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Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a collective name for a group of genetic
conditions that affect the nervous system. NF causes benign (non
cancerous) lumps to grow on nerves. These lumps can grow on nerve
endings in the skin where they can be seen clearly; the lumps can also
grow on deeper nerves within the body.
Neurofibromatosis occurs all over the world in all races.
It affects men and women equally.
There are two main types of Neurofibromatosis: Neurofibromatosis type 1
(NF1) and Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2).
They are two completely different and separate conditions. People
who have NF will have one type or the other.
NF1 cannot change into NF2.
NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE 1 (NF1) is a common genetic condition.
A genetic condition is one that can be passed on in families.
Approximately 1 in every 2,500/3000 people is born with NF1.
In the UK, every day a child is born with NF1.
There are about 25000 people in the UK with a diagnosis of NF1.
NF1 varies widely in how it affects people. Many people with NF1
will be affected very mildly and may have nothing more than skin
A minority of people (about a third) who have NF1 will have health
problems linked to the diagnosis at some time in their life. Some of these
problems will be mild and easily treated, others will be more severe.
At present, doctors cannot predict who is going to develop health
problems linked to having a diagnosis of NF1. Research is helping to
identify some individuals at greater risk of developing health
complications. Until this is clearer, it is helpful for people to learn more
about NF1 to understand what this diagnosis means and to know when to
seek medical help.
The kind of things that should prompt you to seek advice from your doctor
are discussed later in this guide.
How is NF1 diagnosed?
The way a doctor can tell if a person has NF1 is by examining them for
signs of this condition. There are specific features that the doctor will look
for. Signs of NF1 usually appear in childhood (mostly in the first 3 years of
life and almost always before the age of 5). The diagnosis of NF1 is
confirmed if two or more of the following signs are present:
• Six or more flat, café au lait patches (brown coffee-coloured skin
patches like a birthmark), which are the size of a pencil top or bigger.
These usually appear during the first year of life and can increase in size
and number. Café au lait patches are generally harmless and there is no
connection between the number or size of café au lait patches and the
severity of the condition. They sometimes fade later in life.
• Freckles in the armpit or in the groin. Again, these are harmless but
can be another sign of NF1.
• Neurofibromas (small benign pea-sized growths or lumps) on or under
the skin. These are a common feature of NF1. They usually appear during
adolescence and tend to increase in number throughout life. Sometimes
neurofibromas are present in childhood.
• Plexiform neurofibromas. These are a particular kind of
neurofibroma. In a plexiform neurofibroma a whole section of the nerve or
a group of nerves in one area of the body are affected. Sometimes the
overlying skin has a large area of café au lait pigmentation. In adults this
can become a red-purple colour. The overlying skin can be more hairy.
• Lisch nodules – these are small pigmented areas in the iris (coloured
part) of the eye. They are often not visible except during examination with
an eye microscope called a slit lamp. Lisch nodules are harmless and
never cause symptoms. When identified they help confirm the diagnosis.
• A mother, father or child who has NF1.
Summary of how NF1 is diagnosed
Signs of NF1 appear in childhood.
The signs include:
Café au lait patches (more than 6)
Freckles in unusual places
Lumps and bumps on the skin
Another health problem linked to NF1
Mother or father with NF1
A blood test is not normally needed
Why does a person develop NF1?
About half the people who have NF1 are the first person in the
family to be affected. The condition has started with them by chance.
Our body is made of thousands of cells. These cells contain sets of
instructions in the form of genes. The instructions contain chemical codes
that ensure the cell works correctly. A change in a gene means it cannot
do its job properly. The change in the gene is called a “mutation”. This
happens before birth and there is no known reason why it occurs.
Where there are no signs of NF1 in either parent, it means that the gene
change (mutation) has occurred for the first time in that individual (child
or adult). This is called a ‘new mutation’.
The other group of people who have NF1 will have inherited the same
condition from a parent who also has NF1.
An experienced doctor can diagnose NF1 by a careful physical
examination. Sometimes the signs of NF1 take time to appear and
therefore it may not be possible to make an immediate diagnosis of NF1.
You (or your child) may be asked to come back to see the doctor on
another occasion for a second examination. This can be a frustrating and
anxious time for parents (or adults) who are under investigation;
however, your doctor will want to be sure that the diagnosis of NF1 is
Sometimes a doctor will offer to test for NF1. The genetic blood test for
NF1 is getting better all the time but still does not pick up 100% of gene
changes – only around 95%. The blood tests are being used more and
more to aid diagnosis, particularly where neither parent is affected.
