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OPPORTUNITIES
IN BIOTECHNOLOGY
Bioentrepreneurship
and
Job opportunities in Biotechnology
By Dr.R.JAGANNATHAN
PRESENT SCENARIO
• The Indian Biotech industry has acquired
considerable clout in the international
arena. There are many Trans National
Corporations which are now interested in
locating their facilities in India. This has
spurred many Indian National and Multi
National Companies to expand their
activities in the Biotech Sector. There are
large corporations producing Enzymes,
Vaccines and Biopharmaceuticals in India.
OPPORTUNITIES
• Several assignments have been given
from abroad as outsourced projects. This
have come in the segment of R & D
where global entities are utilizing the talent
pool of Indian Science located in corporate
houses and in Government funded
institutes.
NATIONAL APPROACH
• It is clear with the National Biotech
Development Strategy of the Department
of Biotechnology that massive growth for
the Biotech industry in India is imminent.
An ambitious target of $ 5 bio revenue with
a million jobs for the year 2010 is very
much achievable.
PRESENT IMPERATIVE
It is essential that many capable and young
Biotech professionals of India
set up enterprises
to provide jobs instead of just looking for jobs. It
is very conceivable to make their investment a
success, just as we are celebrating the
amazing achievements of the entrepreneurs in
the software sector. These entrepreneurs come
from diverse backgrounds which is also the
need of the hour for the Indian Biotech sector.
INTRODUCTION OF THE
SPEAKER
•
Dr. R. Jagannathan
Tel: 044- 24895651
Email : [email protected]
• M Sc. PhD BIOTECH, 25 YRS
EXPERIENCE IN INSTITUTES &
BIOTECH INDUSTRY IN INDIA AND
ABROAD (GERMANY, U.K., U.S.A. AND
OTHER COUNTRIES)
INTRODUCTION
Dr. JAGANNATHAN
 Dr, R,Jagannathan PhD.
DIRECTOR, BIOTECH AND HERBAL
INDUSTRIES;
CONSULTANT - ADVISER, BIOTECH, SISI
CHENNAI.
 EXPERT – WTO AND AGRICULTURE FOR
SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES (2001)
 EXPERT BIOTECHNOLOGY OF NGO –
VHERDS (VOLUNTARY HEALTH EDUCATION
AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIETY) (2001
TO DATE )
INTRODUCTION
Dr. JAGANNATHAN (CONTINUED)

EXECUTIVE MEMBER, TASK
FORCE VISION 2020 ( PRESIDENT
A.P.J.ABDUL KALAM) OF LIFE
SCIENCES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY OF
DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY, GOVERNMENT OF
INDIA. ALSO AN EXPERT ON THE SUB
PANELS OF BOTH HEALTH CARE AND
ENVIRONMENT (1995).
INTRODUCTION
Dr. JAGANNATHAN (CONTINUED)

MEMBER, HIGH LEVEL ADVISORY
BOARD OF BIOTECH CONSORTIUM INDIA
LIMITED CHAIRED BY
DR.M.S.SWAMINATHAN, THE EMINENT
AGRONOMIST (1994-1997).

MEMBER SELECTION COMMITTEE –
POST GRADUATE INDUSTRIAL TRAINING
PROGRAMME OF DEPARTMENT OF
BIOTECHNOLOGY, GOVERNMENT OF
INDIA(1994-1997).
INTRODUCTION
Dr. JAGANNATHAN (CONTINUED)

MEMBER OF BIO-DIVERSITY COMMITTEE
FOR DEVELOPING SUI GENERIS SYSTEM FOR
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTS,
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA(1994).
• ·
MEMBER OF INDIAN DELEGATION FOR
INDO-US COMMERCIAL ALLIANCE TO MEET
HIGH LEVEL US PRESIDENTIAL BUSINESS
DELEGATION LED BY COMMERCE SECRETARY
MR. RONALD H, BROWN(1995).
• ·
MEMBER OF PROJECT APPRAISAL
COMMITTEE OF INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
BANK IN INDIA FOR LOAN DISBURSAL ON
BIOTECH PROJECTS(1996).
INTRODUCTION
Dr. JAGANNATHAN (CONTINUED)

