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Glossary for Ingrasys FISC Servers
(Apple Talk Filing Protocol)
The presentation layer protocol that manages access of remote files in an AppleTalk
network. The most common application bundled with MAC OS is AppleShare.
Apple Talk
The set of network protocols on which AppleTalk network architecture is based.
Apple Talk Phase II
The extended AppleTalk Internet model designed by Apple Computer. It supports
multiple zones within a network and extended addressing capacity.
NetWare 3.x servers store all the information about users, groups, passwords, and rights
in a database stored on the server called the bindery. NetWare 4.x servers (NDS applied)
can appear to have a bindery through bindery emulation, a feature which is enabled by
default. There is a separate bindery for each NetWare server.
Capacity of CD-ROM
In general, the term capacity refers to the capacity of a CD, in megabytes of user data.
Currently, there are CD-ROM media that can hold 63 or 74 minutes of data (74 min. is
the maximum designed capacity). Before, because of equipment and other
considerations, CD-Audio and CD-ROM did not use the outer area of the disc, and 60 to
63-minute discs were the rule. Today, because current equipment can encode and drives
can read the outer area of the disc, 74-minute discs are common. The capacity of the
CD- ROM is the number of user bytes per sector, times 75 sectors per second, times the
total time recorded in the disc. Furthermore, the total, in Megabytes, will depend on the
definition of Megabyte. Using 2(exp 20), or 1,048,576, we will arrive to the figure of 527
MBytes for a 60 minute CD-ROM. Obviously, this figure will be much higher for a 74minute CD-ROM. Moreover, with multimedia CD-ROMs, all figures of capacity have to
take into consideration that Mode 2 allows more space for user data (2336 user bytes). It
is therefore possible to produce a 74-minute disc, in Mode 2, with about 778 million
bytes, or about 741 Megabytes of user data in it--and still remain within the ISO 9660
specifications. Users must take these variables into account when discussing CD
Capacity of DVD
The DVD specifications include single and double-layer discs, as well as single and
double-sided discs, as shown in the following chart. The generic designations are: DVD5, DVD-9, DVD-10 and DVD-18. DVD-R is implemented with a capacity of 3.86GB, and
DVD-RAM with a capacity of 2.66GB--although it is expected that those capacities will
increase in their 'second generation.'
4.7 GB
8.5 GB
9.4 GB
17.0 GB
(Common Internet File System)
The Common Internet File System (CIFS) is a subset of the SMB protocol tuned for use
on the Internet. CIFS has been submitted by Microsoft to the Internet Engineering Task
Force as an Internet Draft.
(Distributed File System)
Microsoft Distributed File System (DFS) for Windows NT Server is a network server
component that makes it easier for you to find and manage data on your network. Dfs is a
means for uniting files on different machines into a single name space. Dfs makes it easy
to build a single, hierarchical view of multiple file servers and file server shares on your
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) was designed by the Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) to reduce the amount of configuration required when
using TCP/IP. DHCP is defined in RFCs (Request For Comments) 1533, 1534, 1541, and
1542. DHCP was designed to centralize TCP/IP configuration and to manage the
allocation of TCP/IP configuration information by automatically assigning IP addresses to
systems configured to use DHCP.
(Hierarchical File System)
An HFS disc is a disc recorded in the native file format of the Apple operating system,
Hierarchical File Structure (HFS). ISO 9660 does not retain some of the features of
Macintosh applications, such as icons, icon placement on the desktop, and the resource
forks of applications and files. Somewhat similar to the Rock Ridge Extensions are the
Apple ISO Extensions. These allow filenames to be written in ISO 9660 Level 2 (long
filenames) and allow the resource forks as well as data forks to be written to an ISO 9660
disc. The Level 2 information is not accessible by non-Macintosh computers.
High Sierra Format
The development of the High Sierra Format is an essential element of the industry's
folklore. After the publication of the Yellow Book, facing the growth of CD-ROM
applications in proprietary formats, representatives of TMS, DEC, Microsoft, Hitachi,
Laser Data, Sony, Apple, Philips, 3M, Video Tools, Reference Technology and Xebec,
met at the Del Webb's High Sierra Hotel and Casino, in Lake Tahoe, Nevada, to agree on
basic specifications for a common logical format and file structure for CD-ROM. Soon
after, they published the "Working Paper for Information Processing: Volume and File
Structure of CD-ROM Optical Discs for Information Exchange (1986)," since known as
the High Sierra Format (HSF). Their unprecedented effort proved to be key for the
effective role of standards in the CD-ROM industry. And, to their credit, the ISO 9660 is
essentially their Working Paper with some pertinent modifications and extensions. Today,
only organizations that do not distribute their CD-ROM application beyond their
organization produce HSF discs.
(Hypertext Transport Protocol)
The underlying protocol by which WWW clients and servers communicate. HTTP is an
application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. It
is a generic, stateless, object-oriented protocol. A feature of HTTP is the typing and
negotiation of data representation, allowing systems to be built independently of the data
being transferred.
