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Department of Electronics/Physics
GITAM Institute of Science
GITAM University
Two Year M.Sc. Physics
Scheme of Instruction & Syllabus
FIRST SEMESTER
Course Code
Subject Name
Theory
Mathematical methods of
SPRPH 101
Physics
Classical Mechanics
SPRPH 102
Electromagnetic Theory
SPRPH 103
Quantum Mechanics
SPRPH 104
Labs
General Physics
SPRPH 111
C-Programming
SPRPH 112
Viva Voce
SPRPH 113
Total
SECOND SEMESTER
Course Code
Subject Name
Theory
Statistical mechanics
SPRPH 201
Fundamentals of solid state
SPRPH 202
physics
Electronic
circuits
and
SPRPH 203
Instrumentation
Modern Physics
SPRPH 204
Labs
Material Science
SPRPH 211
Electronics
SPRPH 212
Viva Voce
SPRPH 213
Total
With effect from 2012-2013
L/w
4
Marks
CIA
SEE
30
70
Credits
Total
100
4
4
4
4
30
30
30
70
70
70
100
100
100
4
4
4
6
6
0
30
30
0
70
70
50
100
100
50
650
2
2
1
21
L/w
Marks
CIA SEE
30
70
30
70
4
4
Credits
Total
100
100
4
4
4
30
70
100
4
4
30
70
100
4
6
6
0
30
30
0
70
70
50
100
100
50
650
2
2
1
21
Page 1
THIRD SEMESTER
Course Code
Subject Name
Theory
Introduction to Nano Science
SPRPH 301
Nuclear Physics
SPRPH 302
Advanced
Quantum
SPRPH 303
Mechanics
Physics of Semiconductor
SPRPH 304
Devices
Labs
Modern Physics
SPRPH 311
Nuclear Physics
SPRPH 312
Viva Voce
SPRPH 313
Total
FOURTH SEMESTER
Course Code
Subject Name
Theory
Experimental Techniques
SPRPH 401
Elective:
Nuclear Techniques
SPRPH 421
or
Material Science
SPRPH 422
or
Space Physics
SPRPH 423
or
Communication Electronics
SPRPH 424
Labs
SPRPH 411
SPRPH 412
SPRPH 413
Total
Experimental Physics Lab
Project with seminar
Viva Voce
L/w
4
4
4
Marks
CIA SEE
30
70
30
70
30
70
Credits
Total
100
100
100
4
4
4
4
30
70
100
4
6
6
0
30
30
0
70
70
50
100
100
50
650
2
2
1
21
L/w
4
4
6
0
0
Marks
CIA SEE
30
70
30
70
30
150
0
70
50
50
Credits
Total
100
100
4
4
100
200
50
550
2
6
1
17
L/w: Lectures per week
CIA: Continuous Internal Assessment
SEE: Semester End Examination
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 2
M.Sc. (Physics) I-Semester
SPRPH 101: Mathematical Methods of Physics
Unit-I
Numerical Techniques
Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations: the iteration method and the
Newton – Raphson method. Interpolation: forward and backward differences.
Newton’s formula for interpolation, Lagrange’s interpolation formula.
Solution of linear equations : Gaussian elimination method eigen value problem.
Numerical solutions of differential equations: Euler’s method, Runge-Kutta Method
Unit-II
Complex analysis:
Analytic function, CR equations, Elementary functions of complex variable, Harmonic
functions, Complex Line integral, Cauchy Integral theorem, Cauchy Integral formula, Taylor
and Laurent series, Cauchy’s residue theorem, Evaluation of real integrals by contour
Integration
Unit-III
Power series and Fourier series:
Legendre, Hermite, Lagaurre and Bessel –differential equations and solution, Recursion
formula, Generating function, Recurrence relations and orthogonal properties
Fourier series:
Determination of Fourier coefficients- Fourier series even and odd functions, Fourier series in
arbitrary interval, Half range Fourier sine and cosine expansions.
Unit-IV
Laplace Transforms:
Introduction,laplace transform,laplace transform of some standard functions,properties of
laplace transform,Evaluation of integral using laplace transform,laplace transform of periodic
functions,Inverse laplace transforms,application of laplace transform to differential equations
with constant coefficients and applications to simultaneous differential equations.
Unit-V
Matrices:
Introduction, Matrix, Definitions associated with matrices, adjoint of square matrix, reciprocal
of matrix, Elementary transformations, rank of matrix, Non homogenous and homogenous
linear equations, Linear dependence and independence of vectors, Eigen values and Eigen
vectors ,Caley Hamilton theorem, minimal polynomial and equation of matrix ,Function of
square matrix and similarity of matrices.
Reference Books:
1. Engineering Mathematics- E.Kreyszig Wiely Publishers
2. Mathematical Physics- B.D. Gupta Vikas Publishers
3. Engineering Mathematics- Ravish R Singh ,Mukul Bhatt TMH
4. Numerical Analysis B.N. Vedamurthy Vikas publishing House
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 3
M.Sc. (Physics) I-Semester
SPRPH 102: Classical Mechanics
Unit-I
The Lagrangian Formalism:
Constraints, D-Alembert's Principle, Generalized.coordinates,Lagrangian, Lagrange's
equation and its applications, Velocity dependant potential in Lagaragian formulation,
Generalized momentum, Legendre transformations, Hamiltonian, Hamilton's equation
of motion, Cyclic Coordinates and conservation theorems. The principle of least
action, Derivation of Hamilton’s equation from a variational principle
Unit-II
Hamiltonian’s Formalism:
Hamilton’s principle, some techniques of the calculus of variations, Applications to
variational principle, Derivation of Lagrange’s equations from Hamilton’s principle,
Lagrange’s equation fro non-holonomic principle, conservation theorems.