NOMINATED AS BIOGRAPHEE AND
INCLUDED IN 14TH EDITION OF MEN OF
ACHIEVEMENTS PUBLISHED BY
INTERNATIONAL BIOGRAPHICAL
CENTRE, CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND.
·
MEMBER EDITORIAL BOARD ‘VATIS
UPDATE – BIOTECHNOLOGY’ A JOINT
PUBLICATION OF ESCAP – UNIDO AND
BIOTECH CONSORTIUM INDIA LIMITED.
(1995 – 1997)
INTRODUCTION
Dr. JAGANNATHAN (CONTINUED)

EXPERT ON INDO-NETHERLANDS
PROJECTS ON SEMI-ARID AGRICULTURE
FOR MINISTRY OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS,
NETHERLANDS RESULTING IN INVESTMENT
OF $27 MILLION FOR THE STATE OF
ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA CHRISTENED AS
AP BIOTECH PROJECT.

EXPERT, NATIONAL SURVEY ON
BIOELECTRONICS AND BIOTECH
INSTRUMENTATION OF DEPT. OF
ELECTRONICS, GOVT. OF INDIA.
• MANY THANKS TO THE ORGANISERS
FOR THE OPPORTUNITY GIVEN.
INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES
• ALL INVESTMENTS SUGGESTED FALL IN
THE RANGE FROM Rs. 1 lakh to Rs 100 lakh.
• BANKABLE PROJECT REPORTS CAN BE
PREPARED.
• ALL PRODUCTS WILL BE GIVEN EITHER A
BUY BACK OR MARKETING TIE UP.
• PAY BACK PERIODS HAVE BEEN WORKED
OUT WITH OPTIMUM INVESTMENT.
• LOANS/ VENTURE CAPITAL FROM BANKS
CAN BE ARRANGED.
MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY
• MANY MARINE BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES HAVE BEEN
ISOLATED AND CHARACTERISED WITH PROMISE FOR
TREATING HUMAN DISEASES.
• RAPID ASSAY TECHNOLOGY REQUIRING MINUTE
AMOUNTS OF TEST SUBSTANCE IS AUTOMATED FOR
TESTING NEWLY DEVELOPED BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS .
• LIMITED AND SPORADIC DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANISMS
IN SEA – METHODS REQUIRING FOR PRODUCING
SELECTED METABOLITES EITHER FROM WHOLE
ORGANISMS OR FROM CELL CULTURES.
E.G. MANOALIDE FROM PACIFIC SPONGE AS ANTIINFLAMMATORY AGENT.
MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY
• ENZYMES PRODUCED BY MARINE BACTERIA ARE
IMPORTANT IN MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY DUE TO THEIR
RANGE OF UNUSUAL PROPERTIES.
SOME ARE SALT RESISTANT GIVING AN ADVANTAGE IN
INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES.
• EXTRACELLULAR PROTEASE CAN BE USED IN
DETERGENTS AND INDUSTRIAL CLEANING
APPLICATIONS SUCH AS CLEANING OF REVERSE
OSMOSIS MEMBRANES.
• COLLAGENASE – INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL
APPLICATIONS INCLUDING DISPERSION OF CELLS IN
TISSUE CULTURE UNITS .
• HALOPEROXIDASES ISOLATED FROM ALGAE ARE
IMPORTANT FOR THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY.
• SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE FROM MARINE ALGAE IN
JAPAN HAS WIDE RANGE OF MEDICAL, COSMETIC AND
FOOD APPLICATIONS.
BIOMOLECULAR MATERIALS
• BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS MODELED ON
NATURAL SUBSTANCES THAT FORM THE ORGANIC
MATRICES OF MOLLUSCAN SHELLS
COMMERCIALISED BY A CHICAGO FIRM.
• RESEARCH ON BIOCERAMICS PROMISES TO
REVOLUTIONALISE THE MANUFACTURE OF
MEDICAL IMPLANTS, AUTOMOTIVE PARTS,
ELECTRONIC DEVICES, PROTECTIVE COATINGS
AND OTHER NOVEL PRODUCTS.
• BIOMATERIALS HOLD PROMISE FOR
COUNTERACTING BIOFOULING – TO AVOID TOXIC
PAINTS.
BIOFERTILISERS
• Bio fertilizers are carrier based microbial
inoculants containing cells of efficient
strains of microorganisms. They are used
for enhancing the productivity of the soil.
They fix atmospheric nitrogen and solublize
phosphorus. They also stimulate plant
growth through synthesis of plant growth
promoting substances.
PRODUCTION
The unit will produce the following Bio-Fertilizers:
1. Azospirillum for paddy.
2. Azospirillum for other crops.
3. Rhizobium for pulses.
4. Acetobacter for sugarcane.
5. Phosphobacteria for all corps.
6. Azotobactor for millets.
7. Trichoderma Viride.
8. Pseudomonas.
MARKET POTENTIAL
Bio Fertilizer demand all over India -12,43,940 M.T.
Bio Fertilizer demand in Tamil Nadu - 50,000 M.T.
Bio Fertilizers produced
in Tamil Nadu at present
2,000 M.T.
(Including Government & Private Institutions)
The gap is due to lack of awareness among the
farmers.
BIOTECHNOLOGY+INFORMATICS
BIOINFORMATICS
(GLOBAL SERVICE)
CHANGE INDUCING TOOL
FOR INSTANT ACCESS TO WORLDWIDE
BIOCOMMERCE
PILLARS OF BIOINFORMATICS
GENOMICS:
Study of genes and entire process of their
organisation
as well as sequencing.
PROTEOMICS:
Study of all proteins of the organism.
PHARMACOGENOMICS:
New drug discovery using genetic basis of
disease. (in-silico biology; organ replacement
etc).
SPIRULINA
OUTDOOR CULTIVATION
• FACTORS FOR OUTDOOR CULTIVATION
• Natural Factors
 Temperature (25-40 degree C)
 Light (70-140 K lux)
 Evaporation (5-6 Lit /m.sq)
 Rainfall (Dilution)
FACTORS WHICH CAN BE
REGULATED
 Water quality (hardness limit 300ppm)
 Culture depth (30cm)
 Hourly Agitation for 8hrs (9-5pm) daily
 Nutrient Level (as per media)
 pH (8.5 - 9.5)
SPIRULINA
BUSINESS FORMULATION





