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Department of Electronics/Physics GITAM Institute of Science GITAM University Two Year M.Sc. Physics Scheme of Instruction & Syllabus FIRST SEMESTER Course Code Subject Name Theory Mathematical methods of SPRPH 101 Physics Classical Mechanics SPRPH 102 Electromagnetic Theory SPRPH 103 Quantum Mechanics SPRPH 104 Labs General Physics SPRPH 111 C-Programming SPRPH 112 Viva Voce SPRPH 113 Total SECOND SEMESTER Course Code Subject Name Theory Statistical mechanics SPRPH 201 Fundamentals of solid state SPRPH 202 physics Electronic circuits and SPRPH 203 Instrumentation Modern Physics SPRPH 204 Labs Material Science SPRPH 211 Electronics SPRPH 212 Viva Voce SPRPH 213 Total With effect from 2012-2013 L/w 4 Marks CIA SEE 30 70 Credits Total 100 4 4 4 4 30 30 30 70 70 70 100 100 100 4 4 4 6 6 0 30 30 0 70 70 50 100 100 50 650 2 2 1 21 L/w Marks CIA SEE 30 70 30 70 4 4 Credits Total 100 100 4 4 4 30 70 100 4 4 30 70 100 4 6 6 0 30 30 0 70 70 50 100 100 50 650 2 2 1 21 Page 1 THIRD SEMESTER Course Code Subject Name Theory Introduction to Nano Science SPRPH 301 Nuclear Physics SPRPH 302 Advanced Quantum SPRPH 303 Mechanics Physics of Semiconductor SPRPH 304 Devices Labs Modern Physics SPRPH 311 Nuclear Physics SPRPH 312 Viva Voce SPRPH 313 Total FOURTH SEMESTER Course Code Subject Name Theory Experimental Techniques SPRPH 401 Elective: Nuclear Techniques SPRPH 421 or Material Science SPRPH 422 or Space Physics SPRPH 423 or Communication Electronics SPRPH 424 Labs SPRPH 411 SPRPH 412 SPRPH 413 Total Experimental Physics Lab Project with seminar Viva Voce L/w 4 4 4 Marks CIA SEE 30 70 30 70 30 70 Credits Total 100 100 100 4 4 4 4 30 70 100 4 6 6 0 30 30 0 70 70 50 100 100 50 650 2 2 1 21 L/w 4 4 6 0 0 Marks CIA SEE 30 70 30 70 30 150 0 70 50 50 Credits Total 100 100 4 4 100 200 50 550 2 6 1 17 L/w: Lectures per week CIA: Continuous Internal Assessment SEE: Semester End Examination With effect from 2012-2013 Page 2 M.Sc. (Physics) I-Semester SPRPH 101: Mathematical Methods of Physics Unit-I Numerical Techniques Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations: the iteration method and the Newton – Raphson method. Interpolation: forward and backward differences. Newton’s formula for interpolation, Lagrange’s interpolation formula. Solution of linear equations : Gaussian elimination method eigen value problem. Numerical solutions of differential equations: Euler’s method, Runge-Kutta Method Unit-II Complex analysis: Analytic function, CR equations, Elementary functions of complex variable, Harmonic functions, Complex Line integral, Cauchy Integral theorem, Cauchy Integral formula, Taylor and Laurent series, Cauchy’s residue theorem, Evaluation of real integrals by contour Integration Unit-III Power series and Fourier series: Legendre, Hermite, Lagaurre and Bessel –differential equations and solution, Recursion formula, Generating function, Recurrence relations and orthogonal properties Fourier series: Determination of Fourier coefficients- Fourier series even and odd functions, Fourier series in arbitrary interval, Half range Fourier sine and cosine expansions. Unit-IV Laplace Transforms: Introduction,laplace transform,laplace transform of some standard functions,properties of laplace transform,Evaluation of integral using laplace transform,laplace transform of periodic functions,Inverse laplace transforms,application of laplace transform to differential equations with constant coefficients and applications to simultaneous differential equations. Unit-V Matrices: Introduction, Matrix, Definitions associated with matrices, adjoint of square matrix, reciprocal of matrix, Elementary transformations, rank of matrix, Non homogenous and homogenous linear equations, Linear dependence and independence of vectors, Eigen values and Eigen vectors ,Caley Hamilton theorem, minimal polynomial and equation of matrix ,Function of square matrix and similarity of matrices. Reference Books: 1. Engineering Mathematics- E.Kreyszig Wiely Publishers 2. Mathematical Physics- B.D. Gupta Vikas Publishers 3. Engineering Mathematics- Ravish R Singh ,Mukul Bhatt TMH 4. Numerical Analysis B.N. Vedamurthy Vikas publishing House With effect from 2012-2013 Page 3 M.Sc. (Physics) I-Semester SPRPH 102: Classical Mechanics Unit-I The Lagrangian Formalism: Constraints, D-Alembert's Principle, Generalized.coordinates,Lagrangian, Lagrange's equation and its applications, Velocity dependant potential in Lagaragian formulation, Generalized momentum, Legendre transformations, Hamiltonian, Hamilton's equation of motion, Cyclic Coordinates and conservation theorems. The principle of least action, Derivation of Hamilton’s equation from a variational principle Unit-II Hamiltonian’s Formalism: Hamilton’s principle, some techniques of the calculus of variations, Applications to variational principle, Derivation of Lagrange’s equations from Hamilton’s principle, Lagrange’s equation fro non-holonomic principle, conservation theorems. Unit-III Rigid body dynamics: Independent coordinates of rigid body, The Euler angles, Eule’s theorem, Tensors, The inertia tensor and the moment of inertia, the eigen values of the inertia tensor, equations of motion of a rigid body, Euler’s equations, free rotation and precession of a symmetrical top. Unit-IV Canonical transformation: Equations of canonical transformation, Examples of canonical transformations, Poisson brackets and invariants, Equation of motion, infinitesimal canonical transformations, and Conservation theorems in Poisson bracket formulation. Unit-V Hamilton-Jacobi theory: The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for Hamilton’s principal function, the harmonic oscillator problem, The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for Hamilton’s characteristic function, Separation of