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Thai Music
Chen Jing 49044370303
Yang Shu 49044370326
Liang Ruixin 49044370340
Music of Thailand
The music of Thailand reflects its geographic position at the intersection
of China, India, Indonesia and Cambodia, and reflects trade routes that
have historically included Persia, Africa, Greece and Rome. Thai musical
instruments are varied and reflect ancient influence from far afield including the klong thap and khim (Persian origin), the jakhe (Indian
origin), the klong jin (Chinese origin), and the klong kaek (Indonesian
Though Thailand was never colonized by Western powers, pop music and
other forms of European and American music have become extremely
influential. The two most popular styles of traditional Thai music are luk
thung and mor lam; the latter in particular has close affinities with the
Music of Laos.
Aside from the Thai, ethnic minorities such as the Lao, Lawa, Hmong,
Akha, Khmer, Lisu, Karen and Lahu peoples have retained traditional
musical forms.
1. Classical music
1.1 Piphat
1.2 Khruang Sai
1.3 Mahori
2. Traditional or folk
2.1 Luk thung
2.2 Mor lam
2.3 Kantrum
3. Pop and rock
3.1 Phleng pheua chiwit
3.2 String
4. Indie
1. Classical music
Thai classical music is synonymous with those stylized court ensembles
and repertoires that emerged in its present form within the royal centers
of Central Thailand some 800 years ago. These ensembles, while being
deeply influenced by Khmer and even older practices and repertoires
from India, are today uniquely Thai expressions. While the three primary
classical ensembles, the Piphat, Khruang Sai and Mahori differ in
significant ways, they all share a basic instrumentation and theoretical
approach. Each employ the small ching hand cymbals and the krap
wooden sticks to mark the primary beat reference. Several kinds of small
drums (klong) are employed in these ensembles to outline the basic
rhythmic structure (natab) that is punctuated at the end by the striking of
a suspended gong (mong). Seen in its most basic formulation, the
classical Thai orchestras are very similar to the Cambodian (Khmer) pin
peat and mahori ensembles, and structurally similar to other orchestras
found within the wide-spread Southeast Asian gong-chime musical
culture, such as the large gamelan of Bali and Java, which most likely
have their common roots in the diffusion of Vietnamese Dong-Son
bronze drums beginning in the first century ACE.
Traditional Thai classical repertoire is anonymous, handed down through
an oral tradition of performance in which the names of composers (if,
indeed, pieces were historically created by single authors) are not known.
However, since the beginning of the modern Bangkok period, composers'
names have been known and, since around the turn of the century, many
major composers have recorded their works in notation. Musicians,
however, imagine these compositions and notations as generic forms
which are realized in full in idiosyncratic variations and improvisations in
the context of performance. While the composer Luang Pradit Phairau
(1881–1954) used localized forms of cipher (number) notation, other
composers such as Montri Tramote (1908–1995) used standard western
staff notation. Several members of the Thai royal family have been
deeply involved in composition, including King Prajatipok (Rama VII,
1883–1941) and King Bhumibol Adulyadej (1927–), whose compositions
have been more often for jazz bands than classical Thai ensembles.
Classical Thai music is heterophonic - the instruments either play the
melody or mark the form. There are no harmony instruments.
Instrumentalists improvise idiomatically around the central melody.
Rhythmically and metrically Thai music is steady in tempo, regular in
pulse, divisive, in simple duple meter, without swing, with little
syncopation, and with the emphasis on the final beat of a measure or
group of pulses and phrase, as opposed to the first as in
European-influenced music. The Thai scale includes seven tempered
notes, instead of a mixture of tones and semitones.
1.1 Piphat
The most common and iconic Thai classical music that symbolizes the
dancing of the Thailand's legendary dragons, a midsized orchestra
including two xylophones (ranat), an oboe (pi), barrel drums (klong) and
two circular sets of tuned horizontal gong-chimes (kong wong). Piphat
can be performed in either a loud outdoor style using hard mallets or in an
indoor style using padded hammers. There are several types of piphat
ensembles ranging in size and orchestration, each kind typically being
associated with specific ceremonial purposes. The highly decorated
piphat ensemble that features the ornately carved and painted
semicircular vertical gong-chime is traditionally associated with the
funeral and cremation ceremonies of the Mon ethnic group. Different
versions of the piphat ensemble are employed to accompany specific
forms of traditional Thai drama such as the large shadow puppet theater
(nang yai) and the khon dance drama.