ADVANTAGES :
Can be produced at Rural/Commercial
levels.
No agricultural land needed.
Technology is simple.
Has multiple application as health food.
Popular in over 75 countries & has big
domestic market.
STEVIA BASED PRODUCTS
• Stevia is a natural, non-caloric, sweettasting plant used around the world for its
pleasant taste.
• It is being researched for it’s potential for
inhibiting fat absorption and lowering blood
pressure.
USE OF STEVIA IN FOOD
APPLICATIONS
• First, as a prepackaged replacement for sugar
and artificial sweeteners. Second, it has been
used in various food products, including the
Japanese sugar-free versions of Wrigley's gums,
Beatrice Foods yogurts and even diet Coke.
• It has also been used in Japanese style pickles,
dried sea foods, fish meat products, vegetables
and sea foods boiled down with soy sauce,
confectioneries and a host of other products.
BIOTECHNOLOGY IN COSMETICS
• Isolates: More efficient, more aesthetic and
cost effective. Active ingredients are isolated
from a principle source.
• Neem - Azadirachtin - antifungal
• Turmeric - Curcumin - antiseptic
• Henna - Lawsone - natural coloring &
conditioning
• Jojoba - Decyl poly glucose -moisturising & skin
vitalising.
• Soya beans - Soya isoflavones - UV protection
& anti ageing effect .etc.,
BUY BACK FOR HERBAL
PRODUCTS
•
•
•
•
•
•
ALOE VERA
OCIMUM SANCTUM
SENNA LEAVES
PAPAYA
PHYLLANTHUS
33 OTHER HERBS
• HERBAL GARDEN CONCEPT
SIMILAR TO RASHTRAPATI BHAVAN
JATROPHA AND BIODIESEL
• PACKAGE OF PRACTICES FOR
CULTIVATION AND HARVESTING
JATROPHA CURCAS, A TREE FOR
WASTELANDS
• PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY TO
PRODUCE BIODIESEL FROM THE OIL
DERIVED FROM NON EDIBLE SEEDS
LIKE JATROPHA,PUNGAM ETC.
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
• Some of the Traditional
Biotechnologies are vying with Modern
biotech applications to create the
employment opportunities in India.
OBTAIN PROFESSIONAL
EXPERIENCE IN
Some of the noteworthy techniques
leading to the employment avenues are
described here.
Curriculum Vitae of candidates must have
reference to the techniques which are
learnt. Expertise which is gained on
instrument while doing Real Time Projects
must be reflected in the Resume .
CELL CULTURE
Cells from plant tissues can be grown for
producing active components for various
industries e.g. pharmaceutical, flavours
and aroma based organizations.
The Commercial production would entail
exposure to Microbiology techniques,
maintenance of sterile atmosphere free
of other micro organism by usage of Bio
hoods.
STEM CELL CULTURING
• Stem cell culturing is the most modern
form of cell culturing involving precise
methods for achieving good quality cells
leading to a good organ suitable for
transplanting. Embryonic stem cells can
take care of several ailments like diabetes.
MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES
• One of the fast growing business is the
Diagnostic industry which is known to consume
Monoclonal antibodies. These specific
antibodies could help us in the detection of
serious ailments like cancer, AIDS etc. through
a specific diagnostic test. Biological pollutants
can also be detected easily. It is also used in
auto immune diseases.
• It is very important to pick up techniques to
produce Monoclonal antibodies as the
applications for treatment of many diseases by
conferring immunity on the deficient host is
being explored all the time.
FERMENTATION
• Some of products like Hepatitis B vaccine
and Enzymes are produced using processes
