Nutrition Term Explanation Starvation Not eating enough food to meet energy and nutrient needs. Malnutrition Malnutrition is imperfect nutrition; not eating enough or over-eating. Obesity Anorexia Cholesterol; Too much cholesterol in the blood can increase your risk of heart problems. Halitosis; To describe noticeably bad breath. Eating more food than we require results in extra energy stored as fat. Not eating enough food to meet their needs; associated with teenage girls. Cholesterol is a fatty substance which is found in the blood. To help reduce your cholesterol level, you need to cut down on saturated fats and instead use unsaturated fats such as olive, rapeseed or sunflower oils and spreads. You should also reduce the total amount of fat you eat. The intensity of bad breath differs during the day, due to eating certain foods (such as garlic, onions, meat, fish, and cheese), obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Term Type 2 diabetes * In type 1 diabetes the beta cells in the pancreas stop making insulin. Osteoporosis The cells which break down old bone (osteoclasts) and cells which build new bone (osteoblasts) require proteins and minerals, which are absorbed from the bloodstream. Explanation The 'first-line' treatment is diet, weight control and physical activity; you do not make enough insulin or the cells in your body do not use insulin properly. Healthy bones are very dense, and the spaces inside the bones are small. In bone affected by osteoporosis, the spaces are larger, and this makes the bones weaker, less elastic and more likely to break Bone is a living tissue that is constantly repairing itself. This process is called bone turnover. A balanced diet A balanced diet provides all the necessary nutrients in the appropriate proportions and quantities to meet our needs. It is important to eat a variety of foods to supply a range of nutrients. Carbohydrates in the form of starchy foods such as bread, pasta, cereals and potatoes should be a major part of a balanced diet. We should also aim to eat at least five portions of fruit or vegetables each day. Recommendations Our energy and nutrient requirements vary according to our age, sex, body size and levels of activity. Since everyone is different, it is very difficult to be specific about individual requirements. Nutrient Example Complex carbohydrates Eat lots; all types bread and grain e.g. oats, barley, rye. Other cereals e.g. breakfast cereal, pasta, rice, noodles. Protein foods Eat moderate amounts and choose lower-fat versions; meat, poultry, fish, eggs, nuts, seeds, beans and lentils. Milk, cheese, yogurt and fromage frais. Fruit and vegetables Fatty and sugary foods Eat lots; fresh, frozen and canned fruit and vegetables and dried fruit. Eat sparingly; margarine, low-fat spread, butter, cooking oils, oily salad dressings, cream, chocolate, crisps, biscuits, cake etc.