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Intro logo
Tom Hicks
Vice President
LEED®
Perception
Reality
Operating and
maintenance
practices and
building
performance
that meet
specified
standards
reducing the
negative impact
of buildings on
their occupants
and on the
environment
What is Green Building?
Membership growth graph
Scores are tallied for
different aspects of
building performance in
appropriate categories.
What is LEED? Definition
LEADERSHIP in
ENERGY and
ENVIRONMENTAL
DESIGN
For instance, LEED-EB
assesses performance
of:
1. Sustainable Sites
A leading-edge
system for
certifying
BUILDING
PERFORMANCE
and
OPERATIONS &
MAINTENANCE
of the greenest
buildings
in the world
2. Water Efficiency
3. Energy Performance
4. Material &
Resource Use
5. Indoor
Environmental
Quality
6. Innovation in
Upgrades and O&M
Levels of LEED Ratings
Categories of LEED: Current
Categories of LEED: Future
California Study Savings
Why
Study
EE
in
Green?
What is LEED? Definition
• Green Sells Energy Efficiency Better than
Energy Efficiency Sells
•
Why
Study
EE
in
Green?
What
is
LEED?
Definition
Largest Contributor to Sustainability…
Indoor
Environmental
Quality
Sustainable
23%
Sites
22%
Materials &
Resources
Water
20%
Efficiency
8%
Energy &
Atmosphere
27%
• Largest Global Contributor of CO2…
“US buildings alone are responsible for more CO2 emissions than those of any
other country in the world except China”
Kinsey et al., 2002 ACEEE Proceedings, Section 9.21.
Why Study EE in Green?
What is LEED? Definition
• Investment Grade Piece
Higher EPS -
Reduced Operating Costs=Increases NOI
Reduced Cost of Capital Increase cash flow=Improved liquidity=Improved debt rating
Increased Building Value -
30% saved = 5% increase in building appraised value
Growing acknowledgement by Shareholders (SRI, institutional investors)
and Financial Analysts
Why Study EE in Green?
What
is
LEED?
Definition
Early Perceptions = Reality - examples
become a market transformation tool
Why Study EE in Green?
What is LEED? Definition
• How Energy Efficient is Green?
• We don’t really know…
• Performance claims made against
code
• Whole building targets are rare
• Huge potential for performance gap
• Poor case study documentation
We Don’t Really Know
What is LEED? Definition
Weak Correlation: Code vs. Simulated EUI
y = 0.0021x
R2 = 0.1321
50.0%
California Office Buildings
Buildings 20%
better than code can
have an energy
performance score
ranging from
1-100.
% Electricity Savings relative to code
40.0%
30.0%
20.0%
10.0%
0.0%
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Not sending right
market signal.
-10.0%
-20.0%
Energy Star Score (based on National Average Occupancy)
Source: NBI, California Board for
Energy Efficiency, EPA
Performance against code is weakly correlated to EUI
We Don’t Really Know
What is LEED? Definition
• Whole building target rare
– Simulation of building models using ECBM doesn’t necessarily include all
uses
• LEED NC v.2.2 will require consumption target
– As a submittal requirement, not a credit award
• Hugh Potential for Performance Gap
–
–
–
–
–
Value engineering
Field construction
Lack of coordination
Commissioning and O&M
Overly optimistic projections
We Don’t Really Know
What is LEED? Definition
Size
Site EUI
Actual
Site EUI
Predicted
Kbtu/ft2/-yr
Kbtu/ft2-yr
ENERGY
STAR
Rating (est.)