variables in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, Action-angle variables, Kepler problem in action-angle variables. Books: 1. Classical Mechanics- H.Goldstein Narosa Publishing House 2. Introduction to Classical Mechanics- Takwale Puranik TMH 3. Classical Mechanics- J.C.Upadhaya Himalaya Publisher With effect from 2012-2013 Page 4 M.Sc. (Physics) I-Semester SPRPH 103: Electromagnetic Theory Unit-I Electrostatics: Electric field-Introduction, Coulomb law, Electric field, Continuous charge distribution, Divergence and curl of Electrostatic fields-field lines, flux, Gauss law, Divergence of E, Applications of Gauss’s law, curl of E. Electric Potential-Introduction to potential, Poissoins and Laplace equation, Potential of localized charge distribution, Work and Energy in Electrostatics, Work done on moving charge, Energy of point and continuous charge distribution, Conductors: Basic properties, Induced charges, surface charge and force on conductor. Unit-II Magnetostatics: Lorentz force law , Magnetic fields, Magnetic forces, currents, Biot - Savarts law-Steady currents, magnetic field of steady current, Divergence and curl of B –Straight line currents, Applications of amperes law ,Magnetic vector potential-vector potential Unit-III Electrodynamics: Electromotive force-ohm’s law, EMF, Motional EMF Electromagnetic induction –Faraday laws, Induced electric field, Inductance, Energy in magnetic fields. Maxwell equationsmagnetic charge, Maxwell equations in matter, Charge and Energy equation, Pointing theorem. Unit-IV Electromagnetic waves: Waves in one dimension-wave equation, sinusoidal waves, Boundary conditions polarization Electromagnetic waves in vacuum-wave equation for E and B, Monochromatic plane waves, energy and momentum in EM waves The Potential formulation-scalar and vector potential, guage transformations, coulomb and Lorentz guage transformations Unit-V Electric and Magnetic field in matter, Polarization- Dielectrics, Induced dipoles, alignment of polar molecules, polarization Electric Displacement-Gauss law in dielectrics MagnetisationDiamagnets, para, ferromagnets, torques and forces in magnetic dipoles Field of magnetized object-bound currents and physical interpretation Auxiliary field H-Amperes law in magnetized materials Books: 1. Classical Electrodynamics – Griffiths Pearson Edu. 2. Fundamentals of Electromagnetics for Engineering- N.Narayana Rao Pearson Edu 1st Ed. 3. Classical electrodynamics - J.D. Jackson John Wiely 4. Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory – John R. Reitz, Frederick J. Milford, Robert W. Christy Pearson Edu. 4th Ed. 5. Electricity and Magnetism – A.S.Mahajan & Rangawal TMH With effect from 2012-2013 Page 5 M.Sc. (Physics) I-Semester SPRPH 104: Quantum Mechanics Unit-I General formalism of wave mechanics: Linear vector space, Postulates of wave mechanics, Operators and their properties, Commutator algebra, Bra-Ket vectors and their properties, Dirac-delta function and Korncker- delta function, Matrix representation, Change of basis, uncertainty relation, momentum representation and equation of motion. Unit-II Schrödinger’s wave equation and its applications: Time dependent and time independent Schrödinger’s wave equation, Admissibility conditions of the wave function, Stationary state solution, continuity equation, Ehrenfest’s theorem, Particle in a box, step potential , Rectangular potential barrier, Square well potential and harmonic oscillator. Unit-III Angular momentum: Angular momentum operators, Commutation relations, eigen values and eigen functions of angular momentum operators, General angular momentum, Spin angular momentum, Pauli’s spin operators and their properties, Addition of angular momenta: ClebschGordon coefficients and its properties. Unit-IV Approximation methods: Time independent perturbation theory: Non-degenerate and degenerate systems and its applications: Zeeman and Stark effects, Time dependent perturbation theory and its applications, Variation method: ground state and first excited state of the Helium atom. Unit-V Scattering theory: Scattering differential – cross section, the scattering of wave packet, Born approximation and its applications, Partial wave analysis method, Expansion of a plane wave in terms of partial waves, determination of the phase shifts and scattering amplitude, optical theorem and applications. Books: 1. A text book of Quantum Mechanics- P.Mathews and K.Venkatesan TMH 2. Quantum Mechanics- E.Merzbacher Wiely Publishers 3. Quantum Mechanics - Leonard Schiff TMH 3rd Edition 4. Modern Quantum Mechanics- J.J.Sakurai. Pearson Edu. 5. Quantum Mechanics-G. Aruldhas PHI.2nd Edition With effect from 2012-2013 Page 6 M.Sc. (Physics) I-Semester SPRPH 111: General Physics Lab List of Experiments 1. Determination of Specific Charge of electron 2. Determination of Rydberg constant 3. Determination of Boltzmann constant 4. Determination of wavelength of He-Ne Laser by grating 5. Study of Atomic spectrum of Sodium 6. Divergence of Laser beam using He-Ne source 7. Optical Fibre -Characteristics 8. Forbidden energy Gap of LED 9. Franck Hertz Experiment- Existence of discrete states of atom 10. Calibration of Electromagnet With effect from 2012-2013 Page 7 M.Sc. (Physics) I-Semester SPRPH 112: C-Programming List of Experiments 1. Convert a given decimal number into octal number 2. Solve quadratic equation using switch case structure. 3. Check a given integer is Palindrome 4. Check a given integer is a prime number 5. Sort a series of numbers 6. Multiplication of Two matrixes 7. Finding Norm of a matrix using function 8. Finding Numerical Integration using Simpsion’s and Tratezoidal rules. 9. Using pointers copy a string to another string 10. Finding of largest and smallest in a set of numbers. 