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Environmental Knowledge for
Disaster Risk Management
Challenges in Integrating Geospatial Technologies
P. S. Roy
([email protected])
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing
ISRO, Dept. of Space, Govt. of India
Dehradun
We Live in Two Environments
Natural
Self-Regulated
Manmade
Managed
And they are increasingly in conflict..
Major Issues & Challenges
CO2 (ppm)
Deforestation (mha/yr) –
(1950 : 29; 2009 : 380; 2050 : 480)
Ozone Depletion (DU)
( 1950 : 15 ; 2007 : 13; 2050 : 10 )
Per capita forest present & future (ha)
(1950: 1.13; 2007: 0.62; 2050: 0.35)
Atmosphere
Atmospheric loading
Loss of ozone layer
Green house effect
Species loss Present : 40-200 / day;
5-20%; lost during last century
Projected : 2050 : 15-35%;
(1950 : 160 ; 2009 : 110; 2050: 220 )
Global Mean Temp (oC)
(1950 : 13.96 ; 2009: 14.59; 2050:16.30)
Bio-resources
Climatology
Deforestation
Loss of species
Loss of critical habitats
Food Security
Water Security
Global warming
Extreme Weather
Enhanced Natural Disasters
Average glacier
Thickness change
(cm / yr)
1990 – 40 ; 2050– 95;
Snow & Glaciers
Social & Health Security
Physical
Resources
Melting of Mountain Glacier
Loss of Polar Ice cap
Land dynamics
Unequal Water availability
Soil degradation
Biodiversity loss
Ocean
Sea level rise
(1950 : 2cm ; 2009 : 9cm; 2050: 16cm )
27 % of coral reef destructed
Rise in sea level
Destruction of coral reefs
Ocean Circulation
Global freshwater withdrawals
1990 – 3500 km3 ; 2000 – 4430 km3
Agriculture water use : 70%, Expected
rise by 18% by 2050 to maintain
agriculture production ;
26% global wetland lost
Knowledge Building for Disaster
Risk Management
Data
[Process]
Data (Observation)
for Information
Information
Information for
Decision
[Model]
FLOOD
MAP
DROUGHT
MAP
DSS/SDSS
[AI]
Expert System
Decision for
Action
DAMAGE
MAP
HAZARD
ZONES
RISK
MAP
Measurement, Monitoring, Modeling,
Planning, Decision Making, Management
How Can Geospatial Technologies
Help in Knowledge Building?
• EO Systems (spaceborne & airborne)
– SENSORS with various SPATIAL, TEMPORAL SCALES, EM REGIONS
– GEOPHYSICAL PRODUCTS from RS
• GIS
– Link, view, analyse all geo-linked data
• GPS
– LOCATIONS, MOBILE MAPPING
• (INTEGRATION) : Sensor-Web, Web-GIS, Crowdsourcing GI,
Mobile Mapping, Spatial/ Non-spatial Databases, AWS, etc.
• APPLICATION : Modelling & Decision Making with knowledge
Earth Observation
From Space
Multi-resolution Capability
Regional
(Low Res.)
Local
(High Res.)
EARTH OBSERVATION
11.04.2008
20.08.2008
(pre-flood)
(post-flood)
FROM SPACE
Time-Series & All-weather
Observations
22.08.2008
23.08.2008
24.08.2008
27.08.2008
29.08.2008
03.09.2008
05.09.2008
10.09.2008
Spatial Vs. Temporal Resolutions – Trade-offs
High temporal resolution
Large swath
Medium temporal resolution
Large swath
Depends on
• Phase of the disaster
• Type of the disaster
• Extent and severity
….
Low temporal resolution
Limited swath
Low spatial resolution
Global level information
Low temporal resolution
Very limited swath
Coarse spatial resolution
Regional level information
Medium spatial resolution
Local level information
Global to Local
High spatial resolution
Location specific information
Location Based Services and Mobile GIS
Mobile Mapping – Integration
of 4 Technologies
•Lightweight hardware
•GPS
•Telecommunications
•GIS
Automatic Weather Stations
• Affordable alternatives
to get detailed weather
information like rainfall,
humidity, temperature,
etc.
