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Cells are the smallest units of life CH 3 The Cell Theory 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function. 3. Cells are produced only from existing cells. All living things have cells Unicellular creatures have 1 cell Multicellular creatures have 2 or more cells Prokaryotic (Pre) ( Nucleus) • Always single- celled • lacks organelles • Few specialized functions • Bacteria are the only group of organisms that are prokaryotic!!! Eukaryotic (True) ( Nucleus) • Single-celled or multi-celled • Has many organelles • Specialized functions EX: nerve cells: for transmitting info • All other living things EX: (Plants, Animals, Fungi) Nerve Cell CELLS: What do you think these cells are? Cell Organelles little “organs” that have specific jobs in a cell The Differences ANIMAL CELL • Roundish – Lysosomes – Centrioles PLANT CELL • Squarish – Chloroplast – Cell Wall – Central Vacuole A cell is like a cell phone factory CELL MEMBRANE Function: controls what goes in & out & makes cells waterproof Facts: • Selectively Permeable: only lets certain things enter or leave • Made of Phospholipid Bilayer – Made of lipids & proteins – Double layer Analogy: phospholipid Main gate/security booth cell membrane CYTOPLASM Function: Prevents cell from collapsing Facts: – fluid inside the membrane – made of water, sugar, protein, etc. – “framework” called a cytoskeleton Analogy: Floor of the Factory cytoskeleton cytoplasm NUCLEUS Function: Stores genetic information (DNA) Facts: •most but not all cells have a nucleus Analogy: CEO/Boss of the factory Chromatin Function: Is the Genetic information FACTS: • Made of Nucleic Acids • Unorganized form of DNA • Becomes Chromosomes during cell division Analogy: Blueprints for the cell phones Ribosomes Function: makes proteins Facts: ―found on rough ER Analogy: factory workers who build the cell phones Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Function: passageway for supplies to move about the cell Facts: • Also makes lipids & carbs Analogy: Assembly line Golgi apparatus Function: prepares proteins and other molecules for shipping outside of the cell. Facts: ― The more molecules a cell makes the bigger the Golgi Analogy: packaging center for cell phones Mitochondria Function: makes energy for cells Facts: changes Glucose from food into fuel called ATP Analogy: generator for factory Lysosomes Function: digests old cell parts Facts: –Filled with enzymes that break down large molecules –Only in animal cells Analogy: Janitors Centrioles Function: move and organize chromosomes during cell division Facts: –Only in animal cells Analogy: filing cabinet for blueprints Chloroplast Function: makes energy for plant cells Facts: – Site of photosynthesis – Uses sunlight to change water & Carbon Dioxide into Glucose and Oxygen Analogy: solar panels CELL WALL Function: Gives structure & support to plant cells Facts: – helps plant to grow upright (stiff) – Is outside the membrane – In bacteria, fungi and plant cells Analogy: Factory building wall VACUOLE Function: Stores water & nutrients Facts: - Large and in the center in plant cells - Many small ones in animal cells – keeps plants from drying out Analogy: Break room Refrigerator VESSICLE Function: carries materials around the cell Facts: - Made from cell membrane -Don’t live very long -Get recycled -Analogy: Plastic grocery bags The Differences ANIMAL CELL • Roundish – Lysosomes – Centrioles PLANT CELL • Squarish – Chloroplast – Cell Wall – Central Vacuole Cell energy • All nutrients must be broken down to GLUCOSE. • Breakdown of nutrients to glucose is done by enzymes Make glucose through Photosynthesis Get glucose from food Release energy from glucose through cellular respiration and ATP Production WHERE: Chloroplast WHO: plant cells WHY: turns water and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen! WHEN: in the presences of light energy (sun) 1. Light is absorbed by chlorophyll 2. Light splits water into H2 and O 3. Energy from this split is used to make ATP “Calvin Cycle” Steps 1. Energy from ATP used to make sugar (C6H12O6) from H2O & CO2 2. Oxygen is “leftover” Light energy + 6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 GLUCOSE ( Monosaccharide sugar) Where did they Go? Reactants 6 CO2 Products C6H12O6 6H2O 6O2 The Big Picture Photosynthesis Concept Map • Cut out the pictures • Arrange them in a way that tells a story about what is happening during this process • Add labels, arrows, and other symbols to connect the concepts • Write a 25 word summary of the process of photosynthesis Cell Respiration WHERE: MITOCHONDRIA WHO: All Eukaryotic Cells WHY: to turn sugar (glucose) into fuel (ATP) C6H12O6+ 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O and 36 ATP carbon dioxide & water are “leftovers” Two Types Aerobic • Most Eukaryotic cells • needs oxygen • makes 36 ATP • 3 steps Fermentation • • • Yeast & Bacteria If oxygen isn’t available only makes 2 ATP – • (ok for small things) This is how we make bread, yogurt, beer wine! It’s a 3 STEP PROCESS Why: to slowly release energy without heating up the cell too much! 1. Glycolysis: Happens in the cytoplasm to break down glucose – All living things do glycolysis 2. Krebs Cycle: In the mitochondria, makes a few ATP (not efficient) 3. Electron Transport: In the mitochondria, makes a lot of ATP Cellular Respiration Concept Map • Cut out the pictures • Arrange them in a way that tells a story about what is happening during this process • Add labels, arrows, and other symbols to connect the concepts • Write a 25 word summary of the process of cellular respiration • Use arrows or color coding to show how the cycles are relayed… (hint: look at the equation) The Big Picture 1. All nutrients must be broken down to Glucose 2. Glucose must be converted to ATP ANALOGY: Money Tokens • The main energy molecule in organisms • Energy is held in the Chemical Bonds – Breaking a bond releases energy • ATPADP – Making a bond stores energy • ADP ATP Cellular Energy in the form of ATP gets used to drive cell processes EX: Cell Division Cell Transport Several items make Cell Transport possible 1. 2. 3. 4. The Phospholipids ( Cell Membrane) A Concentration Gradient Selective Permeability Membrane Bound Proteins Selectively Permeability: A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross the membrane more easily than others. Concentration gradient: The difference in the amount of solution on each side of a cell membrane The Phospholipid Hydro: Water HEAD: LOVES WATER hydrophilic Philia: Love Phobia: Fear or hate TAIL: HATES WATER hydrophobic Heads out, tails in… the membrane forms a bi-layer (2) Types of Cellular Transport Passive Transport Active Transport – Diffusion – Facilitated Diffusion • Need Channel Proteins • No ATP – Needs Carrier Proteins – Requires ATP • Endocytosis • Exocytosis Passive transport Diffusion: The tendency of a substance to move from an area of high conc. to an area of low conc. across a membrane in which the cell expends no energy. (sliding down a slide) Facilitated Diffusion: the process of transporting molecules by channel proteins during diffusion, requires no energy output (someone else carrying you down the slide) Active transport Needs: Energy! Transport of molecules against a concentration gradient (from low conc. to high conc.) using carrier proteins in the cell membrane and energy from ATP. (walking up the slide) How Does that Look in a Cell? A: Passive Diffusion B: Facilitated Diffusion (needs channel protein) C: Active Transport (needs ATP & carrier protein) Types of Active Transport Exocytosis: The release of materials out of the cell (pooping) Endocytosis The taking of materials from outside the cell (eating) Cell Size and Diffusion • Cells must remain small to maximize diffusion • The larger a cells volume becomes, the less efficient it becomes. – Prokaryotes - Limited by efficient metabolism – Animal Cells (Eukaryotic) - Limited by surface area to volume ratio • Surface area of cells must be proportionally larger than it’s size (volume) Solvent: a liquid that dissolves the solute, usually water or alcohol Solute: Anything dissolved in a solvent Together they make a Solution Salt Sucks! When salt is inside or outside the cell, it draws water in its direction. This is why you get thirsty after eating something salty. Same thing applies for all other solutes Solutions and Cells • All solutions want to be equal on both sides of the membrane for homeostasis. • Substances dissolved in solution have special vocabulary to describe them • Hypertonic • Hypotonic • Isotonic Hypertonic • The conc. of solute outside the cell is higher than the conc. inside • The solution outside is hypertonic • Water diffuses out of the cell until equilibrium is established. – The cell will shrink and lose mass Hypotonic • The conc. of solute outside the cell is lower than the conc. inside • The solution outside is hypotonic • Water diffuses into the cell until equilibrium is established. – The cell will get bigger and gain mass Isotonic • The conc. of solute outside and inside the cell are equal • The solution outside is isotonic • Water diffuses into and out at equal rates – No net change in size or mass Hypertonic Hypotonic H2O CHO CHO CHO H2O H2O H2O CHO H2O H2O CHO CHO H2O H2O CHO CHO CHO H O 2 H2O H2O CHO H2O H2O H2O CHO H2O H2O H2O CHO CHO Isotonic H2O H2O CHO H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O H2O •Water moves out •Water moves in •Water moves in and out •Cell Shrinks •Cell Swells •Cell Size remains same Why doesn’t the Glucose (CHO) move into the cell?