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Environmental Knowledge for Disaster Risk Management Challenges in Integrating Geospatial Technologies P. S. Roy ([email protected]) Indian Institute of Remote Sensing ISRO, Dept. of Space, Govt. of India Dehradun We Live in Two Environments Natural Self-Regulated Manmade Managed And they are increasingly in conflict.. Major Issues & Challenges CO2 (ppm) Deforestation (mha/yr) – (1950 : 29; 2009 : 380; 2050 : 480) Ozone Depletion (DU) ( 1950 : 15 ; 2007 : 13; 2050 : 10 ) Per capita forest present & future (ha) (1950: 1.13; 2007: 0.62; 2050: 0.35) Atmosphere Atmospheric loading Loss of ozone layer Green house effect Species loss Present : 40-200 / day; 5-20%; lost during last century Projected : 2050 : 15-35%; (1950 : 160 ; 2009 : 110; 2050: 220 ) Global Mean Temp (oC) (1950 : 13.96 ; 2009: 14.59; 2050:16.30) Bio-resources Climatology Deforestation Loss of species Loss of critical habitats Food Security Water Security Global warming Extreme Weather Enhanced Natural Disasters Average glacier Thickness change (cm / yr) 1990 – 40 ; 2050– 95; Snow & Glaciers Social & Health Security Physical Resources Melting of Mountain Glacier Loss of Polar Ice cap Land dynamics Unequal Water availability Soil degradation Biodiversity loss Ocean Sea level rise (1950 : 2cm ; 2009 : 9cm; 2050: 16cm ) 27 % of coral reef destructed Rise in sea level Destruction of coral reefs Ocean Circulation Global freshwater withdrawals 1990 – 3500 km3 ; 2000 – 4430 km3 Agriculture water use : 70%, Expected rise by 18% by 2050 to maintain agriculture production ; 26% global wetland lost Knowledge Building for Disaster Risk Management Data [Process] Data (Observation) for Information Information Information for Decision [Model] FLOOD MAP DROUGHT MAP DSS/SDSS [AI] Expert System Decision for Action DAMAGE MAP HAZARD ZONES RISK MAP Measurement, Monitoring, Modeling, Planning, Decision Making, Management How Can Geospatial Technologies Help in Knowledge Building? • EO Systems (spaceborne & airborne) – SENSORS with various SPATIAL, TEMPORAL SCALES, EM REGIONS – GEOPHYSICAL PRODUCTS from RS • GIS – Link, view, analyse all geo-linked data • GPS – LOCATIONS, MOBILE MAPPING • (INTEGRATION) : Sensor-Web, Web-GIS, Crowdsourcing GI, Mobile Mapping, Spatial/ Non-spatial Databases, AWS, etc. • APPLICATION : Modelling & Decision Making with knowledge Earth Observation From Space Multi-resolution Capability Regional (Low Res.) Local (High Res.) EARTH OBSERVATION 11.04.2008 20.08.2008 (pre-flood) (post-flood) FROM SPACE Time-Series & All-weather Observations 22.08.2008 23.08.2008 24.08.2008 27.08.2008 29.08.2008 03.09.2008 05.09.2008 10.09.2008 Spatial Vs. Temporal Resolutions – Trade-offs High temporal resolution Large swath Medium temporal resolution Large swath Depends on • Phase of the disaster • Type of the disaster • Extent and severity …. Low temporal resolution Limited swath Low spatial resolution Global level information Low temporal resolution Very limited swath Coarse spatial resolution Regional level information Medium spatial resolution Local level information Global to Local High spatial resolution Location specific information Location Based Services and Mobile GIS Mobile Mapping – Integration of 4 Technologies •Lightweight hardware •GPS •Telecommunications •GIS Automatic Weather Stations • Affordable alternatives to get detailed weather information like rainfall, humidity, temperature, etc. • Special sensors for measuring soil moisture • Data transmission through communication satellites • Consistency in data recording • Enhanced frequency of coverage • Coverage of inaccessible areas, all weather and all time operations Geo-spatial Analysis Using GIS Village Infrastructure Water Resources Soil Depth to Water Table • SIMPLE QUERY • SPATIAL QUERRYING • SINGLE LAYER OPERATION • MULTIPLE- LAYER OPERATIONS • SPATIAL MODELING • SURFACE ANALYSIS • NETWORK ANALYSIS • POINT PATTERN ANALYSIS • GRID ANALYSIS Land use Village boundaries Transport network Settlements Drainage system Canal network Census Information PRA/RRA data Integrated Geo-spatial Analysis Cadastre EM Conceptual Framework • Survey of India • National Informatics Centre • Forest survey of India • Public Works • Ministry of Industry Department • Indian Railways • Ministry of shipping and Spatial Data Non-Spatial Data • Public Works Department • Office of Registrar General of India surface transport • Bureau of Economics and statistics • Department of Space INPUTS • Land Records • Central Water Commission department • Central Water • Indian Meteorological Department NDEM Commission • Ministry of agriculture EM Data Server • Ministry of Home Affairs • Ministry of Defense • Indian Meteorological Department • National Hydrographic Organization • Ministry of agriculture • Geological Survey of India • Ministry of Home Affairs …….. • Ministry of Health Expert System Shell Decision Analysis Spatial Analysis • ……. Spatial Output Information system Output DSS/ SDSS Other GUI Decision Maker Authorized user community Statistical Report Request Response Decision Outcome Converting Knowledge base into DSS / SDSS Health facility Infrastructure•DEM •Hospitals •Diagnostics centers •Medical shops •Doctors/Medical staff information •Blood banks •Eye banks •Surgical instrument shops •Admin boundary •Roads •Rail and Railway station •Police station •Airports/helipads •Settlement •Drainage/surface water bodies Census •Relief shelter locations •Education centers •Fire stations •Forensic Lab •Mining areas •Industry locations Input Population Density Income level occupation Input Utility Input Power lines pipelines communication network Data server Evaluation & validation Non spatial data IDRN link INPUTS Sensitive Areas No Yes EXPERT SYSTEM SHELL Database Manag. System Logical operators Multi-criteria Spatial Modeling Decision Outcome Statistical Report Output SDSS SOFTWARE Spatial Output Request DECISION MAKER Climate Change Research Initiatives • Glacial Retreat in Himalaya • Change in Polar Ice Cover • Upward Shift in Timberline & Vegetation in Alpine zone • Bleaching of Coral Reefs • Desertification • Disasters - Flood, Drought Mapping Indicators of Climate Change using Space inputs • GHGs & Other Gases - Variability of atmospheric CO/ CO2/ NO2/ CH4 • Biomass burning/ forest fire • Terrestrial Carbon • Atmospheric Aerosols & Trace gases Monitoring the Agents of Climate Change Modeling the impact of climate change • • • • • Impact on Food Security Hydrology Coastal Zone Ocean Productivity Land Surface Changes in Regional Climate Simulations over India • Role of Indian Ocean in Climate variability National Database to address Environmental Issues & their Web Dissemination ISRO & Multi-institutional Initiatives Forest & Vegetation Soils Geomorphology Wetlands Land Degradation Land Use /Land Cover •AWiFS -1 : 250000 • LISS III - 1 : 50000 NR Census Layers * User Projects Some Solutions: Sensor Web • The interoperability framework for accessing and utilizing sensors and sensor systems in a space-time context via Internet and Web protocols • A set of web-based services may be used to maintain a registry of available sensors. • The same web technology standards for describing the sensors’ outputs, platforms, locations, and control parameters, thus ensuring interoperability.. Move from 2-D description to 4-D interaction and beyond? Past • 2-D flat map displays – User as observer from 2-D description to 4-D interaction Future • Effective 3-D visualization • 4-D incorporation of time: “The time has come for time.” – Via agent-based modeling / cellular automata? Or how? • agents (e.g. vehicles, fires or people) interacting over time in a raster (cell)based environment according to established rules • 5, 6 and 7-D incorporation of touch (pressure, texture, temperature), sound and smell into modeling/simulation environment) • User as participant – Users (researchers, professionals, the public) interact with the model; – Participatory GIS: the public as the planner. Adapting Advanced Methods for Knowledge Discovery from large databases Data Mining Expert System Artifical Intelligence Operational Database Knowledge Discovery in Database (KDD) Process Data Cleaning Data Preparation Training Set Data Mining Data Warehouse Operational Database Verification & Evaluation Extracted Pattern Distributed Geoprocessing, Spatial Analysis and Modelling User Defined Products Operational Data-1 Operational Data-2 Platform Independent Solution for Geospatial analysis Operational Data-3 Geo-visualizations Information Display DSS/SDSS Outputs Outcomes from Expert System Operational Data-n Many more… Distributed Geoprocessing contd.. An Example of Drought Assessment and Early Warning System RS Satellite Systems Soil Moisture measurement & Changes Receiving Stations NDVI Space Based Inputs Real-time data Ground Observation Network Real time data Drought Monitor & Early Warning System Real-t ime data Meteorological Data Using Crowdsourcing & VGI Technologies in Disaster Applications • New mechanism for voluntarily producing & disseminating geographic information using ICT/web-based mapping services (Goodchild, 2007). • Especially useful in disaster/ emergency applications where real-time updated information (in case of a disaster) is required or where spatial information is not adequate. • Examples – Wikimapia, OpenStreetMap, Google MyMaps, etc. • Success Stories – Haiti Earthquake of 2010, Wild Fires of Sanata Barbara (USA) in 2007-09, etc. Challenge • Integration of crowdsourced & authoritative data? • Data quality? • Credibility of contributor? Indian EO Missions - The Near Future Resourcesat-3 Oceansat-3 LISS-3 WS Ku Band Scatterometer GHGSAT 2012-16 Spectrometer (being planned) RISAT 3/4 LX SAR INSAT-3D RISAT-1 2011-12 C-band SAR Resourcesat - 2 R LISS III, LSS IV , AWiFS VHRR, Sounder Resourcesat – 2 LISS III, LSS IV , AWiFS Geo HR Imager 50m resolution Scatsat Ku Band Scatterometer SARAL IMS-ATM Being Planned Ka band Altimeter Cartosat- 2C/ 2D 80 cm res. MEGHA-TROPIQUES SAPHIR, SCARAB & MADRAS ISTAG MAGIS, MAVELI, MAPI Cartosat- 3 30 cm res. Integrate what we know in to a knowledge system We Need Better Ways to… • Represent • Understand patterns, relations, processes • Manage • Communicate Thank you.. On Mission for transferring technology through education, research & capacity building…..