Unit-III
Rigid body dynamics:
Independent coordinates of rigid body, The Euler angles, Eule’s theorem, Tensors,
The inertia tensor and the moment of inertia, the eigen values of the inertia tensor,
equations of motion of a rigid body, Euler’s equations, free rotation and precession of
a symmetrical top.
Unit-IV
Canonical transformation:
Equations of canonical transformation, Examples of canonical transformations,
Poisson brackets and invariants, Equation of motion, infinitesimal canonical
transformations, and Conservation theorems in Poisson bracket formulation.
Unit-V
Hamilton-Jacobi theory:
The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for Hamilton’s principal function, the harmonic
oscillator problem, The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for Hamilton’s characteristic
function, Separation of variables in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, Action-angle
variables, Kepler problem in action-angle variables.
Books:
1. Classical Mechanics- H.Goldstein Narosa Publishing House
2. Introduction to Classical Mechanics- Takwale Puranik TMH
3. Classical Mechanics- J.C.Upadhaya Himalaya Publisher
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 4
M.Sc. (Physics) I-Semester
SPRPH 103: Electromagnetic Theory
Unit-I
Electrostatics:
Electric field-Introduction, Coulomb law, Electric field, Continuous charge distribution,
Divergence and curl of Electrostatic fields-field lines, flux, Gauss law, Divergence of E,
Applications of Gauss’s law, curl of E. Electric Potential-Introduction to potential, Poissoins
and Laplace equation, Potential of localized charge distribution, Work and Energy in
Electrostatics, Work done on moving charge, Energy of point and continuous charge
distribution, Conductors: Basic properties, Induced charges, surface charge and force on
conductor.
Unit-II
Magnetostatics:
Lorentz force law , Magnetic fields, Magnetic forces, currents, Biot - Savarts law-Steady
currents, magnetic field of steady current, Divergence and curl of B –Straight line currents,
Applications of amperes law ,Magnetic vector potential-vector potential
Unit-III
Electrodynamics:
Electromotive force-ohm’s law, EMF, Motional EMF Electromagnetic induction –Faraday
laws, Induced electric field, Inductance, Energy in magnetic fields. Maxwell equationsmagnetic charge, Maxwell equations in matter, Charge and Energy equation, Pointing
theorem.
Unit-IV
Electromagnetic waves:
Waves in one dimension-wave equation, sinusoidal waves, Boundary conditions polarization
Electromagnetic waves in vacuum-wave equation for E and B, Monochromatic plane waves,
energy and momentum in EM waves The Potential formulation-scalar and vector potential,
guage transformations, coulomb and Lorentz guage transformations
Unit-V
Electric and Magnetic field in matter, Polarization- Dielectrics, Induced dipoles, alignment of
polar molecules, polarization Electric Displacement-Gauss law in dielectrics MagnetisationDiamagnets, para, ferromagnets, torques and forces in magnetic dipoles Field of magnetized
object-bound currents and physical interpretation Auxiliary field H-Amperes law in
magnetized materials
Books:
1. Classical Electrodynamics – Griffiths Pearson Edu.
2. Fundamentals of Electromagnetics for Engineering- N.Narayana Rao Pearson Edu 1st Ed.
3. Classical electrodynamics - J.D. Jackson John Wiely
4. Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory –
John R. Reitz, Frederick J. Milford, Robert W. Christy Pearson Edu. 4th Ed.
5. Electricity and Magnetism – A.S.Mahajan & Rangawal TMH
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 5
M.Sc. (Physics) I-Semester
SPRPH 104: Quantum Mechanics
Unit-I
General formalism of wave mechanics:
Linear vector space, Postulates of wave mechanics, Operators and their properties,
Commutator algebra, Bra-Ket vectors and their properties, Dirac-delta function and
Korncker- delta function, Matrix representation, Change of basis, uncertainty relation,
momentum representation and equation of motion.
Unit-II
Schrödinger’s wave equation and its applications:
Time dependent and time independent Schrödinger’s wave equation, Admissibility
conditions of the wave function, Stationary state solution, continuity equation, Ehrenfest’s
theorem, Particle in a box, step potential , Rectangular potential barrier, Square well
potential and harmonic oscillator.
Unit-III
Angular momentum:
Angular momentum operators, Commutation relations, eigen values and eigen functions
of angular momentum operators, General angular momentum, Spin angular momentum,
Pauli’s spin operators and their properties, Addition of angular momenta: ClebschGordon coefficients and its properties.
Unit-IV
Approximation methods:
Time independent perturbation theory: Non-degenerate and degenerate systems and its
applications: Zeeman and Stark effects, Time dependent perturbation theory and its
applications, Variation method: ground state and first excited state of the Helium atom.
Unit-V
Scattering theory:
Scattering differential – cross section, the scattering of wave packet, Born approximation
and its applications, Partial wave analysis method, Expansion of a plane wave in terms of
partial waves, determination of the phase shifts and scattering amplitude, optical theorem
and applications.
Books:
1. A text book of Quantum Mechanics- P.Mathews and K.Venkatesan TMH
2. Quantum Mechanics- E.Merzbacher Wiely Publishers
3. Quantum Mechanics - Leonard Schiff TMH 3rd Edition
4. Modern Quantum Mechanics- J.J.Sakurai. Pearson Edu.
5. Quantum Mechanics-G. Aruldhas PHI.2nd Edition
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 6
M.Sc. (Physics) I-Semester
SPRPH 111: General Physics Lab
List of Experiments
1. Determination of Specific Charge of electron
2. Determination of Rydberg constant
3. Determination of Boltzmann constant
4. Determination of wavelength of He-Ne Laser by grating
5. Study of Atomic spectrum of Sodium
6. Divergence of Laser beam using He-Ne source
7. Optical Fibre -Characteristics
8. Forbidden energy Gap of LED
9. Franck Hertz Experiment- Existence of discrete states of atom
10. Calibration of Electromagnet
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 7
M.Sc. (Physics) I-Semester
SPRPH 112: C-Programming
List of Experiments
1. Convert a given decimal number into octal number
2. Solve quadratic equation using switch case structure.
3. Check a given integer is Palindrome
4. Check a given integer is a prime number
5. Sort a series of numbers
6. Multiplication of Two matrixes
7. Finding Norm of a matrix using function
8. Finding Numerical Integration using Simpsion’s and Tratezoidal rules.
9. Using pointers copy a string to another string
10. Finding of largest and smallest in a set of numbers.
11. Arranging words in alphabetical order
12. Write functions for ( i) reverse the string ( ii ) converting integer in to string
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 8
M.Sc. (Physics) I-Semester
SPRPH 113: Viva Voce
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 9
M.Sc. (Physics) II-Semester
SPRPH 201: Statistical mechanics
Unit I
Statistical description of systems of particles and their thermodynamics:
Specification of the state of a system, Statistical ensemble, Basic postulates, Probability
calculations, Behavior of the density of states, Thermal interaction, Mechanical interaction,
General interaction, Quasi-state processes, Reversible and irreversible processes, Distribution
of energy between systems in equilibrium, Dependence of the density of states on the external
parameters, Statistical calculation of thermodynamic quantities
Unit II
Interpretation of Ensembles:
Isolated system, System in contact with a heat reservoir, simple application of the canonical
distribution and Grand canonical ensemble, Probability distribution functions, mean energies,
Fluctuations in energy and density in a canonical ensemble and Grand Canonical ensemble,
Connection with thermodynamics.
Unit III
Applications of Statistical mechanics:
Partition functions and their properties, calculation of thermodynamic quantities, Gibbs
paradox, Validity of the classical approximation, specific heats of solids-Dulong and Petits
law, Einstein specific heat theory, Debye specific heat theory , Equipartition theorem, Simple
applications, and General calculation of magnetization.
Unit IV
Quantum Statistics of ideal gases:
Identical particles and symmetry requirements, Formulation of the statistical problems, The
quantum distribution functions, Maxwell-Boltzman statistics, Photon statistics, Bose- Einstein
statistics, Fermi Dirac statistics- Calculation of dispersions, Equation of state for Ideal Bose
and fermi gas, Bose -Einstien condensation, Theory of white dwarf stars ,Quantum statistics
in the classical limit.
Unit V
System of Interacting particles:
Lattice vibrations, Normal modes, Non-ideal classical gas, Calculation of partition functionlow densities, Equation of state, viral coefficients and its evaluation with integrals,
Ferromagnetism-interaction between spins, Weiss molecular field approximation ant high and
low temperatures..
Books:
1. Fundamental Statistical and Thermal physics - F.Reif ,Waveland Pr Inc 4th Ed.
2. Statistical Mechanics - K. Huang Wiely 2nd Ed.
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 10
M.Sc. (Physics) II-Semester
SPRPH 202: Fundamentals of solid sate physics
Unit I
Introduction to Crystals:
Crystal structure, Unitcell, Symmetry operations-translation and point ,crystal types, Indices
of lattice direction and plane,interplanar spacing,density of atoms in crystal plane, Crystal
structures –simplest, CsCl, NaCl, Alkali metals, Diamond and HCP. Reciprocal lattice, Braggs
law,laue interpretation of crystals, Imperfections in Crystal –Point ,line, Burger
vector,dislocation and Surface imperfections.
Unit II
Energy Bands in Solids:
Free electron gas,electrical conductivity,Fermi surface and its effects on electrical
conductivity .failure of free electron model. Energy bands in solids-Bloch theorem ,periodicity
of bloch functions and eigen values, Kronig penney model, nearly free electron model, zone
schemes for energy bands,tight binding approximation, estimation of cohesive energy.Concept
of holes effective mass ,Fermi surfaces construction and de hass-van alphen effect.
Unit III
Lattice Vibrations:
Introduction, Dynamics of chain of identical atoms,diatomic linear chain, Reststrahlen band,
theory of harmonic approximation,Normal modes of real crystals, quantization of lattice
vibration. Classical Lattice heat capacity ,quantum theory of lattice heat capacity-average
thermal energy of harmonic oscillator,Einstein and Debye model and Anharmonic effectsthermal expansion,phonon collision and thermal conductivity
Unit IV
Dielectric Properties of materials:
Polaraisation ,dielectric constant ,local electric field, dielectric constant and its measurement ,
dielectric polarisability, sources of polarisability- theory of electronic, ionic and orientation.
Dielectric loses ,piezo,pyro and ferroelectric properties of crystals,ferroelectricity,ferroelectric
domains, anti ferroelectricity and ferrielectricity.
Unit V
Magnetic properties of Materials
Classification of magnetic materials, Atomic theory of magnetism-Hunds rules , orign
of permanent magnetic moments,langevins theory of dia and paramagnetism.
Quantum theory and formulation of magnetic susceptibility for dia and
paramagnetism. Pauli paramagnetism, cooling by adiabatic demagnetization.Ferro
magnetism- wiess molecular field,ferromagnetic domains,domain theory ,anti
ferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism.
Books:
1. Solid State physics - M.A.Wahab Narosa Publishing House
2. Elements of Solid State physics- J.P. Srivastava PHI 2nd Ed.
3. Elementary of Solid State physics-M.Ali Omar -Pearson Education
4. Introduction to Solid state physics - C. Kittel Wiely Pub
5. Solid state physics - A.J.Dekker (Macmillan India Ltd)
6. Solid state physics- N. Ashcroft and D. Mermin
7. Solid state physics - S.O.Pollai
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 11
M.Sc. (Physics) II-Semester
SPRPH 203: Electronic circuits and Instrumentation
Unit-I
BJT and FET amplifiers
Bipolar Junction Transistor: configurations, Biasing, BJT as an amplifier, BJT
characteristics, Frequency response of BJT, Applications of Transistor. Field Effect
Transistor: Construction and characteristics, Biasing, FET as an amplifier and
Applications of FET. MOSFET: Introduction, Depletion and Enhancement type
MOSFETs. Feedback concepts: Practical feedback circuits, Feedback amplifiers,
Oscillator operation, types of oscillators.