• Special sensors for
measuring soil moisture
• Data transmission through
communication satellites
• Consistency in data recording
• Enhanced frequency of
coverage
• Coverage of inaccessible
areas, all weather and all
time operations
Geo-spatial Analysis Using GIS
Village Infrastructure
Water Resources
Soil
Depth to
Water Table
• SIMPLE QUERY
• SPATIAL QUERRYING
• SINGLE LAYER OPERATION
• MULTIPLE- LAYER OPERATIONS
• SPATIAL MODELING
• SURFACE ANALYSIS
• NETWORK ANALYSIS
• POINT PATTERN ANALYSIS
• GRID ANALYSIS
Land use
Village boundaries
Transport network
Settlements
Drainage system
Canal network
Census Information
PRA/RRA data
Integrated
Geo-spatial Analysis
Cadastre
EM Conceptual Framework
• Survey of India
• National Informatics Centre
• Forest survey of India
• Public Works
• Ministry of Industry
Department
• Indian Railways
• Ministry of shipping and
Spatial
Data
Non-Spatial
Data
• Public Works Department
• Office of Registrar General of India
surface transport
• Bureau of Economics and statistics
• Department of Space
INPUTS
• Land Records
• Central Water Commission
department
• Central Water
• Indian Meteorological Department
NDEM
Commission
• Ministry of agriculture
EM Data Server
• Ministry of Home Affairs
• Ministry of Defense
• Indian Meteorological
Department
• National Hydrographic
Organization
• Ministry of agriculture
• Geological Survey of
India
• Ministry of Home Affairs
……..
• Ministry of Health
Expert
System
Shell
Decision
Analysis
Spatial
Analysis
• …….
Spatial
Output
Information
system
Output
DSS/
SDSS
Other GUI
Decision
Maker
Authorized user
community
Statistical
Report
Request
Response
Decision
Outcome
Converting Knowledge base into DSS / SDSS
Health facility
Infrastructure•DEM
•Hospitals
•Diagnostics centers
•Medical shops
•Doctors/Medical staff information
•Blood banks
•Eye banks
•Surgical instrument shops
•Admin boundary
•Roads
•Rail and Railway station
•Police station
•Airports/helipads
•Settlement
•Drainage/surface water bodies
Census
•Relief shelter locations
•Education centers
•Fire stations
•Forensic Lab
•Mining areas
•Industry locations
Input
Population
Density
Income level
occupation
Input
Utility
Input
Power lines
pipelines
communication network
Data server
Evaluation &
validation
Non spatial data
IDRN link
INPUTS
Sensitive Areas
No
Yes
EXPERT SYSTEM SHELL
Database Manag.
System
Logical
operators
Multi-criteria
Spatial Modeling
Decision Outcome
Statistical
Report
Output
SDSS SOFTWARE
Spatial
Output
Request
DECISION MAKER
Climate Change Research Initiatives
• Glacial Retreat in Himalaya
• Change in Polar Ice Cover
• Upward Shift in Timberline &
Vegetation in Alpine zone
• Bleaching of Coral Reefs
• Desertification
• Disasters - Flood, Drought
Mapping Indicators of
Climate Change using
Space inputs
• GHGs & Other Gases - Variability of
atmospheric CO/ CO2/ NO2/ CH4
• Biomass burning/ forest fire
• Terrestrial Carbon
• Atmospheric Aerosols & Trace gases
Monitoring the Agents of
Climate Change
Modeling the impact
of climate change
•
•
•
•
•
Impact on Food Security
Hydrology
Coastal Zone
Ocean Productivity
Land Surface Changes in Regional Climate
Simulations over India
• Role of Indian Ocean in Climate variability
National Database to address Environmental
Issues & their Web Dissemination
ISRO & Multi-institutional Initiatives
Forest & Vegetation
Soils
Geomorphology
Wetlands
Land Degradation
Land Use /Land Cover
•AWiFS -1 : 250000
• LISS III - 1 : 50000
NR Census Layers
* User Projects
Some Solutions: Sensor Web
• The interoperability framework for accessing and utilizing
sensors and sensor systems in a space-time context
via Internet and Web protocols
• A set of web-based services may be used to maintain
a registry of available sensors.
