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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
Seventh Edition
Elaine N. Marieb
Chapter 14
The Digestive System and
Body Metabolism
Slides 14.32 – 14.69
Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Accessory Digestive Organs
 Salivary glands
 Teeth
 Pancreas
 Liver
 Gall bladder
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.32
Salivary Glands
 Saliva-producing glands
 Parotid glands – located anterior to ears
 Submandibular glands
 Sublingual glands
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.33
Saliva
 Mixture of mucus and serous fluids
 Helps to form a food bolus
 Contains salivary amylase to begin
starch digestion
 Dissolves chemicals so they can be
tasted
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.34
Teeth
 The role is to masticate (chew) food
 Humans have two sets of teeth
 Deciduous (baby or milk) teeth
 20 teeth are fully formed by age two
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.35a
Teeth
 Permanent teeth
 Replace deciduous teeth beginning
between the ages of 6 to 12
 A full set is 32 teeth, but some people do
not have wisdom teeth
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.35b
Classification of Teeth
 Incisors
 Canines
 Premolars
 Molars
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.36a
Classification of Teeth
Figure 14.9
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.36b
Regions of a Tooth
 Crown – exposed
part
 Outer enamel
 Dentin
 Pulp cavity
 Neck
 Region in contact
with the gum
 Connects crown to
root
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 14.10
Slide 14.37a
Regions of a Tooth
 Root
 Periodontal
membrane
attached to the
bone
 Root canal carrying
blood vessels and
nerves
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 14.10
Slide 14.37b
Pancreas
 Produces a wide spectrum of digestive
enzymes that break down all categories of food
 Enzymes are secreted into the duodenum
 Alkaline fluid introduced with enzymes
neutralizes acidic chyme
 Endocrine products of pancreas
 Insulin
 Glucagons
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.38
Liver
 Largest gland in the body
 Located on the right side of the body
under the diaphragm
 Consists of four lobes suspended from
the diaphragm and abdominal wall by
the falciform ligament
 Connected to the gall bladder via the
common hepatic duct
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.39
Bile
 Produced by cells in the liver
 Composition
 Bile salts
 Bile pigment (mostly bilirubin from the
breakdown of hemoglobin)
 Cholesterol
 Phospholipids
 Electrolytes
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.40
Gall Bladder
 Sac found in hollow fossa of liver
 Stores bile from the liver by way of the
cystic duct
 Bile is introduced into the duodenum in
the presence of fatty food
 Gallstones can cause blockages
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.41
Warm-Up
Processes of the Digestive System
 Ingestion – getting food into the mouth
 Propulsion – moving foods from one
region of the digestive system to
another
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.42a
Processes of the Digestive System
 Peristalsis – alternating
waves of contraction
 Segmentation – moving
materials back and forth
to aid in mixing
Figure 14.12
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.42b
Processes of the Digestive System
 Mechanical digestion
 Mixing of food in the mouth by the tongue
 Churning of food in the stomach
 Segmentation in the small intestine
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.43
Processes of the Digestive System
 Chemical Digestion
 Enzymes break down food molecules into
their building blocks
 Each major food group uses different
enzymes
 Carbohydrates are broken to simple sugars
 Proteins are broken to amino acids
 Fats are broken to fatty acids and alcohols
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.44
Processes of the Digestive System
 Absorption
 End products of digestion are absorbed in
the blood or lymph
 Food must enter mucosal cells and then
into blood or lymph capillaries
 Defecation
 Elimination of indigestible substances as
feces
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.45
Processes of the Digestive System
Figure 14.11
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.46
Control of Digestive Activity
 Mostly controlled by reflexes via the
parasympathetic division
 Chemical and mechanical receptors are located
in organ walls that trigger reflexes
 Stimuli include:
 Stretch of the organ
 pH of the contents
 Presence of breakdown products
 Reflexes include:
 Activation or inhibition of glandular secretions
 Smooth muscle activity
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.47a
Digestive Activities of the Mouth
 Mechanical breakdown
 Food is physically broken down by chewing
 Chemical digestion
 Food is mixed with saliva
 Breaking of starch into maltose by salivary
amylase
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.48
Activities of the Pharynx and
Esophagus
 These organs have no digestive function
 Serve as passageways to the stomach
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.49
Deglutition (Swallowing)
 Buccal phase
 Voluntary
 Occurs in the mouth
 Food is formed into a bolus
 The bolus is forced into the pharynx by the
tongue
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.50
Deglutition (Swallowing)
 Pharyngeal-esophageal phase
 Involuntary transport of the bolus
 All passageways except to the stomach are
blocked
 Tongue blocks off the mouth
 Soft palate (uvula) blocks the nasopharynx
 Epiglottis blocks the larynx
 Peristalsis moves the bolus toward the stomach
 The cardioesophageal sphincter is opened when
food presses against it
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.51a
Deglutition (Swallowing)
Figure 14.13
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.52
Food Breakdown in the Stomach
 Gastric juice is regulated by neural and
hormonal factors
 Presence of food or falling pH causes
the release of gastrin
 Gastrin causes stomach glands to
produce protein-digesting enzymes
 Hydrocholoric acid makes the stomach
contents very acidic
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.53
Necessity of an Extremely Acid
Environment in the Stomach
 Activates pepsinogen to pepsin for
protein digestion
 Provides a hostile environment for
microorganisms
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.54
Digestion and Absorption in the
Stomach
 Protein digestion enzymes
 Pepsin – an active protein digesting
enzyme
 Rennin – works on digesting milk protein
 The only absorption that occurs in the
stomach is of alcohol and aspirin
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.55
Propulsion in the Stomach
 Food must first be well mixed
 Rippling peristalsis occurs in the lower
stomach
Figure 14.14
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.56a
Propulsion in the Stomach
 The pylorus meters out chyme into the
small intestine (30 ml at a time)
 The stomach empties in four to six
hours
Figure 14.14
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.56b
Digestion in the Small Intestine
 Enzymes from the brush border
 Break double sugars into simple sugars
 Complete some protein digestion
 Pancreatic enzymes play the major digestive
function
 Help complete digestion of starch (pancreatic
amylase)
 Carry out about half of all protein digestion
(trypsin, etc.)
 Responsible for fat digestion (lipase)
 Digest nucleic acids (nucleases)
 Alkaline content neutralizes acidic chyme
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.57a
Stimulation of the Release of Pancreatic
Juice
 Vagus nerve
 Local hormones
 Secretin
 Cholecystokinin
Figure 14.15
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.58
Absorption in the Small Intestine
 Water is absorbed along the length of
the small intestine
 End products of digestion
 Most substances are absorbed by active
transport through cell membranes
 Lipids are absorbed by diffusion
 Substances are transported to the liver
by the hepatic portal vein or lymph
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.59
Propulsion in the Small Intestine
 Peristalsis is the major means of
moving food
 Segmental movements
 Mix chyme with digestive juices
 Aid in propelling food
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.60
Food Breakdown and Absorption in
the Large Intestine
 No digestive enzymes are produced
 Resident bacteria digest remaining
nutrients
 Produce some vitamin K and B
 Release gases
 Water and vitamins K and B are absorbed
 Remaining materials are eliminated via
feces
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.61
Propulsion in the Large Intestine
 Sluggish peristalsis
 Mass movements
 Slow, powerful movements
 Occur three to four times per day
 Presence of feces in the rectum causes
a defecation reflex
 Internal anal sphincter is relaxed
 Defecation occurs with relaxation of the
voluntary (external) anal sphincter
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 14.62