Building Name
ft2
Wampanoag Headquarters
8,700
29.8
-
99
Ridgehaven Green Office Building
78,000
-
23.6
96
EPA RTP Campus Office Wing
73,000
-
28.2
95
Chicago Center for Green Technology
40,000
-
33.3
94
Thoreau Center for Sustainability
73,000
40.9
-
93
Iowa Association of Municipal Utilities
12,000
31.8
-
92
U.S. Navy Building 850
17,000
70
36.1
91
CBF Merrill Environmental Center
32,000
65*
37.4
87
PA DEP – Cambria Office Building
36,000
40.2 (37)*
-
84
Four Times Square
1,600,000
-
63.8
76
*recent NREL High-Performance Buildings Group case studies
We Don’t Really Know
What is LEED? Definition
Size
Site EUI
Actual
Site EUI
Predicted
ft2
Kbtu/ft2/-yr
Kbtu/ft2/-yr
ENERGY
STAR
Rating (est.)
Herman Miller MarketPlace
95,000
99.7
-
61
NWF Headquarters
85,000
68.2
-
52
Norm Thompson Headquarters
54,500
59.8
-
52
PNC Firstside Center
647,000
99.5
-
49
Pacific Development/Port of Portland Building
350,000
-
73.4
43
Brewery Block 4
241,000
-
70.8
42
Nature Conservancy Headquarters
172,000
79.3
-
38
KSBA Architects Office
9,100
-
68.2
30
Pierce County Environmental Services
50,000
-
82
17
William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
48,000
-
96.7
10
Building Name
What
is LEED? Definition
EPA/USGBC
Study
• Follow 30-40 buildings from LEED-NC (2.0 or 2.1) to
LEED-EB
• Correlation between design intent and actual
operations
• Compare performance with building market
• Examine relationship between connected load and
actual energy performance
• Determine need for future research
What is LEED?
Definition
Overview
of Study
Design
• Types of buildings
• Commercial and institutional
– Offices, Courthouses, Financial Centers, Bank Branches, K12 schools, Hospitals, Hotels, and Residence Halls
•
•
•
•
Data requirements
Design consumption
Actual consumption
As-designed/as-built connected load (kW)
• Recruitment Strategy - success to date
• ~10 LEED-NC have expressed interest/registered
• 20+ are needed
What
is LEED?
Definition
Design
vs. Performance
Building
ft2
Designed
Site EUI
(kBtu/ft2-yr)
Actual
Site EUI
(kBtu/ft2-yr)
%
Change
ENERGY
STAR
Rating
Cascadia 1
18,000
64
47
-26%
82
Cascadia 2
412,000
86
52
-39%
81
Cascadia 3
70,000
36
61
67%
69
Cascadia 5
470,000
--
52
--
88
LBNL 2
18,800
51
48
-4%
95
LBNL 3
8,400
141
140
-1%
2
LBNL 4
52,200
--
22
--
99
LBNL 5
72,000
--
73
--
52
LBNL 6
17,000
36
70
94%
64
69
70
1%
70
Size
Averages
What is LEED?
Definition
Persistence
of Performance
Actual
Site EUI
(kBtu/ft2-yr)
ENERGY
STAR
Rating
Year 1
47.5
82
Year 2
46.9
81
Year 1
61.1
68
Year 2
60.4
69
Year 1
54.2
87
Year 2
49.3
90
Year 3
49.3
90
Year 4
52.0
88
Year 5
52.4
88
Building
Cascadia 1
Cascadia 3
Cascadia 5
• Only three
records, but…
• Performance
appears to persist
year to year
What isNext
LEED?
Definition
Steps
•
Performance Data
–
–
–
•
Final Report to EPA
–
•
ACEEE Summer Study
ICEEB 2006
Greenbuild 2006?
Forward Recommendations
–
–
•
June 2006
Update Findings
–
–
–
•
Get more building records
More year to year (i.e. persistence)
Connected Load data
USGBC Research Committee
LEED Core Committees and USGBC Staff
Collaborate on Research Agenda to Close Performance Gap
–
ASHRAE, EPA, USGBC, and others
What
is LEED? Definition
Acknowledgements
Glen Gilbert, President & CEO
Cascadia Region Green Building Council
Cathy Turner
Sustainability Measurement Consultant
Rick Diamond
Staff Scientist
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Mike Opitz, PE
LEED-EB Certification Manager
U.S. Green Building Council
the end