NF1 does not skip generations. There are two ways in which NF1
occurs: it crops up out of the blue as a first event in an individual or it is
inherited from an affected parent.
Summary of how NF1 occurs
Our body is made up of thousands of cells. Each cell contains a set of genes.
Genes carry instructions that make the cell work correctly. NF1 is caused by
a misprint or miscopy in these instructions.
Half of people with NF1 have inherited it from a parent who also has NF1.
Half of people with NF1 are the first person in the family with NF1.
NF1 is a dominant condition. Everyone who has NF1 will have some signs of
the condition.
If a parent has NF1, there is a 1 in 2 chance of passing it on to each child
they have.
How does NF1 affect the body and what can be done about this?
If someone has NF1, he or she will have it for life. There is as yet no
specific medical treatment or gene therapy to cure, prevent or reverse the
features of NF1. Many people who have been diagnosed with NF1 never
experience health problems. However, some people who have NF1 can
develop some of the complications that are known to be linked to the
The development of some of these features is related to age and some
complications can first appear in childhood. Specific complications can be
treated medically or surgically depending on the problem. Research may
lead to new treatments in the future.
NF1 is complicated. It varies from one person to another, even within
members of the same family. It is also unpredictable.
At present there is no way to predict how mildly or severely any
individual will be affected. Expert NF1 doctors recognise that some
groups of NF1 patients need more specialist care than most. To
address their needs, there are now 2 nationally funded
Neurofibromatosis Centres in England. These Centres care for
patients with the most complex NF1. They are located at Guy's
Hospital in London and St Mary's Hospital in Manchester. Patients
can be referred to these centres by their own doctor. There are
national guidelines as to which patients are eligible for this
It is important to remember that many people have still not heard of
NF1.This suggests that in spite of the many thousands of people who have
NF1, it is not necessarily a problem. About two thirds of people with NF1
will be mildly affected and lead a normal healthy life.
If there is a TV programme or magazine article about NF1, it is inevitably
described as a severe and frightening condition. It is important to get a
balanced view. The vast majority of complications associated with NF1 are
not life threatening.
NF1 is variable and unpredictable.
Even in the same family people can be affected in different ways: some very
mildly others with more problems.
The majority of people with NF1 are well and lead normal lives.
There is a specialist service in England to care for patients with the most
complex NF1.
Some specific complications that occur in NF1
(This is not a complete list of all complications that can occur in
NF1. Nor is it a substitute for advice from your own doctor)
Ophthalmology (Eyes)
NF1 can cause problems at the back of the eye in the form of lump or
tumour. This lump is called an optic nerve tumour or an optic pathway
glioma. This is most likely to occur in early childhood, up to about the age
of 7. An optic glioma is a non-cancerous growth that involves the cells of
the optic nerve, the nerve that connects the eye to the brain. Many optic
gliomas in NF1 never cause any symptoms. They can be found
coincidentally when a scan is done for something else. When they do
cause problems it is usually a decrease in vision, the eye bulging forward
(proptosis) or, in a small percentage of cases it can cause early puberty.
Where this complication is diagnosed during childhood, it rarely
progresses in adulthood. However people with this problem need careful
monitoring by an ophthalmologist (specialist eye doctor).
All children under the age of 7 years will have hospital eye checks as part
of their NF1 health check. Once discharged from the hospital eye service,
children and adults should have annual vision checks, reminding their
optician they have NF1.
If someone with NF1 develops unusual changes in vision, blurred
or double vision, they need to seek medical advice quickly. If
parents notice young children bumping into things or a sudden
onset of squint, they should ask for an urgent eye check.
Orthopaedic (bones)
In NF1 bones are affected in two main ways: there are some problems
that affect a specific part of the body (for example a curve developing in
the spine). The second way is there is increasing evidence that some
people with NF1 can have a general decrease in bone strength (decreased
bone mineral density).
Specific localised bone problems arise during childhood. For example NF1
can affect the growth and development of long bones, particularly the
tibia (front lower leg bone or shinbone) causing them to bow. Rarely the
bones that create the eye socket may not form properly causing problems
with the position of the eye. Both of these problems are likely to be
identified during infancy and will not develop out of the blue in later years.