like fermentation. Micro organisms are used
with fermentation processes for producing
amino acids . Production of Antibiotics like
Semi Synthetic Penicillins ( e.g. Amoxicillin,
Ampicillin etc.), Semi Synthetic
Cephalosporins ( e.g. Cephalexin,
ceftriaxone etc.) and Human insulin fall
under the category of bio processing.
CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS
• The technique of capillary electrophoresis entails
the running of samples in gels (polyacrylamide or
agarose) or in free solutions.
• The protein bands are identified and observed as they
are passing through a detector without any process of
staining. This kind of a procedure is very quick. The
major advantage is in sectors such as forensic
science and mapping of the genomes.
• Even drug development of small molecules needs
an instrument like capillary electrophoresis.
CYTOMETRY
• The process of measurement of the biochemical
and physical parameters of a biological item or a
cell is called as cytometry. When the characters
are measured in a stream of fluid it is called as
Flow Cytometry. This method requires that the
biological particle or cell should pass through a
beam of a light which is emitted by the cell after it
goes through a fluorescent light, a laser beam or a
scattered laser beam.
• The flow cytometry is also used to calculate the
activity of enzymes, potential of membranes and
concentration of ions.
PROTEIN ENGINEERING
Biocatalysts play a very important role in
the industrial production of several
products in Paper, textile, pharmaceutical
industries. The preparation of suitable and
commercially viable enzymes has been
possible due to protein engineering. Novel
proteins could be designed to deactivate
viruses and to counter tumour causing
cells. Food products could also be
produced designing better proteins.
BIOSENSORS
Biological components like enzyme or antibody
are coupled with electronic components like a
detecting device , transducer ( which produces a
signal) to form a biosensor. These coupled
devices are used industrially to produce better
quality foods and clinically to measure blood
parameters in bed ridden patients. Detection of
toxins and infectious biological agents is also
possible very much in an economical fashion.
OTHER RELEVANT
TECHNOLOGIES
• Nano Biotechnology
The marriage of micro volume of Biological
samples (micro fluidics) and measurement of
micro signals has created the exciting field of
Nano biotechnology which has tremendous
application potential in treatment and diagnosis.
• Recombinant DNA Technology
The practice of combining Genetic material from
various living sources is becoming quite
common and the ramifications of this
technology is reaching into agriculture for
enhancing yields, bio control measures etc. It is
being used for producing Biodegradable plastics
too.
CONCLUSIONS
• The fields described here are few and there are
many more Job opportunities which are likely to
spring up as substantial investments are in the
process of being made. The stem cell and organ
bank concept, Gene therapy, Clinical trials for
Biotech products as well as R & D Jobs will be the
focus of the future Biotech industry in India. Job
seekers must not restrict themselves only to
theoretical knowledge derived from the educational
institutions but must invest some time money to
gain practical experience in the labs of the industry
or commercially oriented R & D institutes.
• THANK YOU ALL FOR THE PATIENCE
WISH YOU ALL A
PROFITABLE TIME
Dr. R. Jagannathan
Tel: 044- 24895651
Email : [email protected]