1.2 Khruang Sai
The Khruang Sai orchestra combines some of the percussion and wind
instruments of the piphat with an expanded string section including the so
duang (a high-pitched two-string bowed lute), the lower pitched solaw
(bowed lute) and the three-string jhakhe (a plucked zither). In addition to
these instruments are the klhui (vertical fipple flute) in several sizes and
ranges, a goblet drum (than) and, occasionally, a small hammered
Chinese dulcimer (khim). The khruang sai ensemble is primarily used for
instrumental indoor performances and for accompanying the Thai hoon
grabok (stick-puppet theater), a genre deeply influenced by Chinese
puppetry styles. Accordingly, the addition of Chinese-sounding string
instruments in the khruang sai ensemble is imagined, by the Thai, to be a
reference to the probable Chinese origins of this theater form.
1.3 Mahori
The third major Thai classical ensemble is the Mahori, traditionally
played by women in the courts of both Central Thailand and Cambodia.
Historically the ensemble included smaller instruments more appropriate,
it was thought, to the build of female performers. Today the ensemble
employs regular sized instruments—a combination of instruments from
both the Khruang Sai and Piphat ensembles but excluding the loud and
rather shrill oboe. The ensemble, which is performed in three
sizes—small, medium and large—includes the three-string so sam sai
fiddle, a delicate-sounding, middle-range bowed lute with silk strings.
Within the context of the Mahori ensemble, the so sam sai accompanies
the vocalist, which plays a more prominent role in this ensemble than in
any other classical Thai orchestra.
While Thai classical music was somewhat discouraged as being
unmodern and backward looking during Thailand's aggressively
nationalistic modernization policies of mid-20th century, the classical arts
have benefited recently from increased governmental sponsorship and
funding as well as popular interest as expressed in such films as Homrong:
The Overture (2003), a popular fictionalized biography of a famous
traditional xylophone (ranat ek) performer.
2. Traditional or folk
2.1 Luk thung
Luk thung, or Thai country music, developed in the mid-20th century to
reflect daily trials and tribulations of rural Thais. Ponsri Woranut and
Suraphol Sombatcharoen were the genre's first big stars, incorporating
influences from, Asia. Many of the most popular artists have come from
the central city of Suphanburi, including megastar Pumpuang Duangjan,
who pioneered electronic luk thung.
2.2 Mor lam
Mor lam is the dominant folk music of Thailand's north-eastern Isan
region, which has a mainly Lao population. It has much in common with
luk thung, such as its focus on the life of the rural poor. It is characterized
by rapid-fire, rhythmic vocals and a funk feel to the percussion. The lead
singer, also called a mor lam, is most often accompanied by the khaen.
There are about fifteen regional variations of mor lam, plus modern
versions such as mor lam sing. Some conservatives have criticized these
as the commercialization of traditional cultures.
2.3 Kantrum
The people of Isan are also known for kantrum, which is much less
famous than mor lam. Kantrum is played by Khmer living near the border
with Cambodia. It is a swift and very traditional dance music. In its purest
form, cho-kantrum, singers, percussion and tro (a type of fiddle)
dominate the sound. A more modern form using electric instrumentation
arose in the mid-1980s. Later in the decade, Darkie became the genre's
biggest star, and he crossed into mainstream markets in the later 1990s.
3. Pop and rock
By the 1930s, however, Western classical music, showtunes, jazz and
tango were popular. Soon, jazz grew to dominate Thai popular music, and
Khru Eua Sunthornsanan soon set up the first Thai jazz band. The music
he soon helped to invent along with influential band Suntharaporn was
called pleng Thai sakorn, which incorporated Thai melodies with Western
classical music. This music continued to evolve into luk grung, a
romantic music that was popular with the upper-class. King Bhumibol is
an accomplished jazz musician and composer.
3.1 Phleng pheua chiwit
By the 1960s, Western rock was popular and Thai artists began imitating
bands like Cliff Richard & the Shadows; this music was called wong
shadow, and it soon evolved into a form of Thai pop called string. Among
the groups that emerged from this period was The Impossibles. The '70s
also saw Rewat Buddhinan beginning to use the Thai language in rock
music as well as the rise of protest songs called phleng pheua chiwit
(songs for life).
The earliest phleng pheua chiwit band was called Caravan, and they were
at the forefront of a movement for democracy. In 1976, police and right
wing activists attacked students at Thammasat University; Caravan, along
with other bands and activists, fled for the rural hills. There, Caravan
continued playing music for local farmers, and wrote songs that would
appear on their later albums.