Children can develop curvature of the spine (scoliosis) in NF1. This
complication can occur up until a child is fully grown. If the spine is
straight on reaching the final height (at 17/18 years), it will remain
Complications affecting bones in NF1 are referred to a bone specialist
(orthopaedic surgeon).
Decreased bone density or osteopaenia is found more frequently in NF1.
This can lead to osteoporosis in adults. Adults with NF1 may also have
lower levels of vitamin D than normal. The NF1 clinic doctors are trying to
work out whether all NF1 patients should therefore have bone checks as
part of their routine healthcare. How best to manage this risk should be
discussed with your doctor or NF1 specialist.
Dermatology (skin)
Neurofibromas are benign (non cancerous) tumours/growths that develop
on or under the skin or along a nerve. They can occur anywhere on the
body where there are nerves. They may look and feel like small pea-sized
lumps or nodules under the skin. Skin neurofibromas are usually soft and
painless. Those that are under the skin may be firmer to touch but are
normally painless. Other neurofibromas may be located deep in the body
and cannot be felt from the outside. They do not usually cause health
problems although some may press on a nerve causing symptoms such as
pain or numbness. In this case further medical advice is needed.
Many adults feel embarrassed and self-conscious about their
neurofibromas. There is no way to predict how many neurofibromas a
person with NF1 will have, or when or where on the body they will
develop. However, almost all people with NF1 will have some
neurofibromas. Some people will have very few; others will have many. At
present there is no treatment that can prevent or slow the growth of
neurofibromas. Research into preventative treatment for neurofibromas is
continuing in the UK and internationally.
Sometimes a neurofibroma grows in an awkward place and may catch on
clothing. It may be possible to remove it. This should always be
undertaken by a doctor who has experience of NF1. This doctor will be a
dermatologist or a plastic surgeon. There are at present 2 main ways that
neurofibromas can be removed: one is by surgery and the other by laser
treatment. To access this service you should ask your GP or NF doctor to
refer you to the nearest specialist.
Many people with NF1 tend to tan easily without sunburn. Café au lait
patches are not at risk of turning into a skin cancer. However, like
everyone else, people with NF1 should take the usual steps to avoid too
much sun exposure and sunburn.
Plexiform neurofibromas
Some neurofibromas can grow in a wide, spreading fashion around large
nerves and may feel like a bunch of knots or cords beneath the skin.
These types of growths are called plexiform neurofibromas. About a third
of people will have one or more of this type of lump. Sometimes they will
be obvious in early life as an area of swelling or fullness but other times
they can lie deeper in the body and are harder to detect. They can grow
anywhere on the body and, more rarely, on the face.
When they are present near the surface plexiform neurofibromas
sometimes grow to a large size. If this is going to happen, it usually does
so within the first few years of life. These tumours can be painful if
knocked and can be disfiguring depending on their size and shape. Less
commonly, a plexiform can become cancerous (more on this follows). Any
unusual pain in a plexiform neurofibroma should be checked by a doctor.
If a plexiform neurofibroma is painful all the time, grows very
rapidly or feels hard rather than soft, medical advice is needed
without delay.
Removal of plexiform neurofibromas is difficult and needs the specialist
skills of experienced plastic surgeons, orthopaedic or neurosurgeons who
specialise in peripheral nerve surgery.
Tumours and cancer
Everyone, whether they have NF1 or not, has a risk of about 1 in 3 of
developing cancer during their lifetime. People with NF1 have about a 1 in
10 (or 10%) chance of developing a specific cancer related to NF1. Putting
this another way, there is a 90% chance of someone NOT developing an
NF1 related cancer. Research in this area is continually being updated.
People generally are aware of what is their “normal” state of health
whether they have NF1 or not. Having NF1 means it is important to be
aware of unusual health changes or symptoms. You should seek medical
advice if you experience any new, significant or unusual changes in body
habits which do not go away, just as you would if you did not have NF1.
This could include a new or persistent pain, or a change in physical
The small skin neurofibromas never become cancerous.
Plexiform neurofibromas are more at risk of turning into nasty lumps
(becoming malignant). When this happens the tumour is called a
malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour or MPNST.
