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Midterm exam-to be returned on 9 March
Essay 1000 words – includes
references (Barre et al. 2007) given
body of essay but not including
reference citations given at the
end of the paper-also spelling counts as part
of 5 marks for presentation section of
marks
Any other questions or concerns about the
essay or self-assessment
AA displacement- on the final exam
Lecture 8a
WATER
MINERALS-I-THE MAJOR MINERALS
26 October 2015
Water
Functions
-carries nutrients and wasteproducts
-maintains the structure of large molecules
e.g. proteins and glycogen
-participates in chemical reactions
-serves as solvent for small nutrients
-temperature-regulation
-blood volume-regulation
-water balance required for all functions
Sources-foods, drinks, water
Deficiencies- loss of above functions
Toxicities-none-unless water balance failure
MINERALS-SOME GENERAL
COMMENTS
Single atoms
Can be charged or uncharged in the body
Major -are found in the body in excess of 5 grams
-Electrolytes and minerals
Minor- are found in the body in amounts
of less than 5 grams
MINERALS- GENERAL COMMENTS
CONTINUED
Most essential - we cannot make them
- some deficiencies have not been
established for some minor minerals
making it unclear whether they are
needed in the diet
WHAT ARE THE MAJOR MINERALS?
Electrolytes
in part responsible for fluid balance in body
sodium, potassium and chloride
Non-electrolyte major minerals
calcium, phosphorous, magnesium and sulphur
SODIUM
FUNCTION-fluid and electrolyte balance, pH control,
muscle function, nerve impulse transmission
SOURCES-processed foods
DEFICIENCIES- rare-except with diarrhea, vomiting and
kidney disorders
TOXICITIES – rare(kidney disposes of it)- edema and
acute high blood pressure
POTASSIUM
FUNCTION-fluid and electrolyte balance, pH control,
muscle function, nerve impulse transmission
SOURCES-fruits, vegetables, whole grains
DEFICIENCIES- muscle weakness, paralysis
TOXICITIES-supplements-muscle weakness, vomiting
CHLORIDE
FUNCTION-fluid and electrolyte balance, part of stomach
acid
SOURCES-same as sodium
DEFICIENCIES-same as sodium
TOXICITIES-acute hypertension
CALCIUM
FUNCTION-bone and teeth formation, blood clotting,
nerve transmission, muscle function, blood pressure
SOURCES –dairy, fortified orange juice, green leafy
vegetables, small fish with bones
DEFICIENCIES-children-impaired growth,
adults-osteoporosis
TOXICITIES-kidney stones, impaired iron absorption
PHOSPHOROUS
FUNCTION-bone and teeth formation, pH control,
regulation of coenzyme function
SOURCES-all animal products, bread and ready to
eat cereal
DEFICIENCIES-rare- weakness and bone pain
TOXICITIES- low blood calcium
MAGNESIUM
FUNCTION- bone formation, nerve transmission,
protein and carbohydrate metabolism
(enzyme activity)
SOURCES-green leafy vegetables, nuts,
whole grains, seafood, chocolate
DEFICIENCIES-weakness, confusion,
growth failure in children
TOXICITIES- rare- nausea, vomiting
SULPHUR
FUNCTION-protein structure, component of biotin,
thiamin and insulin
SOURCES-all protein foods
DEFICIENCIES-unknown
TOXICITIES-unknown in humans
Major minerals in health and disease
Ingestion, digestion, absorption and
transport, metabolism and excretion
of major minerals
part of story on connection of mineral
supplementation to health
Major minerals- ingestion, digestion,
absorption, transport, metabolism and
excretion continued
INGESTION-oral, tube feeding, IV
DIGESTION - none- minerals in = minerals out
ABSORPTION- active transport
MAJOR MINERALS-IDATME
TRANSPORT-FREE OR BOUND
FREE- examples sodium and
all other major
minerals (except sulphur)
BOUND- sodium chloride
- potassium chloride
- sulphur-insulin
MAJOR MINERALS-IDATME
METABOLISM
- minerals in = minerals out
-minerals also participate as co-factors for enzymes
EXCRETION – definitely in urine, faeces, sweat,
- saliva is questionable
MAJOR MINERAL SUPPLEMENT
REQUIRED IF:
A)inadequate dietary supply of
major minerals relative to need
(prevention or slowing of disease)
B) if in disease in general a
monitoring of major minerals
shows requirement.
FUNCTIONAL FOODS
use of functional foods to
supplement major
minerals
example of functional foodcalcium-fortified orange
juice
FUNCTIONAL FOODS
only a few functional
foods work in the
prevention and
slowing of disease
CYSTIC FIBROSIS
sometimes low sodium due
to sweating-supplement
required for infants due
to low sodium in
formula, breast milk and
some infant food
BURNS
Fluid loss through skin
-electrolytes
-calcium, phosphorus and magnesium
eating problem- may not feel like eating
therefore need intravenous or tube feeding
OSTEOPOROSIS
PREVENTION
calcium buildup
SOURCES
calcium citrate
calcium carbonate
CAUTION- calcium
phosphorus balance
OSTEOARTHRITIS
calcium supplement
-if not sufficient in diet to
slow process
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
calcium supplement if
not sufficient calcium in
diet to slow process
in advanced osteoporosis, osteoarthritis,
and rheumatoid arthritis get decreased
calcium absorption
PREGNANCY
additional 2000 calcium
mg/day decreased
blood pressure
-better chance of
successful pregnancy
DECREASING BLOOD PRESSURE
-potassium, calcium and magnesium
supplementation-each individually lower
blood pressure
lower blood pressure- lower risk of
atherosclerosis
STROKE
POTASSIUM SUPPLEMENTATION
lower deaths due to stroke apparently
not blood pressure related
POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY
DISEASE
some kidney diseasese.g. polycystic kidney
diseaselose too much sodium
giving a drop in blood
pressure
Sulphur is off the books as a
supplement-
WHY?
WHATS NEW IN MAJOR MINERAL
RESEARCH IN HEALTH AND
DISEASE ?
Drs. Whiting and Wood, Nutr. Rev.55:1-9
MAGNESIUM LOSSES
a) Dietary calcium/magnesium milligram ratio of
> 5 GET magnesium deficiency-lower magnesium
absorption
b) urinary magnesium up with 1000 milligram
dietary supplement of calcium (Dr. Whiting)
WHATS NEW IN MAJOR MINERAL
RESEARCH IN HEALTH AND
DISEASE ?
CONTINUED
two ways of getting reduced body magnesium
due to increased calcium intake
1) reduced absorption
2) increased urinary loss
WHAT IS NEW IN MAJOR MINERAL
RESEARCH?
17 October 2013- new dietary sodium
intakes raised to 2000 mg/day-this
announced at the Vascular 2013
Conference in Montreal, Quebec
https://www.hypertension.ca/images/TTTSession_
Workshop/PressRelease_Oct172013_EN.pdf