In the 1980s, phleng pheua chiwit re-entered the mainstream with a grant
of amnesty to dissidents. Bands like Carabao became best-sellers and
incorporated sternly nationalistic elements in their lyrics. By the 1990s,
phleng pheua chiwit had largely fallen from the top of the Thai charts,
though artists like Pongsit Kamphee continued to command a large
3.2 String
String pop took over mainstream listeners in Thailand in the 90s, and
bubblegum pop stars like Tata Young, Bird Thongchai McIntyre and
Asanee-Wasan became best-sellers. Simultaneously, Britpop influenced
alternative rock artists like Modern Dog, Loso, Crub and Proud became
popular in late 1990s. In 2006, famous Thai rock bands include Clash,
Big Ass, Bodyslam and Silly Fools.
4. Indie
A group of independent artists and records which produces music for
non-commercial purpose also found in Thailand: Bakery Music(now
under Sony Music); Smallroom; FAT radio; City-Blue; Coolvoice;
Dudesweet; Idea-radio and Panda Records.
Traditional Thai musical instruments
Traditional Thai musical instruments (Thai: เครื่องดนตรีไทย) are the musical
instruments used in the traditional and classical musics of Thailand. They
comprise a wide range of wind, string, and percussion instruments played
by both the Thai majority as well as the nation's ethnic minorities.
In the traditional Thai system of organology, they are classified into four
categories, by the action used in playing:
1. Blowing (Thai: เปา), (wind instruments)
2. Plucking (Thai: ดีด), (plucked string instruments)
3. Bowing (Thai: สี), (bowed string instruments)
4. Striking (Thai: ตี), (percussion instruments and hammered dulcimer)
1. Wind
1.1 Flutes
1.2 Free-reed
1.3 Oboes
1.4 Horns
2. String
2.1 Bowed
2.2 Plucked
2.3 Struck
3. Percussion
3.1 Drums
3.2 Gong chimes
3.3 Keyboard
3.4 Gongs
3.5 Clappers
3.6 Cymbals
3.7 Shaken bamboo
3.8 Bronze drums
4. Central
5. Northeast
6. North
7. South
1. Wind
1.1 Flutes
(ขลุย) - vertical duct flute made of bamboo,
 Khlui
hardwood, or plastic
(ขลุยหลิบ or ขลุยหลีบ; treble); not commonly
 Khlui lib
(ขลุยเพียงออ; medium)
 Khlui phiang aw
(ขลุยอู; bass); not commonly used
 Khlui u
 Wot
(โหวด) - circular panpipe used in the Isan region
of northeast Thailand
1.2 Free-reed
 Khaen
(แคน) - mouth organ used in the Isan
(northeastern) region
 Pi joom (ปจุม; called pi saw in northern Thailand) - free reed pipe used
in the Lanna (northern) region
 Gourd mouth organ - used by the Akha (called lachi), Lisu (called
fulu), and Lahu (called naw) peoples of the upland regions of northern
 Jew's harp (called jong nong (จองหนอง) in central Thailand and huen
(หืน) in northeast Thailand) - played primarily among ethnic
minorities of northern Thailand, as well as by the people of the Isan
region of northeast Thailand
1.3 Oboes
 Pi (ป) - quadruple- or double-reed oboe
 Pi chanai
Indian shehnai
(ปไฉน) - possibly derived from the
(ปชวา) - used to accompany Muay
 Pi chawa
 Pi klang
 Pi mon
(ปมอญ) - large double-reed oboe with detachable
metal bell; used for funeral music
 Pi nai
(ปใน) - standard leading instrument used
in the piphat ensemble
 Pi nok
1.4 Horns
 Trae (แตร) - metal horn
 Sang (สังข) - conch shell horn; also called trae sang (แตรสังข)
2. String
2.1 Bowed
 Saw duang
(ซอดวง) - higher two-string fiddle with
hardwood body; used in classical music
 Saw sam sai
(ซอสามสาย) - three-string spike fiddle
with coconut shell body; used in classical music
 Saw u
(ซออู) - lower two-string fiddle with a
coconut shell body; used in classical music
 Saw peep (ซอปบ or ซอปบ) or saw krapawng (ซอกระปอง)- two-string
fiddles with body made from a metal can; used in the Isan region of
northeast Thailand; saw krapawng is smaller
 Saw bong (ซอบั้ง) - used in the Isan region of northeast Thailand
 Salaw
(สะลอ) - three-string spike fiddle used in the
Lanna region
2.2 Plucked
 Grajabpi
 Jakhe