Acronym for Internetwork Packet Exchange, which is a set of transport protocols used in
Novell NetWare networks. Windows NT implements IPX through NWLink.
Issued by the International Standards Organization, its formal title is ISO 9660:
Information Processing--Volume and File Structure of CD-ROM for Information Exchange
(1988). This multi-platform logical structure has been the key standard for the growth and
worldwide acceptance of CD-ROM as a publishing and information distribution media
and, since then, as the basic format structure for other implementations of CD-ROM in
the computer arena.
ISO9660 w/ Rock Ridge Extension
A series of extensions of ISO9660 known as the Rock Ridge CD-ROM format provides
additional features that are used by CD-ROMs for some systems, in particular, UNIX
systems that require long filenames and a complex directory structure
JOLIET Extensions to ISO 9660
The Joliet specification was designed to resolve a number of deficiencies in the original
ISO 9660 file system (Level 1) particularly when used with Windows95. These include:
Character Set limitations to upper case characters, numbers and underscore.
File Name Length limited to 8 characters plus three-character extension
Directory Tree Depth limitations
Directory Name Format limitations
The Joliet specification uses the supplementary volume descriptor (SVD) feature of ISO
9660 to solve the above problems. In order to maintain compatibility with MSDOS the
primary volume descriptor and its associated path table meets the ISO 9660 Level 1
specification. The SVD uses a second path table with long filenames for full Windows 95
A versatile and commonly used color graphics compression specification adopted by the
Joint Photographic Experts Group. Hardware and software JPEG implementations allow
setting the desired compression, from 24-bit lossless (usually 2:1) to smaller bit size lossy
compression rates (up to 60:1 in some cases). This allows users to insure retention of
detail and precision of the original. For everyday graphics work, recommended JPEG
compression ratios range between 25 and 35:1.
A Codec adopted by ISO's Motion Pictures Expert Group for compression and playback
of full-motion video and audio streams-- often referred to as 'MPEG video.' MPEG-1 is
now an open standard (ISO/IEC 11172, 1991)--which establishes the structure for a
standard MPEG file, and specifies a transfer rate of 1.5Mb/sec, with a resolution of
352x240 at 30 fps. MPEG-2 accepts transfer rates up to 15Mb/sec, with a high resolution
of 720x480 at 30 fps, and it also requires a 2MB buffer. Today, most of the demands of
multimedia and full-motion video are met by various MPEG add-on boards. Incidentally,
CD-I uses MPEG-1, and Video CD was promoted as the first MPEG-1 optical disc for
multiple platforms. MPEG add-on boards use special chip sets for compression and
decompression--but there are various software-only MPEG decoding programs. High-end
hardware solutions claim compression ratios up to 50 to 1. But, since MPEG is lossy,
such high compression rates often signify lower quality playback at 30 fps. MPEG-2 (ISO
13818-1, 1994) offers higher quality and speeds than MPEG-1. In certain circles, it is
considered a temporary solution in the wait for a software solution (which will require
CPUs to provide code streams above 10 Mbits/sec). DVD, however, uses MPEG-2
primarily, and all DVD-players will include hardware to handle MPEG-2 contents.
(NetWare Core Protocols)
The NetWare Core Protocols (NCP), developed by Novell, defines a series of commands
used to pass information between networked computers (NetWare server and client).
Structured rules defining how workstations request services from the server and how
servers interpret and respond to those requests. Requests are typically for file, print or
account manipulation. Pure Client-Server architecture is fully adopted by NCP.
(NetWare Directory Services)
The NetWare Directory Services (NDS), developed by Novell, provides and integrated
view of your entire network, provides a single login and password for users and
administrators, and gives a single graphical interface for your administrative tasks. All of
the available resources (files, printers, etc.) managed by NetWare servers can become
objects falling beneath NDS tress. NDS has been introduced and implemented since NW
4.x announced.
(NetBIOS Extended User Interface)
This protocol was first introduced by IBM in 1985. NetBEUI is a small and efficient
protocol designed for use on a departmental LAN of 20 to 200 workstations. NetBEUI is a
non-routable protocol, so it can not be used on inter-networking environment.
(Network Basic Input/Output System)
An application programming interface (API) that can be used by applications on a local
area network. NetBIOS provides applications with a uniform set of commands for
requesting the lower-level services required to conduct sessions between nodes on a
network and to transmit information back and forth.
(NetBIOS over TCP/IP)
The session-layer network service that performs name-to-IP address mapping for name
resolution. Microsoft’s implementation of NetBIOS over TCP/IP stack is
completely routable and offers fast, reliable naming services (such as WINS) in an easy
to manage TCP/IP environment. By offering NetBIOS over TCP/IP (also known as NBT),
Microsoft has extended TCP/IP capability to existing NetBIOS applications.
(Network File System)
A service for distributed computing systems that provides a distributed file system,
eliminating the need for keeping multiple copies of files on separate computers. NFS is a
widely used tool for sharing files among various UNIX systems.