11. Arranging words in alphabetical order 12. Write functions for ( i) reverse the string ( ii ) converting integer in to string With effect from 2012-2013 Page 8 M.Sc. (Physics) I-Semester SPRPH 113: Viva Voce With effect from 2012-2013 Page 9 M.Sc. (Physics) II-Semester SPRPH 201: Statistical mechanics Unit I Statistical description of systems of particles and their thermodynamics: Specification of the state of a system, Statistical ensemble, Basic postulates, Probability calculations, Behavior of the density of states, Thermal interaction, Mechanical interaction, General interaction, Quasi-state processes, Reversible and irreversible processes, Distribution of energy between systems in equilibrium, Dependence of the density of states on the external parameters, Statistical calculation of thermodynamic quantities Unit II Interpretation of Ensembles: Isolated system, System in contact with a heat reservoir, simple application of the canonical distribution and Grand canonical ensemble, Probability distribution functions, mean energies, Fluctuations in energy and density in a canonical ensemble and Grand Canonical ensemble, Connection with thermodynamics. Unit III Applications of Statistical mechanics: Partition functions and their properties, calculation of thermodynamic quantities, Gibbs paradox, Validity of the classical approximation, specific heats of solids-Dulong and Petits law, Einstein specific heat theory, Debye specific heat theory , Equipartition theorem, Simple applications, and General calculation of magnetization. Unit IV Quantum Statistics of ideal gases: Identical particles and symmetry requirements, Formulation of the statistical problems, The quantum distribution functions, Maxwell-Boltzman statistics, Photon statistics, Bose- Einstein statistics, Fermi Dirac statistics- Calculation of dispersions, Equation of state for Ideal Bose and fermi gas, Bose -Einstien condensation, Theory of white dwarf stars ,Quantum statistics in the classical limit. Unit V System of Interacting particles: Lattice vibrations, Normal modes, Non-ideal classical gas, Calculation of partition functionlow densities, Equation of state, viral coefficients and its evaluation with integrals, Ferromagnetism-interaction between spins, Weiss molecular field approximation ant high and low temperatures.. Books: 1. Fundamental Statistical and Thermal physics - F.Reif ,Waveland Pr Inc 4th Ed. 2. Statistical Mechanics - K. Huang Wiely 2nd Ed. With effect from 2012-2013 Page 10 M.Sc. (Physics) II-Semester SPRPH 202: Fundamentals of solid sate physics Unit I Introduction to Crystals: Crystal structure, Unitcell, Symmetry operations-translation and point ,crystal types, Indices of lattice direction and plane,interplanar spacing,density of atoms in crystal plane, Crystal structures –simplest, CsCl, NaCl, Alkali metals, Diamond and HCP. Reciprocal lattice, Braggs law,laue interpretation of crystals, Imperfections in Crystal –Point ,line, Burger vector,dislocation and Surface imperfections. Unit II Energy Bands in Solids: Free electron gas,electrical conductivity,Fermi surface and its effects on electrical conductivity .failure of free electron model. Energy bands in solids-Bloch theorem ,periodicity of bloch functions and eigen values, Kronig penney model, nearly free electron model, zone schemes for energy bands,tight binding approximation, estimation of cohesive energy.Concept of holes effective mass ,Fermi surfaces construction and de hass-van alphen effect. Unit III Lattice Vibrations: Introduction, Dynamics of chain of identical atoms,diatomic linear chain, Reststrahlen band, theory of harmonic approximation,Normal modes of real crystals, quantization of lattice vibration. Classical Lattice heat capacity ,quantum theory of lattice heat capacity-average thermal energy of harmonic oscillator,Einstein and Debye model and Anharmonic effectsthermal expansion,phonon collision and thermal conductivity Unit IV Dielectric Properties of materials: Polaraisation ,dielectric constant ,local electric field, dielectric constant and its measurement , dielectric polarisability, sources of polarisability- theory of electronic, ionic and orientation. Dielectric loses ,piezo,pyro and ferroelectric properties of crystals,ferroelectricity,ferroelectric domains, anti ferroelectricity and ferrielectricity. Unit V Magnetic properties of Materials Classification of magnetic materials, Atomic theory of magnetism-Hunds rules , orign of permanent magnetic moments,langevins theory of dia and paramagnetism. Quantum theory and formulation of magnetic susceptibility for dia and paramagnetism. Pauli paramagnetism, cooling by adiabatic demagnetization.Ferro magnetism- wiess molecular field,ferromagnetic domains,domain theory ,anti ferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism. Books: 1. Solid State physics - M.A.Wahab Narosa Publishing House 2. Elements of Solid State physics- J.P. Srivastava PHI 2nd Ed. 3. Elementary of Solid State physics-M.Ali Omar -Pearson Education 4. Introduction to Solid state physics - C. Kittel Wiely Pub 5. Solid state physics - A.J.Dekker (Macmillan India Ltd) 6. Solid state physics- N. Ashcroft and D. Mermin 7. Solid state physics - S.O.Pollai With effect from 2012-2013 Page 11 M.Sc. (Physics) II-Semester SPRPH 203: Electronic circuits and Instrumentation Unit-I BJT and FET amplifiers Bipolar Junction Transistor: configurations, Biasing, BJT as an amplifier, BJT characteristics, Frequency response of BJT, Applications of Transistor. Field Effect Transistor: Construction and characteristics, Biasing, FET as an amplifier and Applications of FET. MOSFET: Introduction, Depletion and Enhancement type MOSFETs. Feedback concepts: Practical feedback circuits, Feedback amplifiers, Oscillator operation, types of oscillators. Unit-II Operational amplifiers Op-amp basics, parameters, Differential and common mode operation, practical