Unit-II
Operational amplifiers
Op-amp basics, parameters, Differential and common mode operation, practical opamp circuits Op-amp Applications-Constant gain multiplier, Voltage to Current
Converter, Current to Voltage Converter, Instrumentation Amplifier, Active filters,
Oscillators, Logarithmic and Anti Logarithmic Amplifiers, Compactors.
Unit-III
Combinatorial logic circuits
Simplification of Boolean expressions: Algebraic method, EX-OR, EX-NOR gates,
Encoders and Decoders, Multiplexers and Demultiplexers. Digital arithmetic
operations and circuits: Binary addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Design of adders and subtractors, Parallel binary adder. Applications of Boolean
algebra: Magnitude comparator, Code converters, ALU design.
Unit IV
Electronics Instruments:
Electronics voltmeter, Transistor voltmeter, CRO’s study of various stages in brief,
measurement of inductance, capacitance, effective resistance at high frequency, Q
meters, LCR meter. Signal generators, function generator, wave analyzer, harmonic
distortion analyzer, spectrum analyzer, spectrum analysis.
Unit V
Bio-Medical Instrumentation:
Origin of Bio-potentials: Electric activity of excitable cells, Neuron resting potential,
ECG, EEG, EMG, Cardio Vascular measurement: Measurement of blood pressure,
cardiac output measurement-Indicator dilution method, Impedance technique and
ultrasound method. Spectrophotometer type instruments.
Books:
1. Electronic devices and circuit theory- R.Boylestad nd L.Nashelsky
2. Electronic Principles- A.P.Malvino
3. Digital system Design- Morris Mano
4. Electrical and Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation- A.K.Sawhney
5. Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques- D.Copper
6. Hand book of Biomedical .Instrumentation - R.S.Khandpur TMH
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 12
M.Sc. (Physics) II-Semester
SPRPH 204: Modern Physics
Unit I
Molecular Physics:
Electromagnetic Spectrum, Molecular energies, Classification of molecules,
Rotational, vibrational and vibrational-rotational spectra of diatomic molecules,
Characteristic group absorptions, IR spectrometer, Electronic Spectra, Frank Condon
principle, Raman scattering-classical and quantum theories, vibrational and rotational
Raman spectra. NMR spectra-principle, spectrometer, chemical shifts and
Applications. ESR spectra-principle, spectrometer, hyperfine interaction and
Applications.
Unit II
Atomic Physics:
Hydrogen atom-spectrum, Orbital angular momentum, Larmor precession, Stern and
Gerlach experiment, Electron spin, Vector atom model, Spin - orbit interaction and
fine structure, Pauli’s exclusion principle and electronic configuration, Total angular
momentum in many electron atoms, Energy levels and transitions in Helium atom,
Normal and anomalous Zeeman effect.
Unit III
Fiber Optics and Holography:
Basic Characteristics of optical fiber, Ray and modal analysis of single and multimode
fibers (Step index and graded index), Graded Index fiber, Single and Multimode
fibers, material dispersion , Fiber losses. Coupling polarization and Optical
communication, Fiber optics sensors and application Holography- Description, types
and applications.
Unit IV
Lasers Physics:
Absorption and Emission, Einstein coefficients, Population inversion, Laser system,
Pumping methods, Laser cavity configurations, Mode structure, Types of lasers-Ruby,
Nd-Yag, He- Ne, CO2 laser, Dye laser and semiconductor lasers. Characteristics of
Laser radiation. Rate equations: Three – Level System and Four level System
Unit V
Cosmology:
Expanding Universe, Discovery of expanding universe, future of universe and critical
density, Early universe and back ground black body radiation, Experimental discovery
of black body radiation , Relation between time and temperature of expanding
universe. Hertzsprung –Russel diagram, Surface phenomena on sun, White dwarfs and
black dwarfs and Chandrasekhar limit.
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 13
Books:
1. Principles of Modern Physics A.K.Saxena 2nd Ed. Narosa Publishing
2. Modern Physics - G.Aruldas P.rajgopal PHI
3. Modern Physics-H.S Mani & G.K Mehta EEE Edition
4. Concepts of Modern Physics -.Bieser 6th Edition TMH
5. Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy- C.N.Banwell and E.M Cash TMH 4th Ed.
6. LASERS: Theory and Applications- K.Thyagarajan and A.K.Ghatak
7. Optical Fibre Communications G.E.Kieser Mc.Graw Hill 2nd Ed.
8. Modern Physics Jeremy Bernstein,Paul M.Fishnabe and Stephen Gasiorowicz Pearson Ed.
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 14
M.Sc. (Physics) II-Semester
SPRPH 211: Material Science Lab
List of Experiments
1. Diode Laser
2. Determination of Planck Constant
3. Electron Spin Resonance
4. Study of depletion capacitance and its variation in Reverse Bias
5. Forbidden energy Gap of semiconductor Si.
6. Hall Effect
7. Study of Raman Spectra
8. Optical Fibre –Determination of Numerical Aperture
9. Determination of Wavelength of He-Ne using metal scale
10. Study of Aluminum spectra
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 15
M.Sc. (Physics) II-Semester
SPRPH 212: Electronics Lab
List of Experiments
1. Negative feedback amplifier
2. Monostable multivibrator
3. Op-amp- Integrator, Differentiator and Summing Amplifier
4. RC Phase shift oscillator
5. Wein-bridge oscillator
6. Decade counter using IC 7490
7. Encoder and Decoder
8. Multiplexer and De-multiplexer
9. Binary up-down counter (74193)
10. ALU (74181)
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 16
M.Sc. (Physics) II-Semester
SPRPH 213: Viva Voce
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 17
M.Sc. (Physics) III-Semester
SPRPH 301: Introduction to Nano Physics
Unit I
Physics of Solids
Energy bands n solids, crystal momentum, concept of effective mass, concept of holes,
Sommerfeld’s Electron theory of metals, density of states, Fermi surfaces,
fermisurface and brillouin zones, phonons, zero, one and two phonon scattering,x-ray
measurements of phonon spectra, imperfections in crystals, point defect, polarons,
excitons, dislocations and surface defects.