(กระจับป) - ancient fretted lute
(จะเข) - crocodile-shaped fretted floor zither
with three strings
 Phin (พิณ) - three-stringed lute used in the Isan region of northeastern
 Phin pia
(พิณเพียะ) - chest-resonated stick zither
played by the Lanna of northern Thailand
 Seung
northern Thailand
(ซึง) - plucked lute from the Lanna region of
 Phin hai
(พิณไห) or hai song (ไหซอง) - a set of
earthenware jars with rubber bands stretched over the open mouths
2.3 Struck
 Khim
(ขิม) - hammered dulcimer
3. Percussion
3.1 Drums
 Taphon
(ตะโพน) or klawng taphon (กลองตะโพน) -
sacred barrel drum; played with the hands and used in the piphat
 Glong thad
(กลองทัด) - large drum played with sticks;
usually played in a pair and used in the piphat ensemble
 Rammana
(รํามะนา) - frame drum; played with the
 Thon
(โทน) - goblet drum; played with the hand
 Glong thap - goblet drum used primarily in southern Thai folk music
 Glong khaek
(กลองแขก) - barrel drum; played with
the hands and generally played in pairs
 Glong songna - barrel drum; played with the hands
 Glong yao
(กลองยาว) - long drum; played with the
 Perng mang kok - set of tuned drums used in the piphat Mon
 Glong seng, Glong jing, or Glong tae - large drum played with sticks;
generally played in pairs and used in competition in the Isan region of
northeast Thailand, particularly by the Phu Thai people
3.2 Gong chimes
(ฆองวงเล็ก) - higher gong circle;
 Khong wong lek
comprises many small tuned bossed gongs mounted in a rattan frame
(ฆองวงใหญ)- lower gong circle;
 Khong wong yai
comprises many small tuned bossed gongs mounted in a rattan frame
 Khong mon
(ฆองมอญ) - set of many small tuned
bossed gongs arranged in vertical curved frame; usually primarily in
funeral music
(ฆองราง) - set of eight tuned gongs
 Khong rang
suspended horizontally in a straight frame; similar to the southern
Philippine kulintang; rare
3.3 Keyboard
 Ranad
percussion instrument; generally played with two mallets and used in
Thai classical and theater music
 Ranad ek (ระนาดเอก) - higher xylophone, with bars usually made of
 Ranad thum (ระนาดทุม) - lower xylophone, with bamboo or
hardwood bars
 Ranad ek lek (ระนาดเอกเหล็ก) - higher metallophone
 Ranad thum lek (ระนาดทุมเหล็ก) - lower metallophone
 Ranad kaeo (ระนาดแกว) - crystallophone; very rare
 Bong lang (โปงลาง) - pentatonic log xylophone used in the Isan region
3.4 Gongs
 Khong chai (ฆองชัย), also called khong hui (ฆองหุย) or khong mui (ฆอง
มุย) - huge hanging bossed gong used for indicating time
 Khong mong
(ฆองโหมง) or mong (โหมง) - medium-sized
hanging bossed gong used in Thai ensembles
 Khong meng (ฆองเหมง) or khong kratae (ฆองกระแต) - small bossed gong
used as a signaling device and in traditional parades with klawng yao
 Khong rao
(ฆองราว) - three bossed gongs (small,
medium, and large) suspended vertically in a wooden frame; rare
(ฆองคู) - pair of small bossed gongs
 Khong khu
suspended horizontally in a wooden box; used in theater music and
music of southern Thailand
(วงฆองชัย) - set of seven large bossed
 Wong khong chai
gongs suspended vertically in a circular frame; rare
3.5 Clappers
 Krab (กรับ) - clapper
 Krab phuong (กรับพวง) - bundle of hardwood and brass slats, tied
together at one end
 Krab sepha (กรับเสภา) - pair of bamboo or hardwood sticks
3.6 Cymbals
 Ching
(ฉิ่ง) - pair of small, thick cymbals joined by a
cord; used to mark time
 Chab
(ฉาบ) - pair of flat cymbals joined by a cord
 Chab lek (ฉาบเล็ก) - smaller
 Chab yai (ฉาบใหญ) - larger
3.7 Shaken bamboo
 Angkalung
(อังกะลุง) - set of tuned bamboo tubes
mounted in a frame and shaken; generally played by a group. comes
from Indonesia.
3.8 Bronze drums
 Mahorathük
(มโหระทึก) - bronze drum; dates back to
the Dong Son culture of antiquity and today very rare
Traditional Thai musical instruments also are classified into four
categories, by the region of Thailand in which they are used.
