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The Vitamins, Minerals, &
Water: A Functional
Approach
Chapter 7
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Turning Back the Clock
• Discovery that diseases could be
caused by dietary deficiencies
Scurvy
Rickets
Pellagra
• Discovery of vitamins
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
The Two Classifications of
Vitamins
• Water-soluble vitamins
• Fat-soluble vitamins
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
The Minerals
• Vitamins vs. minerals
• The two classifications of minerals
Major minerals
Trace minerals
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
The Antioxidant Nutrients
• Antioxidants = “anti-oxygen”
• Vitamin C, vitamin E, & betacarotene
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
The Antioxidant Nutrients
• Vitamin C
Role as antioxidant
Other roles for vitamin C
• Collagen
• Stress
• Immunity
Sources of vitamin C in foods
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
The Antioxidant Nutrients
• Vitamin E
Role as an antioxidant
• Heart disease
• Cell membranes
Sources of vitamin E in foods
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
The Antioxidant Nutrients
• The vitamin A precursor: betacarotene
Antioxidant role
Other roles for vitamin A
• Vision
• Epithelial tissue
Sources of vitamin A & beta-carotene
in foods
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
The Antioxidant Nutrients
• Selenium
Antioxidant functions
Role in chronic disease prevention
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Color Your Plate with Vitamin-Rich
Foods--& Handle Them with Care
• Shop for produce weekly
• Store produce properly
Most belong in the refrigerator
Store whole
• Eat frozen vegetables within 1-2
months of purchase
• Cook in the least amount of water
for the shortest time possible
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrients for Healthy Blood
• Folate
DNA & red blood cells
Neural tube defects
Sources of folate in foods
• B vitamins & heart disease
Homocysteine
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrients for Healthy Blood
• Vitamin B12
Nerve fiber sheaths
Red blood cells
Deficiencies
• Vegans
• Lack of intrinsic factor
• Atrophic gastritis
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrients for Healthy Blood
• Vitamin B6
Hemoglobin
Protein metabolism
Food sources
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrients for Healthy Blood
• Vitamin K
Coagulation
Sources - food & intestinal flora
Deficiency in newborns
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrients for Healthy Blood
• Iron
Hemoglobin
Iron-deficiency anemia
Ways to enhance iron absorption
• Absorption-enhancing factors
• Absorption-inhibiting factors
Iron toxicity
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrients for Healthy Blood
• Zinc
Metabolism
Immunity
Sexual development
Food sources
• Copper
Roles in metabolic & physiological
processes
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrients for Healthy Bones
• Trabecular bone vs. cortical bone
• Bone development & remodeling
• Peak bone mass
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrients for Healthy Bones
• Vitamin D
Calcium absorption
Synthesis in the body
Deficiency
• Rickets
• Osteomalacia
Toxicity
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrients for Healthy Bones
• Vitamin K’s role in bone health
• Calcium
Bone/teeth material
Circulating in body fluids
Osteoporosis
Food sources
Alternative sources of calcium
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrients for Healthy Bones
• Phosphorus
Bone/teeth material
DNA & RNA
Metabolism
Phospholipids
Food sources
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrients for Healthy Bones
• Magnesium
Muscle relaxation
Bone/teeth material
• Fluoride
Role in bone/teeth health
Water fluoridation
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Vitamins, Minerals, & Energy
Metabolism
• Energy metabolism
• Thiamin
Coenzyme functions
Deficiency - beriberi
Food sources
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Vitamins, Minerals, & Energy
Metabolism
• Riboflavin
 Coenzyme functions
 Food sources
• Niacin
 Coenzyme functions
 Deficiency - pellagra
 Food sources
• Niacin equivalents (NE)
 Supplements
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Vitamins, Minerals, & Energy
Metabolism
• Pantothenic acid & biotin
 Coenzyme roles
• Sulfur
 Role in protein structure
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Vitamins, Minerals, & Energy
Metabolism
• Iodine
 Thyroid hormones
 Deficiency
• Goiter
• Cretinism
 Food sources
 Trends in intake
• Chromium
 Role in carbohydrate metabolism
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Water, Minerals, & Fluid
Balance
• Water
Essentiality
Roles in the body
Water balance
• Movement into & out of cells
• Electrolytes
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Water, Minerals, & Fluid
Balance
• Sodium, potassium, & chloride
Sodium
• Hypertension
Potassium
• Deficiency
• Relationship with sodium
• Supplements
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Water, Minerals, & Fluid
Balance
• Sodium, potassium, & chloride
Chloride
• Roles in the body
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Diet & Blood Pressure--The
Salt Shaker & Beyond
• Risk factors for hypertension
Salt (sodium) intake
Obesity
Alcohol intake
Unhealthful lifestyle
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Diet & Blood Pressure--The
Salt Shaker & Beyond
• An eating plan to reduce high
blood pressure
DASH diet
• Prevention
Healthful diet & weight management
Physical activity
Moderate drinking & not smoking
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Choose & Prepare Foods with
Less Salt
• At the supermarket
Read food labels
Fresh, whole foods
• At home
Herbs & spices instead of salt
• When eating out
Ask for no-salt preparation
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Phytonutrients in Foods: The
Phytochemical Superstars
• Phytochemicals
• Mechanisms of actions of
phytochemicals
• How to optimize phytochemicals in
a daily eating plan
Fruits, vegetables
Whole grains, legumes, nuts, seeds
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrition & Cancer
Prevention
• Research on the association of diet
with cancer
• Nutrition is one of several lifestyle
factors involved
• Results of studies on diet & cancer
Colon cancer
Breast cancer
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrition & Cancer
Prevention
• Dietary concerns for consumers
Total calorie intake
Fat
Protein
Carbohydrate
Beta-carotene
Vitamin C
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrition & Cancer
Prevention
• Dietary concerns for consumers
Cruciferous vegetables
Other vitamins & minerals
Calcium
Fiber
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrition & Cancer
Prevention
• Plant-based diets linked with lower
cancer rates
• Association of alcohol with cancer
• Association between beta-carotene
& other carotenoids & cancer
• Phytochemicals & cancer
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrition & Cancer
Prevention
• Prevention strategies
Be as lean as possible without
becoming underweight
Be physically active for at least 30
minutes/day
Avoid sugary drinks & limit energydense foods
Eat more of a variety of vegetables,
fruits, whole grains, & legumes
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrition & Cancer
Prevention
• Prevention strategies
Limit consumption of red meats &
avoid processed meats
Limit alcohol consumption
Limit consumption of salty & highsodium foods
Don’t use supplements to protect
against cancer
Do not smoke or chew tobacco
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
Nutrition & Cancer
Prevention
• Foods are better than supplements
• Green & black tea
• High-temperature cooking
• Variety in the diet
 2010 Cengage-Wadsworth
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