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PERCEPTION OF MUSIC
& LANGUAGE
Music Perception
• Musical notes
– Sounds of music extend across frequency
range: 25–4200 Hz
– To increase by one octave double the frequency
– Intervals that sound good together have
overlapping harmonic frequencies
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Music Perception
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Music Perception
•Tone height: A sound quality
whereby a sound is heard to be of
higher or lower pitch;
monotonically related to frequency
•Tone chroma: A sound quality
shared by tones that have the
same octave interval
•Musical helix: Can help
visualize musical pitch
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Music Perception
• Rhythm: Not just in music
– Lots of activities have rhythm: Walking,
waving, finger tapping, heartbeat, breathing,
etc.
– More examples: Car, train rides
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Speech Perception
1. Cortical Areas For Speech Perception and
Production
2. Phonemes
•
•
Articulation
Forment transitions
3. Speech Segmentation
4. Intonation & Prosidy
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Broca’s Area & Wernicke’s Area
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Aphasia
• Broca's aphasics produce slow, halting speech that is rarely
grammatical. They generally retain their vocabularies and
have no difficulty naming objects or performing other
meaning-related tasks. In general, they can deduce the
meanings of sentences from general knowledge, but cannot
understand sentences whose syntax is essential to their
meaning.
• Wernicke's aphasics are able to produce generally
grammatical sentences, but they are often nonsensical and
include invented words. Wernicke's aphasics show few
signs of understanding others' speech, and have difficulty
naming objects.
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Phonemes - The auditory
components of speech
• 43 Phonemes
• An alphabet for spoken language -- nondecomposable
• All sounds English words can be built from
a combination of phonemes
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Articulation: Consonants
1 Place of articulation:
–
–
–
Lips: b, p, m
Alveolar ridge: d, t, n
Soft palate: g, k, ng
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Articulation: Consonants
2 Manner of Articulation:
–
–
–
–
–
Totally obstructed: b, p, d, t, g, k
Partially obstructed: s, z, f, v, th, sh
Slightly obstructed: l, r, w, y
Initially obstructed: ch, j
Nasals: n, m, ng
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Articulation: Consonants
3 Voicing:
–
–
Voiced: b, m ,z, l, r
Voiceless: p, s, ch
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Articulation: Vowels
Front Vowels
Central Vowels
beet
about
bit
but
bait
bet
Diphthongs
at
bite
boy
Back Vowels
bough
boot
book
boat
cause
cot
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Recognizing
Phonemes
1 Place of
articulation:
Front
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Middle
Back
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Obstructed
Recognizing
Phonemes
2 Manner of
articulation:
Unobstructed
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Recognizing
Phonemes
3 Voicing:
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Recognizing
Phonemes
Vowels
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Recognizing
Phonemes
Vowels
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Speech Segmentation
• The problem of determining which phonemes are
to be grouped into words before you know what
has been said
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Speech Segmentation
• Appears to be largely a function of context,
learning common phoneme groupings, common
segmentations and familiar phrases
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Speech Segmentation
• Appears to be largely a function of context,
learning common phoneme groupings, common
segmentations and familiar phrases
• "I owe you a yo-yo". "Mares eat oats and does eat
oats, and little lambs eat ivy, a kid'll eat ivy too,
wouldn't you?"
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Spectrogram:
I owe you
a yo-yo
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Speech Segmentation (cont.)
• When speaking with someone who doesn't
understand what you just said, or with a young
child, we tend to put audible spaces between
words in order to assist segmentation
• Many errors of speech perception occur because
of improper segmentation - " 'scuse me while I
kiss the sky" - or with one phoneme shift -" 'scuse
me while I kiss this guy".
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Intonation & Prosidy
• Meaning is carried in intonation
"Oh yeah, that course is Great"
or
"That's it, you're finished”
• Prosidy is not only distinct behaviorally, but
neuropsychologically as well
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Language Acquisition
Discernable speech
sounds require
reinforcement:
Retroflex
Consonant
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Language Acquisition
Universal Grammar Associative Learning
Nativism
Empiricism
Noam Chomsky
B.F. Skinner
Experience is
insufficient
Experience is sufficient
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Universal Grammar
• Critical Period
• Human Specific Behavior
• The structure of syntax: The case for
generative grammar
• Insufficiency of Experience
• Creoles & ASL
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Associative Learning and Language
• While language is a remarkable capacity, a
predilection for language acquisition does
not imply a “universal grammar”
• Purely associative neural network models
can learn language and do so remarkably
similarly to humans
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Resolution of The Debate
• Ethology: The Ecological Perspective for
Learning: Conrad Lorenz
• Prepared and Unprepared Learning
• Nativism Vs. Empiricism Redux: Language
acquisition, as with other learning is
associative (empiricism),but occurs within
systems adapted for certain types of
acquisition (nativism)
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