Unit II
Fundamentals of Nanoscience
Historical background, Nanotechnology and Nanoscience, tools and techniques,
Significance of Nanoscale quantum confinement, size dependent properties, length
scales, Quantum size effect in Nanoparticles, Nano clusters types of nanomaterials,
fullerenes, nanowires, nanotubes, thinfilm and applications of nanotechnology.
Unit III
Synthesis of Nanomaterials
Physical methods, mechanical – ball milling, melt mixing, evaporation, ion sputtering,
laser ablation, laser pyrolysis, Physical Layer Deposition chemical vapour deposition,
molecular beam epitaxy. Chemical methods: sol-gel technique, precipitation method
and combustion synthesis, colloidal synthesis & capping of nanomaterials and
hydrothermal synthesis and reverse micelles.
Unit IV
Properties of Nanoparticles
Metal nanoclusters-magic numbers theoretical modeling, geometric structure,
electronic structure,reactivivity,fluctuations,magnetic clusters, transition from bulk to
nano materials.Semiconducting Nano particles-optical properties, photofragmentation
and coulombic explosion. Electrical, mechanical, chemical, thermal and elastic
properties of carbon nanotubes.
Unit V
Methods and Measuring Properties
Introduction, structure-atomic structure,crystallography,particle size determination and
surface structures. Microscopy-Transmission Electron Microscopy, Field ion
microscopy and scanning microscopy. Scanning Transmission electron Microscopy,
Atomic Force Microscopy. Diffraction techniques–X-ray diffraction, Intensities in xray scattering and particle size effects.
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 18
Books
1. Principles of Modern Physics 2nd Edition Narosa publishing House
2. Introduction to nanotechnology Charles P. Poole and Frank.J.Owens Wiely
Publishers
3. Nano –The Essentials T.Pradeep Mc.Graw Hill Education
4. Nanotechnology: Principles & Practices: S.K. Kulkarni, Capital Publ. Co.New
Delhi
5. Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications Alan S. Edelstein, Robert C.
Cammarata Institute of Physics Pub., 1998
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 19
M.Sc. (Physics) III-Semester
SPRPH 302: Nuclear Physics
Unit - I
General properties of Nuclei:
Introduction- Scattering of α-particles – Experimental verification – Nuclear size – Theories of
nuclear composition: a) proton-electron theory b) proton neutron theory c) neutron-positron
theory d) anti proton-neutron theory – Binding energy – semi empirical massformula and
applications – Quantum numbers for individual nucleons – Quantum properties of nuclear
states: i) Nuclear energy levels ii) Nuclear angular momentum iii) parity iv) Iso-spin – nuclear
magnetic dipole moment.
Unit – II
Nuclear reactions:
Introduction, kinds of nuclear reactions, conservation laws, nuclear reaction kinematics,
charged particle reaction spectroscopy, neutron spectroscopy, nuclear cross section, compound
nucleus, nuclear transmissions, transmutations by α, protons, neutrons, deuterons, and by
radiation – nuclear reactions with heavy ions – nuclear reaction cross section – different stages
of nuclear reactions – statistical theory.
Unit – III
Interaction of radiation with matter:
Introduction, cross-section, interaction of fast heavy charged particles and matter, energy loss
and range of electrons in matter, interaction of gamma rays with matter – photo electric effect,
the Compton effect, pair production, polarization effects of the medium and cernkov radiation,
synchrotron radiation, interaction of neutron with
Unit – IV
Detection of nuclear radiation:
Introduction, gas filled detectors, ionization chamber, proportional counter, GM counter,
semiconductor detectors, semiconductor junction detectors, lithium drifted germanium
(Ge(Li)) and silicon (Si(Li)) detectors, scintillation counters, Cerenkov counter, photographic
emulsion, cloud chamber, bubble chamber
Unit – V
Nuclear Fission and Fusion:
Fission – introduction – types of fission – a) thermal fission, b) fast fission c) charged particle
fission d) photo fission (qualitative only) – distribution of fission products – neutron emission
in fission – fissile and fertile materials – spontaneous fission – liquid drop model. Fusion –
plasma – fusion reactions – energy balance – cross section of reaction rates – critical
temperature.
References:
1. Nuclear and Particle Physics – SL Kakani
2. Atomic Nucleus – RD Evans
3. Introduction of Nuclear Physics – Harald A Enge
4. Introductory Nuclear Physics – Kenneth S Krane
5. Nuclear Physics – Irving Kaplan
6. Nuclear Physics – DC Tayal
7. Fundamentals of Nuclear Physics – Srivasthava
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 20
M.Sc. (Physics) III-Semester
SPRPH 303: Advanced Quantum Mechanics
Unit I
Spherically symmetric Potentials
Particle moving in spherically symmetric potential, system of two interacting particles, rigid
rotator, hydrogen atom, hydrogen orbital’s, free particle ,three dimensional square well
potential and deuteron. Abstract operator method-Ladder operators,eigen value spectrum
,eigen functions and coherent states.
Unit II
Approximate methods
WKB Approximation, its validity, Barrier penetration, Alpha emission and bound states in
Potential well and Bohr –sommerfeld quantum condition Perturbation theory for time
evolution problems- Scattering of particle by potential ,inelastic scattering-exchange
effects, harmonic perturbation, Interaction of atom in electromagnetic field, Absorption
and emission of radiation-electromagnetic field, Hamiltonian operator and electric dipole
approximation.