4. Central
 Saw sam sai
The saw sam sai (Thai: ซอสามสาย; also spelled
saw samsai, and occasionally called simply sam
sai; literally "three stringed fiddle") is a
traditional bowed string instrument of Thailand.
Its body is made from a special type of coconut
covered on one end with animal skin, and it has
three silk strings. Typically, the player glues a
jewel onto the skin before playing, to reduce the skin's
The saw sam sai is in the saw family of Thai fiddles, which also includes
the saw u and saw duang.
It is the hardest to play among the 4 types of Thai Saw: Saw U, Saw
Duang, and Sa Lor. This is because the bow is not attached, and one must
"break" their wrist back and forth to change strings- not tilting the bow.
Because of this, it is frequently used as a prop in pictures to show
knowledge or a high social status.
It is related to a very similar Cambodian instrument called tro Khmer.
 Saw duang
The saw duang (Thai: ซอดวง) is a bowed
string instrument used in Thai music. It
has a hardwood soundbox covered on the
playing end with python skin. It is held
vertically and has two silk strings that are
played with a bow.
 Saw u
The saw u (Thai: ซออู; also spelled saw ou)
is a Thai bowed string instrument.It has a
lower pitch than the saw duang. Its
soundbox is made from a coconut shell
that is covered on the front end by
cowskin. It is held vertically and has two
silk strings that are played with a bow
whose hair passes between the strings.
The saw u is similar to the Cambodian tro u and the Chinese yehu,
although the latter instrument has a wooden rather than skin face.
 Jakhe
deriving from the word
"crocodile") is a plucked
zither used in Thai music.
It is made of wood in a stylized crocodile shape and is approximately 20
cm high and 140 cm long. Its highest two strings are made of silk yarn or
nylon and lowest is made of brass. It has raised frets made of bamboo,
which are affixed to the fretboard with wax or glue.
The player uses his or her left hand on the fretboard while plucking the
string by his right hand with a tapered plectrum made from ivory or water
buffalo horn, which is tied to the player's index finger. The instrument
has a buzzing sound due to the fact that the strings are raised just off the
flat bridge by a sliver of bamboo or other thin material such as plastic.
The jakhe is similar to the Cambodian krapeu (takhe), the Burmese mi
gyaung. and the Mon kyam.
 Khlui
The khlui (ขลุย) is a vertical duct
made from hardwood or plastic.
The khlui is very similar to the
Cambodian khloy, though there are differences in tuning between the two
It comes in three sizes: khlui lib (ขลุยหลิบ; small), khlui phiang aw (ขลุยเพียงออ;
medium), and khlui u (ขลุยอู; large).
The khlui once had a buzzing membrane similar to the Chinese di mo, but
this is not used today.
 Pi
 Ranat ek
The ranad ek (Thai: ระนาดเอก)alto
xylophone is a Thai xylophone.
It has 21 or 22 wooden bars
suspended by cords over a
boat-shaped trough resonator,
and is played with two mallets. It is used as a leading instrument in the
piphat ensemble.
The Ranat ek is played by two types of mallets. The hard mallets create
the sharp bright sound when they keys are hit.The hard mallets are used
for more faster playing. The soft mallets create a mellow and more softer
tone which is used for slower songs.
Ranat ek bars are typically made from rosewood (Dalbergia oliveri; Thai:
ไมชิงชัน; mai ching chan), although in rare instances instruments with
bamboo bars can be found.
Some ranat ek players are able to play two instruments at the same time,
placed at right angles to each other.
The ranat ek is very similar to a Cambodian xylophone called roneat ek.
 Ranat thum
The ranad thum (Thai:
ระนาดทุม) is a low pitched
xylophone used in the
music of Thailand. It has
18 wooden keys, which
are stretched over a boat-shaped trough resonator. Its shape looks like a
ranad ek, but it is lower and wider. It is usually played in accompaniment
of a ranad ek.
Ranat thum bars are typically made from bamboo, although instruments
with rosewood (Dalbergia oliveri; Thai: ไมชิงชัน; mai ching chan) bars can
also be found.
It is similar to a Cambodian xylophone called roneat thung.
 Khong wong yai
The khong wong yai (Thai:
ฆองวงใหญ) is a gong circle
used in the music of
Thailand. It has 16 tuned
bossed gongs in a rattan
frame and is played with
two beaters. It is used in
the piphat ensemble to provide the skeletal melody the other instruments
of the ensemble elaborate.
