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LAB #1 – EARTH’S SHAPE
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Describe what a “roundness ratio” is
Tell how the value of a “roundness ratio” can help you to
determine the shape of an object.
Identify the roundness ratio of Earth, Jupiter and a globe.
Provide a description of the true shape of Earth, Jupiter
and a globe using their roundness ratio value.
LAB #2 –NYS LANDSCAPES
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Identify the latitude and longitude coordinates of
Hornell and at least 2 other cities in NYS.
Identify 2 major rivers and 3 major lakes of NYS.
Identify, describe and provide examples of the 3
types of landscapes that exist in NYS.
LAB #3 – LATITUDE/LONGITUDE
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Identify three differences between latitude and longitude
(state your differences in pairs)
Describe how Polaris can be used to determine latitude in
the Northern Hemisphere
Describe how longitude and GMT can be used to determine
your local time, using an example that you create.
LAB #7 – TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Describe what a topographic map shows and how isolines are
used to do this
Describe what gradient is and tell how it is calculated
Describe how contour lines tell the direction of stream flow
Describe how contour lines indicate where a slope is steep
Describe how to find the highest possible elevation using
contour lines
Describe what features a topographic profile can show
LAB #2 - MEASUREMENT
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:

Explain why measuring accurately is important to Earth science

Describe what percent error is and tell how it is calculated.

Describe the proper technique used to measure the following:
–
Liquid mass, Liquid volume, Rectangular volume and the volume of
an irregular-shaped object
LAB #3 - DENSITY
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:

Define what density is and tell how it is calculated.

Describe how density would change if mass is changed, but
volume is not

Describe the relationship between density and temperature,
density and pressure

Describe how the different lab materials would behave if
placed together in a density float
LAB #4 – SCALE DRAWING
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:

Explain what a map scale is and why it is important

Describe how a ratio is set up to create a scale drawing

Explain why most concepts in Earth Science are drawn
“NOT TO SCALE”, using examples in your explanation.
LAB #8/9– MOON PHASES
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:

Describe what moon motion causes the moon’s phases

List the eight major moon phases starting with new

Describe the difference between a solar and lunar eclipse

Explain how tides are affected by Earth’s rotation

Explain how tides are affected by the moon’s revolution
around Earth
LAB #10 – SUNRISE/SUNSET
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:

Describe the relationship between season and amount of daylight.
(from winter to spring, spring to summer, etc.)

Identify the important dates associated with the solstices and
equinoxes.

Describe how the tilt of the Earth determines the angle of
insolation in the Northern Hemisphere.

Describe how the angle of insolation changes from winter to
spring, from spring to summer, etc. in the SOUTHERN
hemisphere.
LAB #11 – SEASONS AND
SUN’S PATH
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:

Design a chart that summarizes these facts for each season
(assume the solstices and equinoxes at 42°N latitude):
–
–
–
–
–
–
Sunrise and sunset direction (use compass directions)
Amount of daylight (approx. # of hours)
Altitude of noon sun (calculate as per notes)
Intensity of insolation (indicate greatest, least or average)
Shadow direction at sunrise and sunset
Shadow length at solar noon for each season (long, med, short)
LAB #13 - ELLIPSES
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Describe what eccentricity is and tell how to
calculate it
Tell how an eccentricity value is used to
determine the shape of an orbit
Describe why Kepler’s 1st law requires orbits to be
elliptical
Provide proof that the orbits of our planets in the
Heliocentric Model MUST be elliptical.
LAB #14 – STAR PROPERTIES
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Identify the sequence of events involved in the
typical life cycle of a star.
Identify the relationship between temperature and
luminosity (brightness) of stars
Describe how color can be used to determine the
temperature of a star.
Design a small chart indicating the color, size
brightness and temperature of main sequence, red
giant, white dwarf, blue supergiant and red dwarf
stars.
LAB #12 – OUR SOLAR SYSTEM
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:

Describe three differences between Terrestrial and Jovian
planets.

Explain specifically why it would be impossible for us to make a
“true scale model” of the Solar System in the classroom.

Write a statement comparing distance of a planet from our sun to
the time it takes to revolve.

Identify 3 planets (your choice) and tell of 3 interesting facts
about each.
LAB #15/16 – HEAT AND MATTER
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:

Identify and describe the type of heat transfer involved
with a calorimeter, telling the direction that heat was
transferred.

Explain what a closed system is and tell why the calorimeter
set up was not a closed system.

Describe the characteristics of a good absorber and a good
reflector.

