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Notes: Reptiles and Birds
Section 1: Reptiles
What is a Reptile?
 Reptiles are terrestrial vertebrates with 3 characteristics:
 Dry, ____________ skin
 Well developed __________________
 Terrestrial _______ with ________________________
Reptile Evolution
 Reptiles first appeared during the _________________ period, _______ mya (million years ago)
 Next, Earth began to cool and dry during the _________________ period.
 Reptiles were better equipped to survive in dry climates than ______________________ were.
 At the end of the Permian period, _____ mya, _____________-like reptiles became successful.
 At the end of the Triassic period, ____ mya, dinosaurs became the dominant animal group.
 Dinosaurs went extinct ____ mya at the end of the ______________________ period due to
volcanic eruptions and an asteroid hitting the earth.
Form and Function in Reptiles

Reptiles are _____________________ – cold blooded animals that control their body
temperature by moving to warm/cool areas.

Respiratory system:
o Reptiles have ______________ lungs that are more efficient than amphibian lungs.
o Reptiles cannot ________________ through their thick, __________ skin.
o Reptiles have muscles around their ________ cage to help them breathe.

Circulatory system:
o Reptiles have a double-loop circulatory system

_______________________ loop – carries blood to/from the lungs

_______________________ – carries blood to/from the rest of the body
o Most reptiles have a 3 chambered heart with:

2 ___________ (left/right)

1 ventricle split by a ___________________
o __________________________ have a 4 chambered heart with 2 ventricles

Excretory system
o _______________ filter wastes, like ___________________, from blood to make urine.
o Urine exits the body through the ____________.
o Some reptiles have a urinary _____________________ to store urine.
o ____________-dwelling reptiles excrete toxic ammonia into the water.
o Land-dwelling reptiles turn ammonia into _______ ________, which is dried into a pasty,
white solid in the cloaca to save water.

Nervous system
o Reptiles have large ____________________ and cerebellum in their brains.
o
Many reptiles have very good color vision.
o Many reptiles use their tongue to catch smell molecules and carry them to a scent organ
in their mouth called _______________________ organ
o Reptiles transmit sounds to their inner ear through the ________________ and a bone.
o Pit vipers have a _______ ______________ that detects the body heat of their prey.

Reptile legs are better adapted to walking on land than amphibian legs.

Reproduction
o All reptiles reproduce by internal fertilization – sperm is deposited inside the female.
o Most reptiles are _____________________ – some snakes and lizards are ovoviviparous.
o Reptiles produce amniotic eggs with waterproof membranes and shells.

___________________– keeps water around the embryo

___________________ – allows respiration of gases inside the egg

___________________ – stores the embryo’s wastes

___________________ – contains yolk - food for the embryo
o Reptiles were the first vertebrates to be able to reproduce away from ___________.
Groups of Reptiles

Lizards and Snakes (order _________________ – “scaly reptiles”)
o Lizards and snakes have scaly skin and a double-hinged jaw.
o Snakes once had legs but lost them over the course of time.

Crocodilians (order __________________________)
o Includes alligators, crocodiles, caimans, and gavials.
o Are all carnivores that live in fresh or salt water.
o Have ____ chambered hearts & take care of their young.

Turtles and Tortoises (order ________________________)
o Have a bony shell of 2 parts: ____________ (upper) and ____________ (lower)
o Usually turtles live on water; tortoises live on land.
o Do not have teeth – they have a sharp, bony beak

Tuataras (order Sphenodonta)
o Only 2 live on islands near New Zealand.
o Tuataras look like iguanas with spiny backs.
o Have very primitive ears and scales.
Reptile Ecology

Things that threaten reptiles:
o Habitat destruction
o Overhunting for food and skins
o Capture of reptiles as _________.

Reptiles are being protected by many programs today.
Review Questions
1. Which 3 characteristics make reptiles unique?
2. Why is the evolution of the amniotic egg so important?
3. Why is uric acid so important for land-dwelling reptiles?
4. How are crocodilians different from other reptiles?
Notes: Reptiles and Birds
Section 2: Birds
What is a Bird?

Reptile-like animals that are ___________________

Have feathers made of _________ on their body, scales on their legs.
o __________ feathers – insulate body for warmth
o _______________ feathers – give body shape and lift for flight

2 legs and 2 front limbs that are wings.
Evolution of Birds

Birds share many traits with reptiles, including:
o Excrete nitrogenous wastes as ________ ________.
o Embryos develop inside _______________ eggs.
o Similar bone structure

______________________________, a bird-like reptile from the __________________ period,
looked like a dinosaur with wings and feathers.

Archaeopteryx is a _____________________ species between birds and ____________________.

Some scientists think that birds and dinosaurs evolved earlier from a common ancestor.
Form, Function, and Flight
Body Temperature

Birds are endothermic – they generate their own body heat.

Bird’s have a fast ___________________ to produce heat.

_____________________ trap heat to keep birds warm.
Feeding/Digestion

Birds must eat lots of food to maintain their fast metabolism.

Bird __________ are adapted to the type of food they eat.

The __________:
o Stores food at the end of the ___________________.
o Also used to make _________ for young birds.

The stomach may have a _________________ full of rocks for grinding up food.

Nutrients are absorbed in the intestine and wastes released through the ____________.
Respiration

Birds inhale to fill _____ _______ around their lungs.

Air sacs fill the lungs, where ___________ is absorbed, then exhaled.

The _____-way flow of air into the lungs provides constant oxygen.
Circulation

Birds have an efficient ____ chambered heart: ___ atria & ____ ventricles.

Oxygen-_____ and oxygen-_______ blood is not allowed to _______.

2 loops – one to the lungs (______________) and one to the body (____________)
Muscular/Skeletal

Birds muscles are adapted for _________________.

Many bones are ____________ together to form a strong frame.

Bones are ___________ and light but large to hold flight muscles.
Reproduction

Birds use their cloaca to perform ______________ fertilization.

They lay amniotic eggs with hard ____________.
Bird Ecology

There are over __________ species of birds in 30 orders.

Birds spread __________, pollinate flowers, and eat insects.

Birds ___________ thousands of miles to escape cold winters.
Review Questions
1. List 3 adaptations that birds have made for flight.
2. Why is Archaeopteryx such an important fossil?
3. How are birds different from reptiles?