The signs to be concerned about if you have a plexiform neurofibroma
are: sudden rapid growth where there was previously slow
growth; change in texture and the development of unexplained
pain, for example where the plexiform neurofibroma was not
bumped or knocked. If the pain appears for no apparent reason
and does not go away, this should be checked out with your
MPNSTs can also develop out of the blue. So if anyone with NF1 notices a
lump under the skin growing rapidly or that has become painful, they
should get it checked by their doctor urgently. Also if they develop
unexplained persistent pain, this could be a sign of an internal MPNST.
Again this needs urgent advice from the doctor.
People with NF1 have a slightly increased chance of developing a brain
tumour compared to the general population.
Adults who experience persistent new headaches or a change in
their usual physical abilities or activities (weakness, numbness,
tingling in arms or legs,) or a change in personality or memory
should seek medical advice.
Children with NF1 are at risk of two very rare childhood cancers (a rare
form of leukaemia and a tumour called a rhabdomyosarcoma that usually
grow near the bladder). These are so rare that even in the Specialist NF
clinics, doctors rarely see these developing. The important thing for
parents to know is that if their child is “just not right” they should be
asking their doctors if it could be linked to their diagnosis of NF1.
For adults, understanding what is “normal” for you is helpful. If you have
symptoms that are unusual for you it is sensible to seek advice and
remind your doctors that you have NF1.
If you think that your doctor is not getting to the bottom of things, then it
can be helpful to ring the Neuro Foundation for advice. The charity has a
Helpline service for patients. Alternatively you can ring one of the two
national NF1 centres: either Guys hospital, London or in St Mary's
hospital, Manchester.
Breast cancer
Research shows that women who have NF1 have a slightly higher chance
of developing breast cancer during their lifetime. Their breast cancer risk
is described as “moderate” and therefore screening should follow national
guidelines. At present this means having a breast x-ray (mammogram)
each year from the age of 40 years. Your GP can arrange this.
Hypertension (high blood pressure)
Occasionally NF1 can cause high blood pressure. It is recommended
that everyone with NF1 should have their blood pressure checked
once a year throughout life. Sometimes high blood pressure may not
be related to NF1 and it is a common and treatable condition in adults
who do not have NF1.
The specific reasons for raised blood pressure linked to NF1 include a lump
growing on or near the kidney (phaeochromocytoma) or a narrowing of
the artery to the kidney (renal artery stenosis). These can be treated.
Glomus tumour
This is a small benign lump that grows in the nail bed of one or more
fingernails and toenails. It is rare. It causes severe pain in the affected
finger/toe which is often worse in the cold. Sometimes doctors get
confused and think the pain is coming from a nerve tumour elsewhere.
Doctors in specialist NF clinics sometimes see patients referred with
unexplained hand or foot pain who have undergone lots of scans of the
spine and nerves supplying hands and feet which all turn out to be
normal. The diagnosis of glomus tumour is made in the clinic by simple
means: the doctor presses on the nail bed and the pain is excruciating.
Once diagnosed, the tumour can be easily removed, fully relieving the
Everyone is at risk of developing epilepsy during their lifetime. In people
with NF1 that risk is slightly increased. Symptoms suggestive of epilepsy
should be investigated and treated in the usual way. This will usually involve
referral to a neurologist who will be able to diagnose and treat the
Young children with NF1, usually before the age of 2, have a very small risk
of developing a specific kind of seizure called infantile spasm or
hypsarrythmia. This should be suspected if the child develops sudden
jerking movements of the arms and legs.
Self image
Most people with NF1 have some signs of the condition visible on their skin.
Some individuals have more obvious signs of NF1 than others and they can
find the outward signs of the condition an extremely distressing burden to
live with. There is no easy way to deal with this medically. Café au lait
patches may increase as a child gets older but may fade in adulthood. They
can be covered with clothes or make-up.
Skin neurofibromas can cause more obvious cosmetic effects. They can be
removed by a plastic surgeon but there will be some scarring. They may or
may not grow back and it would be impossible to remove all neurofibromas
in someone who has a lot of them. Laser treatment can be used but, again,
it is difficult if someone has a lot of neurofibromas. You need to ask your
doctor for a referral to a specialist plastic surgeon or dermatologist to
discuss what is possible for you.
Camouflage make-up can sometimes help. This is a hospital-based service
offered by the charity Changing Faces and you can be referred by your GP.
Many people find it helpful to talk through these sorts of issues with a skilled
counsellor. It is important to know that you do not have to feel alone with
these difficulties and that there is support available.