Describe the relationship between a good absorber and a
good radiator.
LAB #17 – CURRENT WEATHER
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Draw a diagram showing where/how the following weather
data is recorded on a station model. (air temperature, dew
point temperature, air pressure, wind speed, wind direction,
humidity, cloud cover, precipitation amount, barometric
tendency, present weather)
Describe how to convert from a long form millibar reading
to its short form to put it on a station model. Then tell how
to convert a short form millibar reading into a long form.
Provide examples to go with your descriptions.
LAB #18 – RELATIVE HUMIDITY
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Explain what is meant by relative humidity
Describe two ways that air can become saturated
Explain what the dew point temperature is
Tell how the relationship between the air
temperature and dew point temperature can be
used to predict the “chance of precipitation”
Tell how to use your ESRT to find the humidity or
dew point value given wet and dry bulb readings.
LAB #19 – DETERMINING CLOUD BASE
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Describe the difference between cooling rates of dry
and moist air. Be sure to include lapse rate values.
Explain why air at higher altitudes expands as it cools
rather than contracting as it cools as it normally does
at sea level.
Explain how the name of cloud can tell you something
about its altitude and/or moisture content.
Tell what the relationship is between cloud base
altitude and relative humidity.
LAB #20-21 – STORM TRACKING
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Compare the storm tracks of all three maps and then
generalize to describe the path that storms take over the
US and tell what factor influences this path.
Describe where, when and why hurricanes form.
Identify the factors that can cause a hurricane to increase
or decrease in intensity. Be sure to tell how these factors
change intensity.
Describe the Saffir/Simpson and Fujita Scales. Tell what
each scale rates and describe the difference between a
Category V and and an F-5 rating.
LAB #23 – FRESH WATER
SUPPLY AND DEMAND
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:

Write a paragraph (essay) explaining the
state of Earth’s freshwater supply today.
Be sure to discuss what percent is
inaccessible and which percent is actually
useable. Also, tell how man can impact the
supply, provide examples of 3 pollutants
and identify ways man can reduce this
environmental concern.
LAB #22 – PERMEABILITY,
POROSITY + CAPILLARITY
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Define the terms permeability, porosity and
capillarity.
Tell what conditions will maximize each soil
characteristic.
Identify exactly what type of “soil” each bead
size represents. See ESRT.
Compare the permeability, porosity and capillarity
of equal volumes of sand (.05cm) and pebbles (2.5
cm). Use terms of greater, equal or lesser in your
answer.
LAB #23 – CLIMATE
IDENTIFICATION
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Identify the six factors that affect climate.
Describe, in detail, how three of these six factors
affect either temperature, precipitation or both.
Describe how the relationship between P and Ep
can indicate the general climate of a region.
Explain how the “rainshadow effect” can affect
the climate on both sides of a mountain range.
LAB #24 – STREAM VELOCITY
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Identify the 3 factors that determine the
velocity of a stream.
Describe the erosion/deposition pattern that
occurs along a meandering stream.
Describe the manner in which different size
particles (small, medium, large) are transported in
a stream.
Identify the relationship between stream velocity
and particle size carried.
LAB #25 – DEPOSITION
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Tell the difference between a “time” and a “rate”.
Tell what factors help determine the settling rate of
sediment. Include detail about which conditions will
cause a particle to settle faster.
Describe the difference between the cause of
horizontal sorting and vertical sorting
Identify the relationship between:
–
–
particle size and settling time
particle size and settling rate
LAB #26 – MINERAL
IDENTIFICATION
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Identify and describe in detail the various tests
used to help identify a mineral sample.
Explain what determines the hardness and
cleavage of a mineral.
Describe what to look for in a mineral that has
cleavage.
Tell why the rocks that make up the Earth’s crust
contain the same common minerals.
LAB #27 – ROCK
CLASSIFICATION
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Describe the differences between how and where
the three main classes of rocks form.
Describe the breakdown in classification of
sedimentary rocks. Provide examples
Describe the breakdown in classification of igneous
rocks. Provide examples.
Tell why all three rock types contain the same basic
mineral composition.
LAB #28 – CONTINENTAL
DRIFT
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Identify and describe three (3) pieces of
evidence that Wegener used to support his
Theory of Continental Drift.
Give an example of a displaced fossil and tell how
it could lead to the conclusion that the continents
have been in different positions in the past.
Tell why the modern theory of Plate Tectonics is
more commonly accepted (accurate) than
Wegener’s Theory of Continental Drift.
LAB #29 – CRUSTAL MOVEMENT
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Identify the name and location of the pattern of
Q + V plotted on your map.
Describe the differences (in detail) between the
three different types of plate movement.
Provide examples of actual plate boundaries
where each occurs. (ex. North American vs.
Pacific, etc.)
LAB #30 – EARTHQUAKES
By successfully completing this lab you should be able to:
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Describe 5 major differences between P waves and
S waves.
Tell how P and S waves are used to help infer the
properties of Earth’s interior.
Describe how you can use P and S waves to locate
the exact position of an earthquake epicenter.
Describe 3 ways that you might prepare for the
possibility of an earthquake.