Download (left) are intensely glowing clouds of hot hydrogen gas that envelop

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Spitzer - infrared
Previous images of the Ring Nebula taken by visible-light
telescopes usually showed just the inner glowing loop of gas
around the star. The outer regions are especially prominent in this
new image because Spitzer sees the infrared light from hydrogen
molecules. The molecules emit infrared light because they have
absorbed ultraviolet radiation from the star or have been heated by
the wind from the star.
Where dark lanes of dust are visible trisecting the
nebula in the visible-light picture, bright regions of
star-forming activity are seen in the Spitzer
pictures.
Blobs (left) are intensely glowing clouds of hot hydrogen gas that envelop
faraway galaxies. They are about 10 times as large as the galaxies they
surround. Spitzer was able to see the dusty galaxies tucked inside one wellknown blob located 11 billion light-years away. The findings reveal three
monstrously bright galaxies, trillions of times brighter than the Sun, in the
process of merging together (right).
Chandra reveals the hottest gas [colored blue and colored green], which radiates in Xrays. The blue color represents the higher-energy gas; the green, the lower-energy gas.
Hubble shows the brightest, densest gas [colored yellow], which appears in visible light.
Spitzer unveils heated dust [colored red], which radiates in infrared light.
‫‪7‬שיעור‬
‫פלזמה ‪n‬‬
QuickTime™ and a
Cinepak decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
‫יונון‬
‫מילות מפתח‬
‫תכונות קבוצתיות‬
‫גלים‬
‫יציבויות‪ -‬אי‬
‫ליניאריות‪-‬אי‬
‫אינטרקציה עם שדה מגנטי‬
‫תכונות קבוצתיות‬
‫מיסוך דיבאי‬
‫תנודות‬
‫פלסמה כנוזל מוליך‬
‫‪MHD‬‬
‫צפיפות‬
‫מהירות‬
‫לחץ‬
(M)HD
‫כוחות נוספים‬
‫כבידה‬
‫כוח מגנטי‬
‫כוח חשמלי‬
‫שדה אלקטרומגנטי ‪” -‬דבק”ה‬
‫קירובים‬
‫=‪MHD‬‬
‫‪HD+‬‬
‫מ ?מה חסר‬
‫משוואת המצב‬
‫חוק אום‬
‫דיפוזיה של שדה מגנטי‬
‫קווי שדה מוקפאים‬
MHD waves
sound
Alfven
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