Unit III
Identical particles and Many Electron Atoms
Indistinguishibility and state vector space for identical particles, Creation and annihilation
operators and its algebra , its symmetries, Pauli,s exclusion principle, spin of two and three
electrons, Helium atom ,ortho and para helium and scattering matrix .Many Electro atomsCentral field approximation, Thomas –Fermi model of atom, Hartee equation and Hartee –
Fock Equation.
Unit IV
Relativistic Wave Equations
Introduction-Generalization of Schrödinger equation, Klein –Gordan Equation- its
interpretation, Plane wave solutions, Charge and current densities,Interaction with
electromagnetic field and Non relativistic limit.
Dirac Equation- Relativistic Hamiltonian, Position probability density, Dirac matrices, Plane
wave solutions, Spin of dirac particle, Negative energy states, Magnetic Moment of electron,
Spin orbit interaction , Radial equation of electron in Central potential and Hydrogen atom.
Unit V
Quantisation of fields
Introduction, Classical approach to field theory,Relativistic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian of
charged particle in electromagnetic field .Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations Quantum
equation ,second quantization,Quantisation of non relativistic schrodinger equation, Klein –
Gordan equation and Dirac field.
Books:
1. A text book of Quantum Mechanics- P.Mathews and K.Venkatesan
2. Quantum Mechanics G.Aruldas
3. Quantum Mechanics Srivastava
4. Modern Quantum Mechanics- J.J.Sakurai
5. Quantum Mechanics- V.K.Thankappan
6. Quantum Mechanics- E.Merzbacher
7. Advanced quantum Mechanics- Satya Prakash
8. Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics R.D.Ratna Raju
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 21
M.Sc. (Physics) III-Semester
SPRPH 304: Physics of Semiconductor Devices
Unit I
Electronics in solids:
Energy bands: insulator, metal semiconductor, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor,
direct and on-direct semiconductor, Fermi level variation in semiconductor,
temperature dependence of carrier concentration, carrier dynamics in semiconductors,
carrier transport by drift and diffusion scattering low field response, high field
transport, impact ionization, band to band tunneling charge injection and quasi Fermi
levels.
Unit II
Bipolar Transistors:
BJT static performance parameters: Emitter injection efficiency, base transport factor,
collector efficiency and current gain, Transient response: Cutoff saturation, the
switching cycle, frequency limitations of transistors, secondary effects in real devices:
Early effect and punch through thermal effects, current crowding effect, high injection
and Krik effect.
Unit III
Field effect transistors:
MOS device: MOS as capacitor, oxide and interface trapped charge, V-I
characteristics, depletion and enhancement MOSFET, complementary MOSFET,
important issues in real devices: short channel effects, substrate bias, effects, latch-up
sub threshold characteristics, leakage currents, charge transfer device the basic
principle applications.
Unit IV
Microwave and Photonic devices:
Tunnel diode, IMPATT and Gunn diode, varactor diode, characteristics of microwave
transistor, tunnel transistor, LED and LCD photo detectors, solar cells, semiconductor
lasers
Unit V
Integrated circuits:
Evolution of ICs: Small Scale Integration , Meduim Scale Integration , Low Scale
Integration , Very Large Scale Integration, monolithic and hybrid circuits, monolithic
IC process: crystal growth, wafer preparation, metallization testing, bonding and
packaging.
Books:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Solid state electronic devices by Ben. G. Streetman and S. Banerjee
Semiconductor devices- Basic principles by Jasprit Singh (John Wiely)
Physics of semiconducting devices by S.M.Sze
Physics of Semiconductor devices - Tyagi
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 22
M.Sc. (Physics) III-Semester
SPRPH 311: Modern Physics Lab
List of Experiments
1. Study of atomic spectrum of Zinc spectra
2. Rigidity modulus-Internal friction
3. B-H Curve- Determination of Curie temperature
4. Thermo EMF
5. Constant Deviation Spectrograph - Absorption spectrum
6. Study of band gap and potential of P-N Junction
7. Lattice dynamics-Study of dispersive relations of mono atomic lattice
8. Forbidden energy Gap of semiconductor Ge.
9. Resistivity of semiconductor- Four Probe method
10. Ultrasonic Interferometer
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 23
M.Sc. (Physics) III-Semester
SPRPH 312: Nuclear Physics Lab
List of Experiments
1. Plateau Characteristics
2. Intensity variation of radiation
3. Plateau Characteristics Same source different distance
4. Inverse square law for gamma radiation
5. Absorption Coefficient of material
6. Statistical Aspects of Radiation
7. Beta back scattering factor
8. Gamma ray Spectrometer Energy resolution characteristics
9. Resolving time of a G.M. Tube by two source method
10. Determination of Dead time
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 24
M.Sc. (Physics) III-Semester
SPRPH 313: Viva Voce
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 25
M.Sc. (Physics) IV-Semester
SPRPH 401: Experimental Techniques
Unit I
Nuclear Techniques
Unusual advantages in nuclear experimentation, Detectors for Energetic Charged
particles. Energy measurements and identifications. Scintillation Detectors-mechanism
in organic and inorganic crystal scintillations, Scintillation Response, time
characteristics of scintillation output and energy resolution, Inorganic and organic
scintillators. Photo and Electron multipliers, Measurement with Scintillation detectors
–Gamma ray spectroscopy with Nal(Tl),fast time coincidence measurements.
Unit II
Spectroscopic methods
UV Visible molecular absorption spectrometer – Beer Lamberts law and
interpretation. Infrared spectroscopy-instrumentation and interpretation of vibrational
spectra sample handling techniques. Raman scattering – spectrometer and sample
handling techniques. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance – Instrumentation, chemical shift,
spectra of solids, and interpretation. Electron Microscopes- SEM, TEM and AFM with
principle and instrumentation.
