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Three Worlds Meet
U.S. History
C. Corning 2011
What was the first settlement in the
territory of the United States?
 Native Americans – crossing Bering Straits over 30,000 years
 Caparra, Puerto Rico – 1508 (Spanish)
 Charlesfort, Parris Island, South Carolina – 1562 (French)
 Pensacola– 1559 / St. Augustine* (FL) –1565 (Spanish)
 Roanoke – 1586 (English)
 Jamestown *- 1607 (British)
 Plymouth Colony –1620 (British)
 * Permanent settlements
American Indigenous
 Textbook pages 8 – 13 (map)
 This period of history called “Pre-colonization” –
how does that title reflect a European bias?
 Movement of people over the Bering Straits about
20,000 years ago
 About 5,000 to 10,000 years ago, agriculture
revolution in Central Mexico
 Mixture of nomadic and agrarian cultures.
Empires of Middle and South
 Mayan Empire – Guatemala and Yucatan Penisula
(250 – 900 CE)
 Aztec Empire – Valley of Mexico (1200s – early
 Inca Empire – 2,500 miles down western coast of
South America (1200s – early 1500s)
North American Cultures (pg 11)
 Southwest Native Groups – agriculture in the arid deserts
(Anasazi, later Pueblo and Hopi)
 California/Northwest groups/Subarctic
 Plains Natives – later pushed from the edges into the middle
 East of Mississippi River (from Great Lakes to Gulf of Mexico)
– Eastern Woodlands
 Iroquois,
 Mixture of agriculture and hunting/gathering societies
 Not large empires like those of Central and South America
West African Societies
 Why West Africa?
 Portuguese start exploration for trading ports in mid
1400s – possibly based on reports by earlier
Egyptian/Phoenician sailors/traders
 Three West African kingdoms: Songhai (Mail and
Ghana), Benin and Kongo (Angola)
 Map of Africa
 Use of slave labor: not born into slavery, nor necessary a
lifetime sentence, usually due to wars or debts
 Slavery could be released due to end of term, adoption or
marriage into the tribe.
 Why tell Europe’s part of the story last?
 What does Eurocentric mean? How does it influence
our understanding of other cultures? Our history?
 Choice of terms: contact, exploration, encounter,
exploitation, discovery, conquest
 Why Europeans exploring the Americas? Why not
the other way around?
 Review thesis of “Guns, Germs and Steel”
 Guns Germs and Steel - summary
Why Europe
Advances in military technology – around 1400 European
leaders started an arms race.
Bigger guns, mounted on ships, siege warfare
Expanded use of social technology – bureaucracy, doubleentry bookkeeping, mechanical printing.
Ideological development: amassing wealth and dominating
other people came to be seen as a positive value.
The nature of European Christianity – believed in a
transportable, proselytizing religion that offered a rationale
for conquest.
Europe’s recent success in taking over island societies:
Malta, Sardinia, Canary Islands – route to wealth.
Early European Contact
 Vikings (from Greenland and maybe Iceland) – 1000
– 1350, Labrador, Newfoundland (Canada)
 European fishing ships – chasing cod across the
Atlantic ocean, used northern east coast to dry fish,
gather food, wood and water.
 Map of North America
Review: Motives, Process and
 Motives:
Military strength/strategic position
Land for settlement
Missionaries – conversion to Christianity
Spreading of European Civilization
Belief in European cultural/racial superiority
Control over raw materials/precious metals/potential
 Profit for private business owners/forced labor
 National rivalry/patriotism
 Warfare/weapons of industrialization
 Transportation/communication inventions
 Divide and conquer (and rule)
 Alliance with local powers
 Economic reorganization to meet the needs of the “mother”
 Direct rule / indirect rule
 Creation of an educated elite to help govern colony
 Forced labor
 Westernization/assimilation influences
Indigenous people lost their land to the colonizers
Colonies often became dependent on a single cash crop
Infrastructure build to support retrieval of raw materials/transportation
Indigenous manufacturing activities within colony end
Improvements in schools, hospitals, sanitation
Cultural changes – language, customs, religion, food, music
Increase in racism - locals begin to believe in European superiority
Rebellions and resistance
Increased conflict = instable societies
Rise of nationalism in colonies
National borders redrawn without consideration of geographic or ethnic issues
The Christopher Columbus
 Not really sure where he was born
 Also most people, especially sailors and educated people,
knew that the world was round!
 He was looking for a new route to Asia – Portugal had
“blocked” the one around Africa.
 April 3, 1492 – Columbus sailed the ocean blue
 Many myths about the journey, sighting land
 What we do know is that he landed on October 12, 1492 on an
island he called San Salvador - Native people called Arawaks
 Map of the Caribbean
 God, Gold and Glory
 Columbus Day (October) – why do we “celebrate” this day?
What is the significance?
Columbus Experiences
 Four trips in total – kept logs for each – looking for gold and
taking possession all the land he saw (for Spain)
 Logs
 Referred to natives as los indios
 Map of Columbus' Four Voyages
 1492 – Hispaniola, also made landfall at Bahamas and
“sighted” Cuba
 Contact between Columbus and Taino (video on blog)
 First settlement at Navidad on Hispaniola
 1493 – he returned to begin building a Spanish colony –
soldiers, priests, and hidalgos
 1498 – failure – many complaints
 1502 – shipwrecked and a ruined man
Building a Spanish Empire
 Spanish Conquistadors
 Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) – why only Spain and Portugal?
 Aztecs – Hernan Cortes (1519 – 1521) and La Malinche (see
video) – pg 37
 Incas – Francisco Pizzaro – Conquest of 1532 (3rd attempt) –
“Guns, Germs and Steel” video
 Southwest Exploration – Map / Interactive Map 1492 - 1700
 1528 – Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, landed on Tampa Bay FL
and traveled to Mexico City (1537)
 1540 – Francisco de Coronado – Arizona, New Mexico, Texas,
Oklahoma and Kansas
 1598 – capital of New Mexico established 25 miles north of Santa
Fe (1610)
Building a Spanish Empire
 Florida – fountain of youth?, gold, slaves and land
 1513 – Juan Ponce de Leon – Coast of FL
 1539 – Hernando De Soto
 1565 – Menendez de Aviles, founding of St. Augustine (to
ward off the French at Ft. Caroline, Jacksonville, FL 1564 –
haven for French Hugenots)
 1763 – British, 1783 - Spanish, 1819 - U.S. (Adams-Onis
Treaty – give up claims on Texas)
 Initially two Vice-royalties: New Spain (capital in
Mexico City) and Peru
 Later divided into additional viceroyalties
 Map Spanish American Colonial Empire
Process/Legacy of Spanish
Colonization of Caribbean
 Use the textbook pgs 27 – 29, 36 – 41 and the
“Conquest and Colonization” packet to look for
examples of “process” and “legacy”.
 Resources on blog: suggested (plus others)
 “1491 and 1493 – How Columbus Shaped a World to Be”
 Columbus’ Log
 “Columbus and the Taino” video
 Reaction to the Spanish “process”
 de las Casas, Native resistance
 Why "America"? Why not “Columbia”?
Columbian Exchange
 The transfer of plants, animals and diseases between
the Western Hemisphere and the Eastern
 Textbook map – pg 29 / Columbian Exchange Map
 Food quiz
 How many came from the “New World”?