
```
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