Non-ISO 9660 CDs
This category includes CD-ROM products in other proprietary formats, and as test
products for other platforms. There are, for example, CDs formatted as Apple HFS
products. Since mastering and replication can be done for any format, and new CDRecordable hardware is proliferating, non-ISO applications can be produced in all
computer platforms--with the appropriate formatting software.
Rockridge Group
This is an industry group that developed extensions to the ISO 9660 to produce ISOcompliant applications that could be played by multiple operating systems, emphasizing
Unix-based or POSIX-compliant systems. Some saw the need for those extensions,
especially since implementation of ISO 9660 interchange levels was more problematic
than first perceived. The proposed extensions, System Use Shared Protocol (SUSP), and
the Rockridge Interchange Protocol (RRIP), allow for support of multi-platform formats,
tables of contents with deeper levels of hierarchy, and the use of filenames larger than
those allowed by MS-DOS. Essentially, those extensions make the ISO-compliant
contents of the disc appear like a Unix File System to Unix machines configured to
support Rockridge Extensions. Incidentally, in a different approach, there are applications
for the Unix platform that include translation tables to show the contents of the CD- ROM
with Unix-like file and directory names--but that is not what the Rockridge Group proposal
specifies. It was expected that the Rock Ridge specifications be approved by the end of
The Small Computer System Interface was introduced as the 'intelligent interface for
intelligent devices.' A SCSI card can operate in 8 and 16-bit buses, and serve up to
seven (or even more) devices connected in a 'daisy chain'. The interface issues
commands to the chain, where each device recognizes the commands addressed to it.
SCSI hard disks store data in sequential blocks, and transfer (in parallel) at rates
between 3.3 and up to 40 MBytes/sec (the newer implementations offer faster rates).
Nevertheless, despite its many flavors, the fact that SCSI is an ANSI standard has made
for solid commitments to it among some manufacturers. Currently, SCSI-2 (Fast, Wide,
Fast and Wide) are popular. Ultra SCSI can support up to 15 devices, and is backward
compatible. Upcoming SCSI specifications are said to involve asynchronous (serial)
mode implementations for fiber channels, HPSB and other new bus designs in the
Share-Level Security
When a computer is running Windows 95 with File and Printer Sharing services, other
users can connect to shared printers, volumes, directories, and CD-ROM drives on that
computer. With shared-level security, users assign passwords to their shared resources,
and any user who can provide the correct password can access the shared resource.
Share Name
A name that refers to a shared resource on a server. Each shared directory on a server
has a share name, used by PC users to refer to the directory. Users of Macintosh use the
name of the Macintosh-accessible volume that corresponds to a directory, which may be
the same as the share name.
(Server Message Blocks)
The Server Message Blocks (SMB) protocol, developed jointly by Microsoft, Intel, and
IBM, defines a series of commands used to pass information between networked
computers. The SMB redirector packages requests meant for remote servers in an SMB
structure. Structured rules defining how workstations request services from the server
and how servers interpret and respond to those requests. Requests are typically for file,
print or account manipulation. SMB protocol is written to use the NetBIOS interface
where NCP writes directly to protocol-based sockets.
(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
A set of networking protocols that provide communications across interconnected
networks made up of computers with diverse hardware architectures and various
operating systems. TCP/IP includes standards for how computers communicate and
conventions for connecting networks and routing traffic.
The Universal Disc Format was promoted by the Optical Storage Technology Association
(OSTA), as a single file system for interchange of information in the computer arena. It is
referred to as a subset or domain of ISO/IEC 13346/ OSTA aimed to develop a UDFbased file format for CD-ROM, write-once and rewritable products, including multi-surface
sets. UDF is expected to eliminate the addressing limitations of the ISO 9660, the filesize limitations of redirectors (MSCDEX & CDFS), provide for cross-platform products,
and also help eliminate the broad incompatibility among CD and DVD mass-reproduced
and write-once and rewritable applications.
User-Level Security
User-level security is based on user account lists stored on servers running Windows NT
Server or Novell NetWare. The user accounts specify which users have access rights on
the network. Windows hosts (MS Network Client, WFWG, Windows 95/98/NT) pass on a
user’s request for access to the servers for validation. Pass-through user-level
security protects shared network resources by requiring that a security provider
authenticate a user’s request to access resources.
Video CD
The Video CD specifications ('White Book') were proposed by JVC and Philips (Aug93),
and supported by other major players in the industry (apparently, it was derived from the
'Karaoke video' concept). The CD is used to store 72-74 minutes of full motion video and
digital audio (2 channels), using an MPEG-1 decompression board, in a CD-ROM XA
'bridge disc.' It has a video data transfer rate of 1.44 Mbits/sec. Because CD-I players
can play Video CD discs, it was considered another version of CD-I. The menace of
DVD-Video seems to have cooled Video CD plans for the future. (See, CD-ROM
(Windows Internet Name Service)
WINS provides a distributed database for registering and querying dynamic mapping of
computer name to IP address in a routed network environment. Designed to solve the
problems arising from name resolution in complex configurations, WINS is the best
choice for NetBIOS name resolution in routed networks.