• The same web technology standards for describing the
sensors’ outputs, platforms, locations, and control
parameters, thus ensuring interoperability..
Move from 2-D description to 4-D interaction
and beyond?
Past
• 2-D flat map displays
– User as observer from 2-D description to 4-D interaction
Future
• Effective 3-D visualization
• 4-D incorporation of time: “The time has come for time.”
– Via agent-based modeling / cellular automata? Or how?
• agents (e.g. vehicles, fires or people) interacting over time in a raster (cell)based environment according to established rules
• 5, 6 and 7-D incorporation of touch (pressure, texture, temperature),
sound and smell into modeling/simulation environment)
• User as participant
– Users (researchers, professionals, the public) interact with the model;
– Participatory GIS: the public as the planner.
Adapting Advanced Methods for Knowledge
Discovery from large databases
Data Mining
Expert System
Artifical Intelligence
Operational
Database
Knowledge Discovery in Database (KDD) Process
Data
Cleaning
Data
Preparation
Training
Set
Data Mining
Data Warehouse
Operational
Database
Verification & Evaluation
Extracted Pattern
Distributed Geoprocessing, Spatial Analysis
and Modelling
User Defined Products
Operational
Data-1
Operational
Data-2
Platform
Independent
Solution for Geospatial analysis
Operational
Data-3
Geo-visualizations
Information
Display
DSS/SDSS
Outputs
Outcomes from
Expert System
Operational
Data-n
Many more…
Distributed Geoprocessing contd..
An Example of Drought Assessment and Early Warning System
RS Satellite Systems
Soil Moisture
measurement
& Changes
Receiving
Stations
NDVI
Space Based
Inputs
Real-time data
Ground
Observation
Network
Real time data
Drought Monitor &
Early Warning
System
Real-t ime
data
Meteorological
Data
Using Crowdsourcing & VGI Technologies
in Disaster Applications
• New mechanism for voluntarily producing & disseminating geographic
information using ICT/web-based mapping services (Goodchild, 2007).
• Especially useful in disaster/ emergency applications where real-time
updated information (in case of a disaster) is required or where spatial
information is not adequate.
• Examples – Wikimapia, OpenStreetMap, Google MyMaps, etc.
• Success Stories – Haiti Earthquake of 2010, Wild Fires of Sanata Barbara
(USA) in 2007-09, etc.
Challenge
• Integration of crowdsourced
& authoritative data?
• Data quality?
• Credibility of contributor?
Indian EO Missions - The Near Future
Resourcesat-3
Oceansat-3
LISS-3 WS
Ku Band
Scatterometer
GHGSAT
2012-16
Spectrometer
(being planned)
RISAT 3/4
LX SAR
INSAT-3D
RISAT-1
2011-12
C-band SAR
Resourcesat - 2 R
LISS III, LSS IV , AWiFS
VHRR, Sounder
Resourcesat – 2
LISS III, LSS IV , AWiFS
Geo HR
Imager
50m resolution
Scatsat
Ku Band Scatterometer
SARAL
IMS-ATM
Being Planned
Ka band Altimeter
Cartosat- 2C/ 2D
80 cm res.
MEGHA-TROPIQUES
SAPHIR, SCARAB & MADRAS
ISTAG
MAGIS, MAVELI,
MAPI
Cartosat- 3
30 cm res.
Integrate what we know in to a knowledge system
We Need Better Ways to…
• Represent
• Understand
patterns,
relations,
processes
• Manage
• Communicate
Thank you..
On Mission for transferring technology through education, research & capacity building…..