Pain and itching in NF1
For most people neurofibromas do not cause any problems. However, some
individuals can experience pain and/or itching. Some adults with NF1
complain of chronic pain and this should be investigated medically. Back
pain is sometimes related to a neurofibroma growing near the spine and it
might not be possible to remove this neurofibroma surgically. For an adult
in whom chronic pain has been fully investigated, a referral to a specialist
pain clinic may be useful (ask your GP about this).
Pain-relieving medication can sometimes help in the management of this
type of pain. Some pain relief medications are very helpful, including a type
of anti depressant that is effective in relieving nerve pain. If you find the
medication unsuitable either because it does not seem to work or you have
unpleasant side effects, return to your doctor to seek further advice.
(For more information about pain relief please look at our information sheet
on pain management).
Headaches can be a problem for some people with NF1. Again, medication
may help. Headache should be investigated particularly to work out if it is a
migraine type headache that will respond to medication. If headache gets
worse or occurs in the morning on waking or wakens you from sleep,
medical advice is necessary.
Itching sometimes happens in NF1. This seems to be worse when exposed
to heat (e.g. when taking a hot bath). Avoiding situations that you know will
make matters worse is helpful. Medication such as antihistamines or a simple
emollient can sometimes help – ask your GP for guidance.
Learning and behaviour problems
Most people with NF1 have normal intelligence, but around two thirds of
people who have the condition will experience some problems with learning.
It is the most common “complication” of NF1. The majority of children who
have NF1 are educated in mainstream schools and do not require special
education, although they may benefit from extra help.
Children and adults who have NF1 and who have learning problems may
have difficulty reading and writing, they may find it hard to concentrate,
have memory difficulties or have poor co-ordination. Where someone with
NF1 has learning problems, this is often evident from their earliest years at
school and, as children, they may underachieve at school and have
difficulties establishing and maintaining peer friendships.
Research has demonstrated that there is an increased incidence of Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
in NF1. There is also an increased incidence of mild autism (sometimes
called Aspergers). These conditions should be assessed, diagnosed and
supported in the same way as any other individual where this is suspected.
There can sometimes be behaviour difficulties at home and at school. These
difficulties can be similar to the difficulties found in children who do not have
NF1, where there are conditions such as dyslexia, dyspraxia (clumsiness)
and attention difficulties. It is important that these problems are recognised
as early as possible so that teachers are aware of how NF1 can affect school
performance. It is useful to have a frank discussion with teachers so that
common misconceptions about NF1 can be dispelled and the child can get
help in school if he or she needs it.
Learning and behaviour problems in NF1 are not progressive, that is they do
not get worse over time. In fact, they can usually be improved with
appropriate help.
The Neuro Foundation website ( has a number of
Information Sheets about learning problems in NF1
Deciding to have children if you have NF1
NF1 is caused by a change in the structure of a gene. Each person has
about 30,000 genes in their body. Genes are the set of instructions within
cells that tell the body how to grow, develop and function.
Genes come in pairs, so we all have two copies of the NF1 gene. If a person
has NF1, one of these copies will have an alteration or miscopy. When
someone with NF1 has a child, he or she passes on one of their two copies
of the gene: either the normal one or the copy with the NF1 alteration. If
the normal copy of the gene is passed on, the child is
very unlikely to have NF1. If the altered NF1 gene is passed on, the child
will have NF1.
Therefore, every person with NF1 has a 50:50 or 1 in 2 chance of
passing the condition on to each of their children, boys or girls.
For adults with NF1 who are planning their family, there is no way to predict
how mildly or severely a child who inherits NF1 will be affected. The decision
whether or not to have children is a very personal one for a couple and may
depend on personal experience of NF1.
Prenatal diagnosis (testing an unborn baby in the womb) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) techniques are now available to
couples planning a family. Couples wishing to find out more about these
choices need to ask for referral to their regional genetics department at a
very early stage of their planning.
NF1 and pregnancy
If you are generally in good health, there are no specific concerns about
pregnancy and NF1. If you are pregnant and you have NF1, you should let
the maternity unit know that you have NF1 at the first antenatal visit.
Some women report an increase in the number of neurofibromas and an
increase in size of existing neurofibromas. When your baby arrives, they
should be checked for features of NF1 from the first months of life by a
community or hospital paediatrician, geneticist or clinic specialising in NF1.
There is no reason why a mother with NF1 should not be able to breastfeed.
