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Kooperation statt Intervention und die Folgen für die Entnazifizierung
“It is likely that local left-wing forces will attempt to effect a reorganization of Austrian society
as soon as it is feasible for them to operate ‘above-ground’. [ … ] The fact that most of the elite
and a considerable proportion of the middle classes collaborated with the Nazis may result in
the initiation of a purge by left-wing forces whose effect would be to further such a reorganization. This reorganization might be accompanied by the establishment of economic ties with the
other succession states that may fall within the Soviet political orbit.”1220
In Bezug auf die Entnazifizierung im Öffentlichen Dienst und die zu erwartenden Personalprobleme findet sich jedenfalls folgende , unter pragmatischen Gesichtspunkten betrachtet , durchaus nachvollziehbare Einschränkung angeschlossen : „Beyond the automatic
elimination of these leading figures , all other Austrian Public officials , in the order of their
importance , will need to be processed , so that leading or active Nazis are removed while
the non-Nazis or merely nominal Nazis are retaining for essential functions of civilian
In einem vertraulichen und überaus umfangreichen Bericht ( „Civil Affairs Guide“ ) zur
„De-Nazification of Austria“ der Research & Analysis Branch des amerikanischen militärischen Geheimdienstes Office of Strategic Services ( OSS ) vom April 1945 wurde das
Problem der autoritären Indoktrinierung durch den Nationalsozialismus dezidiert um die
doktrinär-ideologische Beeinflussung durch den Austrofaschismus erweitert. Der Bericht
des OSS hält diesbezüglich summarisch fest :
“A special problem arises in connection with the second of these major developments. For while
the Dollfuß-Schuschnigg regime was opposed to the German National Socialists , it was at the
same time anti-democratic and authoritarian. The retention in leading positions of any member of
this group would seriously hamper the democratization of Austria. [ … ] The authoritarian camp
in Austria , then , comprised not only Nazis ( Reich German and Austrian ) but also AustroFascists , who are opposed to Nazism but are anti-democratic in their sentiments and views.
[ … ] The Nazification of Austria was effected not only in political agencies and organizations
but also in all spheres of business , trade , finance , and culture. [ … ] The thorough De-Nazification
of these enterprises is one of the most important tasks of Military Government.”1222 [ Hervorhebungen d. Verf. ]
Im Hinblick auf den Austrofaschismus als Vorgängerregime zum Nationalsozialismus in
Österreich , präzisierte der US-Geheimdienstbericht in seiner Analyse , dass sowohl Pro1220Ebd.
1221 NARA II , RG 260 , Office of Director USACA , Box 20. Public Safety Manual for Austria ( undatiert ),
vermutlich vom November 1944.
1222DÖW 12. 684. Civil Affairs Guide , „The De-Nazification of Austria“, R & A , No. 2905 , Research and
Analysis Branch. Office of Strategic Services , Washington D.C., 26. April 1945 , i.