opamp circuits Op-amp Applications-Constant gain multiplier, Voltage to Current Converter, Current to Voltage Converter, Instrumentation Amplifier, Active filters, Oscillators, Logarithmic and Anti Logarithmic Amplifiers, Compactors. Unit-III Combinatorial logic circuits Simplification of Boolean expressions: Algebraic method, EX-OR, EX-NOR gates, Encoders and Decoders, Multiplexers and Demultiplexers. Digital arithmetic operations and circuits: Binary addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Design of adders and subtractors, Parallel binary adder. Applications of Boolean algebra: Magnitude comparator, Code converters, ALU design. Unit IV Electronics Instruments: Electronics voltmeter, Transistor voltmeter, CRO’s study of various stages in brief, measurement of inductance, capacitance, effective resistance at high frequency, Q meters, LCR meter. Signal generators, function generator, wave analyzer, harmonic distortion analyzer, spectrum analyzer, spectrum analysis. Unit V Bio-Medical Instrumentation: Origin of Bio-potentials: Electric activity of excitable cells, Neuron resting potential, ECG, EEG, EMG, Cardio Vascular measurement: Measurement of blood pressure, cardiac output measurement-Indicator dilution method, Impedance technique and ultrasound method. Spectrophotometer type instruments. Books: 1. Electronic devices and circuit theory- R.Boylestad nd L.Nashelsky 2. Electronic Principles- A.P.Malvino 3. Digital system Design- Morris Mano 4. Electrical and Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation- A.K.Sawhney 5. Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques- D.Copper 6. Hand book of Biomedical .Instrumentation - R.S.Khandpur TMH With effect from 2012-2013 Page 12 M.Sc. (Physics) II-Semester SPRPH 204: Modern Physics Unit I Molecular Physics: Electromagnetic Spectrum, Molecular energies, Classification of molecules, Rotational, vibrational and vibrational-rotational spectra of diatomic molecules, Characteristic group absorptions, IR spectrometer, Electronic Spectra, Frank Condon principle, Raman scattering-classical and quantum theories, vibrational and rotational Raman spectra. NMR spectra-principle, spectrometer, chemical shifts and Applications. ESR spectra-principle, spectrometer, hyperfine interaction and Applications. Unit II Atomic Physics: Hydrogen atom-spectrum, Orbital angular momentum, Larmor precession, Stern and Gerlach experiment, Electron spin, Vector atom model, Spin - orbit interaction and fine structure, Pauli’s exclusion principle and electronic configuration, Total angular momentum in many electron atoms, Energy levels and transitions in Helium atom, Normal and anomalous Zeeman effect. Unit III Fiber Optics and Holography: Basic Characteristics of optical fiber, Ray and modal analysis of single and multimode fibers (Step index and graded index), Graded Index fiber, Single and Multimode fibers, material dispersion , Fiber losses. Coupling polarization and Optical communication, Fiber optics sensors and application Holography- Description, types and applications. Unit IV Lasers Physics: Absorption and Emission, Einstein coefficients, Population inversion, Laser system, Pumping methods, Laser cavity configurations, Mode structure, Types of lasers-Ruby, Nd-Yag, He- Ne, CO2 laser, Dye laser and semiconductor lasers. Characteristics of Laser radiation. Rate equations: Three – Level System and Four level System Unit V Cosmology: Expanding Universe, Discovery of expanding universe, future of universe and critical density, Early universe and back ground black body radiation, Experimental discovery of black body radiation , Relation between time and temperature of expanding universe. Hertzsprung –Russel diagram, Surface phenomena on sun, White dwarfs and black dwarfs and Chandrasekhar limit. With effect from 2012-2013 Page 13 Books: 1. Principles of Modern Physics A.K.Saxena 2nd Ed. Narosa Publishing 2. Modern Physics - G.Aruldas P.rajgopal PHI 3. Modern Physics-H.S Mani & G.K Mehta EEE Edition 4. Concepts of Modern Physics -.Bieser 6th Edition TMH 5. Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy- C.N.Banwell and E.M Cash TMH 4th Ed. 6. LASERS: Theory and Applications- K.Thyagarajan and A.K.Ghatak 7. Optical Fibre Communications G.E.Kieser Mc.Graw Hill 2nd Ed. 8. Modern Physics Jeremy Bernstein,Paul M.Fishnabe and Stephen Gasiorowicz Pearson Ed. With effect from 2012-2013 Page 14 M.Sc. (Physics) II-Semester SPRPH 211: Material Science Lab List of Experiments 1. Diode Laser 2. Determination of Planck Constant 3. Electron Spin Resonance 4. Study of depletion capacitance and its variation in Reverse Bias 5. Forbidden energy Gap of semiconductor Si. 6. Hall Effect 7. Study of Raman Spectra 8. Optical Fibre –Determination of Numerical Aperture 9. Determination of Wavelength of He-Ne using metal scale 10. Study of Aluminum spectra With effect from 2012-2013 Page 15 M.Sc. (Physics) II-Semester SPRPH 212: Electronics Lab List of Experiments 1. Negative feedback amplifier 2. Monostable multivibrator 3. Op-amp- Integrator, Differentiator and Summing Amplifier 4. RC Phase shift oscillator 5. Wein-bridge oscillator 6. Decade counter using IC 7490 7. Encoder and Decoder 8. Multiplexer and De-multiplexer 9. Binary up-down counter (74193) 10. ALU (74181) With effect from 2012-2013 Page 16 M.Sc. (Physics) II-Semester SPRPH 213: Viva Voce With effect from 2012-2013 Page 17 M.Sc. (Physics) III-Semester SPRPH 301: Introduction to Nano Physics Unit I Physics of Solids Energy bands n solids, crystal momentum, concept of effective mass, concept of holes, Sommerfeld’s Electron theory of metals, density of states, Fermi surfaces, fermisurface and brillouin zones, phonons, zero, one and two phonon scattering,x-ray measurements of phonon spectra, imperfections in crystals, point defect, polarons, excitons, dislocations