Unit III
Elemental Semiconductors
Charge carrier density, doping, carrier densities, conductivity with hetero structures
and super lattice. Binary compounds, Oxides, Layered, organic and magnetic
semiconductors. Growth techniques- Czochralski , Bridgeman methods ,Chemical
vapor decomposition method, Molecular beam epitaxy, Fabrication of self organized
quantum dots by stranski-krastanow growth method and liquid phase epitaxy.
Unit IV
Telescopes and Instrumentations
Different optical configuration for astronomical telescope plate scale and diffraction
Limits-telescopes for ã-ray, X-ray, UV, IR, mm and radio astronomy- photometry with
Photometers and CCD- spectrometry and polarimetry with various instruments.
Unit V
Optical Properties of Nanomaterials
Optical properties –refractive index, (linear and Non linear), absorption coefficient
Special properties-Accidental anisotropy, birefringence, electro optic effect, acousto
optic effect. Colored glasses- absorption, color centers.Colour due to dispersed
particles, Luminescent glasses.
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 26
Reference Books
1. Nuclear radiation Detectors- V.S.Ramamoorthy and S.S.Kapur
2. Cohen, concepts of Nuclear Physics, Tata McGraw Hill
3. Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy Colin Banwell, Elaine McCash 4th Ed.TMH
4. Molecular Structure And Spectroscopy G.Aruldas Phi 2nd Ed.
5. Fundamentals of semiconductors-Physics and Materials properties
Peter Y.Yu and Manuel Cardona 3rd Edition Springer
6. Solid state Physics - Introduction to Principles of Materials Science
H.Ibach and H.Luth 3rd Edition Springer
7. Astrophysics –K.S Krishnaswamy (CUP)
8. Astrophysics-Baidyanath Basu, Prentical Hall
9. Introduction to Nano technology Charles P. Poole Jr. and Frank J. Owens Wiely
10. Nano Materials A.k.Bandhopadhya 2nd Edition New Age Intl. Publishers
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 27
M.Sc. (Physics) IV-Semester
Elective -1 SPRPH 421: Nuclear Techniques
Unit I
Radiation and Detectors:
Interaction of gamma rays, electronics, heavy charged particles and neutrons with matter,
production of radio nuclides and measurement of strength of radioactive sources, radiation
exposure, absorbed does, biological effects, radiation protection, shielding, safety aspects;
study of detectors and counting systems 1) ionization chamber 2) proportional counter 3) GM
counter 4) scintillation detector 5) semiconductor detector (energy transfer mechanism, energy
deposited, mode of detection, energy resolution).
Unit II
Pulse processing and Life time:
Charge sensitive and voltage sensitive pre-amplifiers pulse shaping techniques, base line
restoration, pulse height discriminators, analog to digital converters (ADC), multi channel
analyzers; Measurement of life times of nuclear excited states covering ranges from a few
Pico seconds to thousands of years using techniques like delayed coincidence, recoil distance,
line shifts, Doppler shift attenuation, activity measurement.
Unit III
Coincidence measurements:
Slow fast coincidence arrangements for measurement of coincidence between radiation,
prompt and chance coincidences. Energy and time coincidence measurements. Double
coincidence methods: ROSSI, Bothe coincidence circuits, Sum coincidence technique, AntiCompton gamma ray spectrometry- Principles of life time measurements.
Unit IV
Neutron activation analysis:
Neutron sources; neutron induced reaction cross sections, Neutron activation analysis,
sensitivity and detection limit, Different methods of NAA, standardization methods of NAA,
Advantages and limitations of NAA. Radio chemical methods in elemental analysis; trace
element analysis. NAA applications in environment , archeology and forensic studies.
Unit V
X- Ray fluorescence:
Principles of XRF. X – Ray production, instrumentation and techniques. Fluorescence yield.
Types of sources for XRF studies Applications of XRF. Fundamentals of PIXE and PIGE and
their applications.
Text books and references:
1. Nuclear radiation detectors – SS Kapoor and VS Ramamurthy
2. Radiation detection and measurement – G F Knoll
3. Techniques for nuclear and particle physics experiments – W R Leo
4. Nuclear condensed matter physics – nuclear methods and applications – Gunter Schatz and
Alois Weidinger: John Wiley & sons
5. Source book on Atomic energy – Samuel Glasstone, Affiliated East-West Press pvt.Ltd
6. Introduction to Experimental Nuclear Physics- R.M.Singru, Wiley eastern private ltd.
7. Fundamentals of Radiochemistry- D.D.Sood, A.V.R. Reddy and N. Ramamoorthy, 2nd Ed.
IANCAS publication, BARC.
.
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 28
M.Sc. (Physics) IV-Semester
Elective -2 SPRPH 422: Materials Science
Unit 1
Crystal and Amorphous Physics
Introduction, crystal symmetry, simple crystal structures, polymorphism and allotropy,
crystal directions and imperfections, structure determination by XRD ,Xray
diffractional methods. Crystalline vs amorphous solids, Glass formation, preparation
techniques and structure models.
Unit 2
Modern Engineering Materials
Introduction, metallic glasses as transformer core, nanophase materials, shape memory
alloys ceramics , Biomaterials, Polymers -Classification of polymers,structure property correlation, molecular weight, crystallinity in polymers,mechanical
properties, Applications
Unit 3
Modern techniques for Materials studies
Optical Microscopy, Electron Microscope, Chemical analysis using atomic absorption
spectroscopy(AAS), photon electron spectroscopy(PES),Magnetic resonance,
Mossbauer spectroscopy and Non destructive testing(NDT).
Unit 4
Materials for Space Applications
Space programme, Structural materials and their properties, system requirements,
extreme high temperature materials, materials for thermal protection, pressure vessels
lubrication and electronic components
Unit 5
Materials and World
No ceramics age- Ceramics and civilization,types of pottery,shaping and decoration of
pottery,science behind pottery, history of glass making, scientific aspects of glass
making,cement,concrete and plaster, high tech ceramics.Natural fibers-History and
classification, production and properties of fibres,properties of synthetic polymers,
composite materials and advanced fabrics.