 Khong wong lek
The khong wong lek (Thai:
ฆองวงเล็ก) is a gong circle used
in Thai classical music. It has
18 tuned bossed gongs, and is
smaller and higher in pitch
than the khong wong yai.
Both instruments are played in the same manner, the khong wong lek
plays a faster and more ornate variation on the principal melody, with less
use of two-note chords.
 Thon rammana
The thon rammana (Thai:
โทนรํามะนา) are hand drums
played as a pair in Central
Thai classical music and
Cambodian classical music.
It consists of two drums:
the thon (a goblet drum with a ceramic or wooden body) and the
rammana, a small frame drum. They are used usually in the khruang sai
ensemble. The thon gives a low pitch and the rammana gives a high pitch.
Earlier in the 20th century, the thon and rammana were sometimes played
 Glong khaek
Glong khaek (Thai: กลองแขก)
is a type of double-headed
barrel drum used in Thai
(meaning "drum") and khaek (meaning "Indian" or "Malay"). There are
two types of glong khaek: glong khaek tua phu (which is considered to be
male) (Thai: กลองแขกตัวผู) and glong khaek tua mia (female) (Thai: กลองแขกตัว
เมีย). They are always played in a pair, usually by two players, although if
two players are not available a single player may play both drums. The
two drums fit their beats together in hocket, or interlocking form.
Both drumheads are played with the hands, like the glong songna. The
glong khaek tua phu has a higher pitch and the glong khaek tua mia has a
lower pitch.
 Glong songna
Glong songna (Thai: กลองสองหนา) is a Thai barrel drum. Songna means
"two faces," and the drum has two heads that are played with the hands. It
is used primarily in the piphat ensemble.
5. Northeast
 Huen - This drum is shaped like a drum that is used in the
puangmangkog set. It is always played with a piphat ensemble.
 Khaen - mouth organ
 Wot - a circular panpipe made of 6-9 various lengths of small bamboo
pipes (mai-ruak or mai-hia, mai-ku-khan)
 Phin - a fretted, plucked lute
 Pong lang - log xylophone played by two players with hard stick. Its
shape is like a xylophone consisting of 15 wooden bars stringed
 Jakhe (Kabue) - one of the important instruments in the mahori
khamen ensemble. It has three strings
 Grajabpi - The krachappi is a plucked stringed instrument. Its turtle
shape sound box is made of jackfruit wood
 Saw kantrum - a bowed string instrument with a wooden soundbox,
the head of which is covered with snakeskin.
 Glong kantrum - a single-headed drum
 Pi salai - a double-reed oboe accompanied with kantrum ensemble
 Krab khoo - Krab khoo: A pair of hard wooden bars two pairs made a
set, played with both hands as percussion in "Kantrum ensemble".
6. North
 Salaw - a bowed fiddle with three strings and a free bow. The
resonator is made of coconut shell cut off on one side.
 Sueng - is a plucked string instrument, made of teak or hardwood. A
round sound hole is cut on the top soundboard.
 Khlui - The same as the Central Thai khlui.
 Pi joom (called pi saw in northern Thailand) - a free reed pipe made
of bamboo, with a single metal reed
 Pi nae - a double reed oboe that resembles the saranai or chani but
larger in size; it is made of wood and usually accompanies the large
 Phin pia - or sometimes simply called "pia" or "phia". The body is
made from a coconut shell.
 Glong teng thing - Klong Teng-thing is a two faced tabular drum and
used as one of percussive instrument.
 Ta lod pod - or Ma-lod-pod is a two-faced tubular drum of 100
centimeters long.
 Glong ting nong - The biggest and longest drum with onc face made
of hide about 3-4 metres long.
 Glong sa bad chai - The most famous drum in northern, hanging on
the double wooden bars carried by men
7. South
 Thap - The goblet-shaped drum used for providing the changes of
rhythm and also for supporting rhythm of the Nora (Southern dance
 Glong nora - Klong nora or Klong nang: a barrel-shaped drum used to
accompany the Nora dance or the Nang talung (Shadow puppet)
 Mong ching - Mong and Ching: two important percussion instruments
used fo accompanying the Nora dance (dance drama) and the Nang
talung (shadow puppet) performance.
 Khong khu - pair of small bossed gongs suspended horizontally in a
wooden box; used in theater music and music of southern Thailand
 Pi - a quadruple-reed oboe type with six finger holes producing at
least three octaves of pitches range.
 Trae rapoung - Trae phuang or Krab phung: a percussion used to
provide rhythmic punctuation of the Nora ensemble