Occasionally the presence of neurofibroma(s) around the nipple can create
difficulties for the baby to “latch on”.
What do I need to do to look after myself or my family if we have
If you have NF1, you should expect to live a long life in good health. Most
people who have NF1 go through life with relatively few medical problems.
NF1 can cause life-threatening problems but these are rare. It is important
to have regular medical follow-up so that any complications can be identified
If you notice unusual health changes or symptoms it is important to seek
medical advice sooner rather than later.
When to seek advice from your doctor
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Remind your doctor that you have NF1 and ask the question “Could
this be linked to my NF1?”
If the problem does not go away or is getting worse, return to your
doctor for further advice or ask to be referred to a specialist
Professionals important to your care if you or your child has NF1 are:
Family doctor (GP)
It is important to note that your GP may not see many people with NF1 and
for this reason they may not know how variable NF1 can be from person to
person. Medical guidelines can be sent from the Neuro Foundation to your
GP to give more information.
If you are an adult, it is a good idea to see your GP once a year for a
general health check up and to have your blood pressure checked. It
is also a good idea to have regular eye checks with your optician.
See your doctor if you have any new or unexplained symptoms, just as you
would if you did not have NF1.
Hospital or community paediatrician (children’s doctor)
If you have a child with NF1, it is advisable that their growth,
development and general health is monitored by a Community or
Hospital Paediatrician from diagnosis until adulthood. The
paediatrician will advise you how frequently your child needs to be
There are a number of specialist paediatric NF1 clinics in some areas
of the UK.
Brain scans are not routinely performed in NF1 unless there are specific
reasons to do this, for example unusual symptoms. If you notice any
changes in your health (as described earlier) outside of routine review
appointments, it is sensible to seek medical advice. If symptoms do not go
away, then it is important to return to your doctor for further advice because
if you do not, the doctor will assume that you have recovered from the
Complex NF1 service
This is a specialist nationally funded service to look after the healthcare
needs of the most complex NF1 patients in England. There are clear criteria
to assess which patients are eligible.
Referral from your doctor is needed to access a Neurofibromatosis Centre.
The 2 centres are:
Department of Genetic Medicine, St Mary's Hospital, Oxford Road,
Manchester M13 9WL
Department of Neurology, 1st Floor, Thomas Guy House, Guy's Hospital,
Great Maze Pond, London SE1 9RT
NF Specialist Advisor
The Neuro Foundation funds jointly with the NHS a small number of NF
Specialist Advisor posts. The NF Specialist Advisor service offers
support and information which is available to families and
individuals who have NF1. The NF Specialist Advisor can speak with you
by phone or can visit you at home. The service also has links with many
other health and education professionals. The Specialist Advisor can visit
your child’s school to give information to teachers on learning and NF1 or
contact other health professionals who are working with you to give them
information about NF1.
The charity also has a Helpline service for advice and information. For
information about the Helpline please contact the charity.
We hope you have found this information useful. It is important to
remember that this is an introduction to NF1 and not all of the
information will apply to everyone who has NF1. For specific
information, it is advisable to seek advice from the doctor who is treating
you or your child.
This booklet has been written as a general guide to NF1 and tries
to address some of the questions and concerns that people have
when an adult or child has been diagnosed with NF1.
It has been updated in 2012.
Rosemary Ashton (Abbott)
Neurofibromatosis Specialist Advisor
The Neuro Foundation
Hilda Crawford,
Neurofibromatosis Specialist Advisor
Belfast City Hospital Trust
Co-authors and medical advisors:
Professor Patrick Morrison
Consultant in Clinical Genetics
Belfast City Hospital Trust
Dr Shane McKee
Consultant in Clinical Genetics
Belfast City Hospital Trust
Dr Susan Huson
Neurofibromatosis Centre
Genetic Medicine
St Mary's Hospital
The Neuro Foundation has taken reasonable care to ensure that the information
contained in its publications is accurate. The Neuro Foundation cannot accept
liability for any errors or omissions or for information becoming out of date. The
information provided is not a substitute for getting medical advice from your own
GP or other healthcare professional.
The Neuro Foundation,
HMA House,
78 Durham Road,
London SW20 0TL
T: 020 8439 1234
E: [email protected]
The Neuro Foundation is the working name of the Neurofibromatosis Association, a Registered
Charity No. 1078790 and SC045051 and a Company Limited by Guarantee registered in England
and Wales, No. 03798407