and surface defects. Unit II Fundamentals of Nanoscience Historical background, Nanotechnology and Nanoscience, tools and techniques, Significance of Nanoscale quantum confinement, size dependent properties, length scales, Quantum size effect in Nanoparticles, Nano clusters types of nanomaterials, fullerenes, nanowires, nanotubes, thinfilm and applications of nanotechnology. Unit III Synthesis of Nanomaterials Physical methods, mechanical – ball milling, melt mixing, evaporation, ion sputtering, laser ablation, laser pyrolysis, Physical Layer Deposition chemical vapour deposition, molecular beam epitaxy. Chemical methods: sol-gel technique, precipitation method and combustion synthesis, colloidal synthesis & capping of nanomaterials and hydrothermal synthesis and reverse micelles. Unit IV Properties of Nanoparticles Metal nanoclusters-magic numbers theoretical modeling, geometric structure, electronic structure,reactivivity,fluctuations,magnetic clusters, transition from bulk to nano materials.Semiconducting Nano particles-optical properties, photofragmentation and coulombic explosion. Electrical, mechanical, chemical, thermal and elastic properties of carbon nanotubes. Unit V Methods and Measuring Properties Introduction, structure-atomic structure,crystallography,particle size determination and surface structures. Microscopy-Transmission Electron Microscopy, Field ion microscopy and scanning microscopy. Scanning Transmission electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy. Diffraction techniques–X-ray diffraction, Intensities in xray scattering and particle size effects. With effect from 2012-2013 Page 18 Books 1. Principles of Modern Physics 2nd Edition Narosa publishing House 2. Introduction to nanotechnology Charles P. Poole and Frank.J.Owens Wiely Publishers 3. Nano –The Essentials T.Pradeep Mc.Graw Hill Education 4. Nanotechnology: Principles & Practices: S.K. Kulkarni, Capital Publ. Co.New Delhi 5. Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications Alan S. Edelstein, Robert C. Cammarata Institute of Physics Pub., 1998 With effect from 2012-2013 Page 19 M.Sc. (Physics) III-Semester SPRPH 302: Nuclear Physics Unit - I General properties of Nuclei: Introduction- Scattering of α-particles – Experimental verification – Nuclear size – Theories of nuclear composition: a) proton-electron theory b) proton neutron theory c) neutron-positron theory d) anti proton-neutron theory – Binding energy – semi empirical massformula and applications – Quantum numbers for individual nucleons – Quantum properties of nuclear states: i) Nuclear energy levels ii) Nuclear angular momentum iii) parity iv) Iso-spin – nuclear magnetic dipole moment. Unit – II Nuclear reactions: Introduction, kinds of nuclear reactions, conservation laws, nuclear reaction kinematics, charged particle reaction spectroscopy, neutron spectroscopy, nuclear cross section, compound nucleus, nuclear transmissions, transmutations by α, protons, neutrons, deuterons, and by radiation – nuclear reactions with heavy ions – nuclear reaction cross section – different stages of nuclear reactions – statistical theory. Unit – III Interaction of radiation with matter: Introduction, cross-section, interaction of fast heavy charged particles and matter, energy loss and range of electrons in matter, interaction of gamma rays with matter – photo electric effect, the Compton effect, pair production, polarization effects of the medium and cernkov radiation, synchrotron radiation, interaction of neutron with Unit – IV Detection of nuclear radiation: Introduction, gas filled detectors, ionization chamber, proportional counter, GM counter, semiconductor detectors, semiconductor junction detectors, lithium drifted germanium (Ge(Li)) and silicon (Si(Li)) detectors, scintillation counters, Cerenkov counter, photographic emulsion, cloud chamber, bubble chamber Unit – V Nuclear Fission and Fusion: Fission – introduction – types of fission – a) thermal fission, b) fast fission c) charged particle fission d) photo fission (qualitative only) – distribution of fission products – neutron emission in fission – fissile and fertile materials – spontaneous fission – liquid drop model. Fusion – plasma – fusion reactions – energy balance – cross section of reaction rates – critical temperature. References: 1. Nuclear and Particle Physics – SL Kakani 2. Atomic Nucleus – RD Evans 3. Introduction of Nuclear Physics – Harald A Enge 4. Introductory Nuclear Physics – Kenneth S Krane 5. Nuclear Physics – Irving Kaplan 6. Nuclear Physics – DC Tayal 7. Fundamentals of Nuclear Physics – Srivasthava With effect from 2012-2013 Page 20 M.Sc. (Physics) III-Semester SPRPH 303: Advanced Quantum Mechanics Unit I Spherically symmetric Potentials Particle moving in spherically symmetric potential, system of two interacting particles, rigid rotator, hydrogen atom, hydrogen orbital’s, free particle ,three dimensional square well potential and deuteron. Abstract operator method-Ladder operators,eigen value spectrum ,eigen functions and coherent states. Unit II Approximate methods WKB Approximation, its validity, Barrier penetration, Alpha emission and bound states in Potential well and Bohr –sommerfeld quantum condition Perturbation theory for time evolution problems- Scattering of particle by potential ,inelastic scattering-exchange effects, harmonic perturbation, Interaction of atom in electromagnetic field, Absorption and emission of radiation-electromagnetic field, Hamiltonian operator and electric dipole approximation. Unit III Identical particles and Many Electron Atoms Indistinguishibility and state vector space for identical particles, Creation and annihilation operators and its algebra , its symmetries, Pauli,s exclusion principle, spin of two and three electrons, Helium atom ,ortho and para helium and scattering matrix .Many Electro atomsCentral field approximation, Thomas –Fermi model of atom, Hartee equation and Hartee – Fock Equation. Unit IV Relativistic Wave Equations Introduction-Generalization of Schrödinger equation, Klein –Gordan Equation- its interpretation, Plane wave solutions, Charge and current densities,Interaction with electromagnetic field and Non relativistic limit. Dirac Equation- Relativistic Hamiltonian, Position probability density, Dirac matrices, Plane wave solutions, Spin of dirac particle, Negative energy states, Magnetic Moment of electron, Spin orbit interaction , Radial equation of electron in Central potential and Hydrogen atom. Unit V Quantisation of fields Introduction, Classical approach to field theory,Relativistic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian of charged particle in electromagnetic field .Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations Quantum equation ,second quantization,Quantisation of non relativistic schrodinger equation, Klein – Gordan equation and Dirac field. Books: 1. A text book of Quantum Mechanics- P.Mathews and K.Venkatesan 2. Quantum Mechanics G.Aruldas 3. Quantum Mechanics Srivastava 4. Modern Quantum Mechanics- J.J.Sakurai 5. Quantum Mechanics- V.K.Thankappan 6. Quantum Mechanics- E.Merzbacher 7. Advanced quantum Mechanics- Satya Prakash 8. Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics R.D.Ratna Raju With effect from 2012-2013 Page 21 M.Sc. (Physics) III-Semester SPRPH 304: Physics of Semiconductor Devices Unit I Electronics in solids: Energy bands: insulator, metal semiconductor, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor, direct and on-direct semiconductor, Fermi level variation in semiconductor, temperature dependence of carrier concentration, carrier dynamics in semiconductors, carrier transport by drift and diffusion scattering low field response, high field transport, impact ionization, band to band tunneling charge injection and quasi Fermi levels. Unit II Bipolar Transistors: BJT static performance parameters: Emitter injection efficiency, base transport factor, collector efficiency and current gain, Transient response: Cutoff saturation, the switching cycle, frequency limitations of transistors, secondary effects in real devices: Early effect and punch through thermal effects, current crowding effect, high injection and Krik effect. Unit III Field effect transistors: MOS device: MOS as capacitor, oxide and interface trapped charge, V-I characteristics, depletion and enhancement MOSFET, complementary MOSFET, important issues in real devices: short channel effects, substrate bias, effects, latch-up sub threshold characteristics, leakage currents, charge transfer device the basic principle applications. Unit IV Microwave and Photonic devices: Tunnel diode, IMPATT and Gunn diode, varactor diode, characteristics of microwave transistor, tunnel transistor, LED and LCD photo detectors, solar cells, semiconductor lasers Unit V Integrated circuits: Evolution of ICs: Small Scale Integration , Meduim Scale Integration , Low Scale Integration , Very Large Scale Integration, monolithic and hybrid circuits, monolithic IC process: crystal growth, wafer preparation, metallization testing, bonding and packaging. Books: 1. 2. 3. 4. Solid state electronic devices by Ben. G. Streetman and S. Banerjee Semiconductor devices- Basic principles by Jasprit Singh (John Wiely) Physics of semiconducting devices by S.M.Sze Physics of Semiconductor devices - Tyagi With effect from 2012-2013 Page 22 M.Sc. (Physics) III-Semester SPRPH 311: Modern Physics Lab List of Experiments 1. Study of atomic spectrum of Zinc spectra 2. Rigidity modulus-Internal friction 3. B-H Curve- Determination of Curie temperature 4. Thermo EMF 5. Constant Deviation Spectrograph - Absorption spectrum 6. Study of band gap and potential of P-N Junction 7. Lattice dynamics-Study of dispersive relations of mono atomic lattice 8. Forbidden energy Gap of semiconductor Ge. 9. Resistivity of semiconductor- Four Probe method 10. Ultrasonic Interferometer With effect from 2012-2013 Page 23 M.Sc. (Physics) III-Semester SPRPH 312: Nuclear Physics Lab List of Experiments 1. Plateau Characteristics 2. Intensity variation of radiation 3. Plateau Characteristics Same source different distance 4. Inverse square law for gamma radiation 5. Absorption Coefficient of material 6. Statistical Aspects of Radiation 7. Beta back scattering factor 8. Gamma ray Spectrometer Energy resolution characteristics 9. Resolving time of a G.M. Tube by two source method 10. Determination of Dead time With effect from 2012-2013 Page 24 M.Sc. (Physics) III-Semester SPRPH 313: Viva Voce With effect from 2012-2013 Page 25 M.Sc. (Physics) IV-Semester SPRPH 401: Experimental Techniques Unit I Nuclear Techniques Unusual advantages in nuclear experimentation, Detectors for Energetic Charged particles. Energy measurements and identifications. Scintillation Detectors-mechanism in organic and inorganic crystal scintillations, Scintillation Response, time characteristics of scintillation output and energy resolution, Inorganic and organic scintillators. Photo and Electron multipliers, Measurement with Scintillation detectors –Gamma ray spectroscopy with Nal(Tl),fast time coincidence measurements. Unit II Spectroscopic methods UV Visible molecular absorption spectrometer – Beer Lamberts law and interpretation. Infrared spectroscopy-instrumentation and interpretation of vibrational spectra sample handling techniques. Raman scattering – spectrometer and sample handling techniques. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance – Instrumentation, chemical shift, spectra of solids, and interpretation. Electron Microscopes- SEM, TEM and AFM with principle and instrumentation. Unit III Elemental Semiconductors Charge carrier density, doping, carrier densities, conductivity with hetero structures and super lattice. Binary compounds, Oxides, Layered, organic and magnetic semiconductors. Growth techniques- Czochralski , Bridgeman methods ,Chemical vapor decomposition method, Molecular beam epitaxy, Fabrication of self organized quantum dots by stranski-krastanow growth method and liquid phase epitaxy. Unit IV Telescopes and Instrumentations Different optical configuration for astronomical telescope plate scale and diffraction Limits-telescopes for ã-ray, X-ray, UV, IR, mm and radio astronomy- photometry with Photometers and CCD- spectrometry and polarimetry with various instruments. Unit V Optical Properties of Nanomaterials Optical properties –refractive index, (linear and Non linear), absorption coefficient Special properties-Accidental anisotropy, birefringence, electro optic effect, acousto optic effect. Colored glasses- absorption, color centers.Colour due to dispersed particles, Luminescent glasses. With effect from 2012-2013 Page 26 Reference Books 1. Nuclear radiation Detectors- V.S.Ramamoorthy and S.S.Kapur 2. Cohen, concepts of Nuclear Physics, Tata McGraw Hill 3. Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy Colin Banwell, Elaine McCash 4th Ed.TMH 4. Molecular Structure And Spectroscopy G.Aruldas Phi 2nd Ed. 5. Fundamentals of semiconductors-Physics and Materials properties Peter Y.Yu and Manuel Cardona 3rd Edition Springer 6. Solid state Physics - Introduction to Principles of Materials Science H.Ibach and H.Luth 3rd Edition Springer 7. Astrophysics –K.S Krishnaswamy (CUP) 8. Astrophysics-Baidyanath Basu, Prentical Hall 9. Introduction to Nano technology Charles P. Poole Jr. and Frank J. Owens Wiely 10. Nano Materials A.k.Bandhopadhya 2nd Edition New Age Intl. Publishers With effect from 2012-2013 Page 27 M.Sc. (Physics) IV-Semester Elective -1 SPRPH 421: Nuclear Techniques Unit I Radiation and Detectors: Interaction of gamma rays, electronics, heavy charged particles and neutrons with matter, production of radio nuclides and measurement of strength of radioactive sources, radiation exposure, absorbed does, biological effects, radiation protection, shielding, safety aspects; study of detectors and counting systems 1) ionization chamber 2) proportional counter 3) GM counter 4) scintillation detector 5) semiconductor detector (energy transfer mechanism, energy deposited, mode of detection, energy resolution). Unit II Pulse processing and Life time: Charge sensitive and voltage sensitive pre-amplifiers pulse shaping techniques, base line restoration, pulse height discriminators, analog to digital converters (ADC), multi channel analyzers; Measurement of life times of nuclear excited states covering ranges from a few Pico seconds to thousands of years using techniques like delayed coincidence, recoil distance, line shifts, Doppler shift attenuation, activity measurement. Unit III Coincidence measurements: Slow fast coincidence arrangements for measurement of coincidence between radiation, prompt and chance coincidences. Energy and time coincidence measurements. Double coincidence methods: ROSSI, Bothe coincidence circuits, Sum coincidence technique, AntiCompton gamma ray spectrometry- Principles of life time measurements. Unit IV Neutron activation analysis: Neutron sources; neutron induced reaction cross sections, Neutron activation analysis, sensitivity and detection limit, Different methods of NAA, standardization methods of NAA, Advantages and limitations of NAA. Radio chemical methods in elemental analysis; trace element analysis. NAA applications in environment , archeology and forensic studies. Unit V X- Ray fluorescence: Principles of XRF. X – Ray production, instrumentation and techniques. Fluorescence yield. Types of sources for XRF studies Applications of XRF. Fundamentals of PIXE and PIGE and their applications. Text books and references: 1. Nuclear radiation detectors – SS Kapoor and VS Ramamurthy 2. Radiation detection and measurement – G F Knoll 3. Techniques for nuclear and particle physics experiments – W R Leo 4. Nuclear condensed matter physics – nuclear methods and applications – Gunter Schatz and Alois Weidinger: John Wiley & sons 5. Source book on Atomic energy – Samuel Glasstone, Affiliated East-West Press pvt.Ltd 6. Introduction to Experimental Nuclear Physics- R.M.Singru, Wiley eastern private ltd. 7. Fundamentals of Radiochemistry- D.D.Sood, A.V.R. Reddy and N. Ramamoorthy, 2nd Ed. IANCAS publication, BARC. . With effect from 2012-2013 Page 28 M.Sc. (Physics) IV-Semester Elective -2 SPRPH 422: Materials Science Unit 1 Crystal and Amorphous Physics Introduction, crystal symmetry, simple crystal structures, polymorphism and allotropy, crystal directions and imperfections, structure determination by XRD ,Xray diffractional methods. Crystalline vs amorphous solids, Glass formation, preparation techniques and structure models. Unit 2 Modern Engineering Materials Introduction, metallic glasses as transformer core, nanophase materials, shape memory alloys ceramics , Biomaterials, Polymers -Classification of polymers,structure property correlation, molecular weight, crystallinity in polymers,mechanical properties, Applications Unit 3 Modern techniques for Materials studies Optical Microscopy, Electron Microscope, Chemical analysis using atomic absorption spectroscopy(AAS), photon electron spectroscopy(PES),Magnetic resonance, Mossbauer spectroscopy and Non destructive testing(NDT). Unit 4 Materials for Space Applications Space programme, Structural materials and their properties, system requirements, extreme high temperature materials, materials for thermal protection, pressure vessels lubrication and electronic components Unit 5 Materials and World No ceramics age- Ceramics and civilization,types of pottery,shaping and decoration of pottery,science behind pottery, history