Reference Books
1. Science of Engineering Materials
C.M.Srivastava & C.Srinivasan New Age Intl Publishers
2. Understanding Material Science 2nd Edition Rolf E.Hummel Springer
3. Material Science M.Armugam Anuradha Publishers
4. Material Science M.S.Vijaya and G.Rangarajan,TMH
5. Material Science P.K.Palanisamy Scitech Publications
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 29
M.Sc. (Physics) IV-Semester
Elective -3 SPRPH 423: Space Physics
UNIT – I: NEUTRAL ATMOSPHERE
Structure and Composition
Nomenclature-Thermal structure of the atmosphere. Hydrostatic equation of the atmospheric
structure. Scale height and geopotential height. Exosphere..
Atmospheric composition. Dissociation and diffusive separation and thermospheric
composition. Heat balance and temperature profile of thermosphere..
UNIT – II:
Chemical concepts in Atmosphere
Thermodynamic considerations – Enthalpy . Elementary chemical kinetics- Reaction rate
constants and chemical life time of species. Unimolecular, bimolecular and termolecular
reactions.
Effect of dynamics on chemical species.
UNIT – III: IONIZED ATMOSPHERE
Photochemical processes in the ionosphere
Introduction to ionosphere – discovery. Continuity equation and photochemical equilibrium.
Theory of photo-ionization and Chapman production function. Chemical recombination and
electron density.
Solar radiation and production of ionospheric layers.
UNIT – IV:
Loss reactions
Different types of recombination processes. Chemistry of E and F1 regions. D region balance
equations. D region chemistry – formation of water cluster ions. Electron attachment and
negative ions. Positive and negative ion schemes of D region.
Linear and square law loss formulae and splitting of F layer. Vertical transport, ambipolar
diffusion and F2 peak. Diffusion between ionosphere and protonosphere..
Airglow.
UNIT – V:
Morphology
Geographical and temporal structure of the ionosphere – Diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle
variations of D, E and F regions and F region anomalies.
Solar flare effects
Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SIDs)
BOOKS
1.”Introduction to Ionospheric Physics” by H.Rishbeth & O.K.Garriott
2.”Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere” by Guy Brasseur & S.Solomon.
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 30
3.”Upper Atmosphere and Solar Terrestrial Relations” by J.K.Hargreaves
M.Sc. (Physics) IV-Semester
Elective -4 SPRPH 424: Communication Electronics
Unit-I
Amplitude Modulation
Sinusoidal A.M: Modulation Index, Frequency spectrum, Average Power. BJT
Collector modulator, A.M Broadcast Transmitter and Super heterodyne receiver
Output S/N ratio. DSBSC modulation, balanced modulators, QAM, VSB, SSB
modulation: SSB generation and reception. ISB, FDM, Output S/N ratio in SSB.
Unit-II
Angle modulation
Sinusoidal F.M: Modulation Index, Frequency spectrum, Average Power, Deviation
ratio. Phase Modulation, equivalence between PM and FM. Modulator circuitsvaractor diode, JFET. FM Transmission-Direct and Indirect methods. FM DetectionSlope detector, balanced double tuned detector, Foster-Seeley discriminator and PLL
detector. Amplitude limiter, Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis, FM broadcast receiver,
FM stereo broadcast transmitter and receiver, wide and narrow band FM. Noise in
FM.
Unit-III
Pulse Modulation
Digital line wave forms: symbols, bits ans bauds, functional notation for pulses, line
codes and wave forms, unipolar -NRZ – RZ, Polar line codes, M – array encoding, ISI
and pulse shaping, HDB Signaling. Pulse Modulations- Generation and Detection of
PAM, TDM, PWM, PPM.
Unit-IV
Sampling and Pulse code modulation
Sampling Theorem, Signal reconstruction, Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
Quantization, Non-uniform Quantization, T1 carrier system, Differential PCM,
Analysis, SNR Improvement, Delta modulation, Adaptive Delta modulation, Output
SNR, Comparison with PCM. Digital carrier systems-ASK, PSK, FSK, DPSK, Digital
signal transmission using QAM, Digital multiplexing, Eye patterns.
Unit-IV
Optical Fiber Communication
Introduction, Historical back ground, Advantages and Applications of optical fiber
communication. Nature of light, basic optical laws and definitions, fiber modes and
configurations, scattering, bending, core and cladding losses. Optical sources and
detectors. Optcal receivers-receiver operation, analog and digital receivers,
wavelength division multiplexing, fiber connectors, measurement of attenuation and
dispersion.
Books:
1. Electronic Communications- Dennis Roddy and John Collins
2. Modern Digital and Analog Communication System - B.P.Lathi
3. Principles of Communication System – H.Taub and D.Schilling
4. Optical Fiber Communication – Gerd Keiser / John M.Senior
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 31
5. Fiber Optical Communication – D.C. Agrawal
M.Sc. (Physics) IV-Semester
SPRPH 411: Experimental Physics Lab
List of Experiments
1. Ultrasonic velocity of liquids by diffraction method
2. Optical Fibre -Bending Losses
3. Study of ASK and PSK
4. Plateau Characteristics of different sources same distance
5. Study of dispersive relations of Di atomic lattice
6. Measurement of Susceptibility of liquid/solution – Quick’s tube
7. Dielectric Constant
8. Study of Amplitude Modulation
9. Study of Pulse Width Modulation
10. Study of Frequency Modulation
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 32
M.Sc. (Physics) IV-Semester
SPRPH 412: Project with Seminar
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 33
M.Sc. (Physics) IV-Semester
SPRPH 413: Viva Voce
With effect from 2012-2013
Page 34
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