of glass making, scientific aspects of glass making,cement,concrete and plaster, high tech ceramics.Natural fibers-History and classification, production and properties of fibres,properties of synthetic polymers, composite materials and advanced fabrics. Reference Books 1. Science of Engineering Materials C.M.Srivastava & C.Srinivasan New Age Intl Publishers 2. Understanding Material Science 2nd Edition Rolf E.Hummel Springer 3. Material Science M.Armugam Anuradha Publishers 4. Material Science M.S.Vijaya and G.Rangarajan,TMH 5. Material Science P.K.Palanisamy Scitech Publications With effect from 2012-2013 Page 29 M.Sc. (Physics) IV-Semester Elective -3 SPRPH 423: Space Physics UNIT – I: NEUTRAL ATMOSPHERE Structure and Composition Nomenclature-Thermal structure of the atmosphere. Hydrostatic equation of the atmospheric structure. Scale height and geopotential height. Exosphere.. Atmospheric composition. Dissociation and diffusive separation and thermospheric composition. Heat balance and temperature profile of thermosphere.. UNIT – II: Chemical concepts in Atmosphere Thermodynamic considerations – Enthalpy . Elementary chemical kinetics- Reaction rate constants and chemical life time of species. Unimolecular, bimolecular and termolecular reactions. Effect of dynamics on chemical species. UNIT – III: IONIZED ATMOSPHERE Photochemical processes in the ionosphere Introduction to ionosphere – discovery. Continuity equation and photochemical equilibrium. Theory of photo-ionization and Chapman production function. Chemical recombination and electron density. Solar radiation and production of ionospheric layers. UNIT – IV: Loss reactions Different types of recombination processes. Chemistry of E and F1 regions. D region balance equations. D region chemistry – formation of water cluster ions. Electron attachment and negative ions. Positive and negative ion schemes of D region. Linear and square law loss formulae and splitting of F layer. Vertical transport, ambipolar diffusion and F2 peak. Diffusion between ionosphere and protonosphere.. Airglow. UNIT – V: Morphology Geographical and temporal structure of the ionosphere – Diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle variations of D, E and F regions and F region anomalies. Solar flare effects Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SIDs) BOOKS 1.”Introduction to Ionospheric Physics” by H.Rishbeth & O.K.Garriott 2.”Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere” by Guy Brasseur & S.Solomon. With effect from 2012-2013 Page 30 3.”Upper Atmosphere and Solar Terrestrial Relations” by J.K.Hargreaves M.Sc. (Physics) IV-Semester Elective -4 SPRPH 424: Communication Electronics Unit-I Amplitude Modulation Sinusoidal A.M: Modulation Index, Frequency spectrum, Average Power. BJT Collector modulator, A.M Broadcast Transmitter and Super heterodyne receiver Output S/N ratio. DSBSC modulation, balanced modulators, QAM, VSB, SSB modulation: SSB generation and reception. ISB, FDM, Output S/N ratio in SSB. Unit-II Angle modulation Sinusoidal F.M: Modulation Index, Frequency spectrum, Average Power, Deviation ratio. Phase Modulation, equivalence between PM and FM. Modulator circuitsvaractor diode, JFET. FM Transmission-Direct and Indirect methods. FM DetectionSlope detector, balanced double tuned detector, Foster-Seeley discriminator and PLL detector. Amplitude limiter, Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis, FM broadcast receiver, FM stereo broadcast transmitter and receiver, wide and narrow band FM. Noise in FM. Unit-III Pulse Modulation Digital line wave forms: symbols, bits ans bauds, functional notation for pulses, line codes and wave forms, unipolar -NRZ – RZ, Polar line codes, M – array encoding, ISI and pulse shaping, HDB Signaling. Pulse Modulations- Generation and Detection of PAM, TDM, PWM, PPM. Unit-IV Sampling and Pulse code modulation Sampling Theorem, Signal reconstruction, Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Quantization, Non-uniform Quantization, T1 carrier system, Differential PCM, Analysis, SNR Improvement, Delta modulation, Adaptive Delta modulation, Output SNR, Comparison with PCM. Digital carrier systems-ASK, PSK, FSK, DPSK, Digital signal transmission using QAM, Digital multiplexing, Eye patterns. Unit-IV Optical Fiber Communication Introduction, Historical back ground, Advantages and Applications of optical fiber communication. Nature of light, basic optical laws and definitions, fiber modes and configurations, scattering, bending, core and cladding losses. Optical sources and detectors. Optcal receivers-receiver operation, analog and digital receivers, wavelength division multiplexing, fiber connectors, measurement of attenuation and dispersion. Books: 1. Electronic Communications- Dennis Roddy and John Collins 2. Modern Digital and Analog Communication System - B.P.Lathi 3. Principles of Communication System – H.Taub and D.Schilling 4. Optical Fiber Communication – Gerd Keiser / John M.Senior With effect from 2012-2013 Page 31 5. Fiber Optical Communication – D.C. Agrawal M.Sc. (Physics) IV-Semester SPRPH 411: Experimental Physics Lab List of Experiments 1. Ultrasonic velocity of liquids by diffraction method 2. Optical Fibre -Bending Losses 3. Study of ASK and PSK 4. Plateau Characteristics of different sources same distance 5. Study of dispersive relations of Di atomic lattice 6. Measurement of Susceptibility of liquid/solution – Quick’s tube 7. Dielectric Constant 8. Study of Amplitude Modulation 9. Study of Pulse Width Modulation 10. Study of Frequency Modulation With effect from 2012-2013 Page 32 M.Sc. (Physics) IV-Semester SPRPH 412: Project with Seminar With effect from 2012-2013 Page 33 M.Sc. (Physics) IV-Semester SPRPH 413: Viva Voce With effect from 2012-2013 Page 34

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