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English Renaissance 1485-1660 A time of “rebirth” Two periods: The Elizabethan (1485-1603) The Jacobean (1603-1660) Elizabeth Period Five monarchs Henry VII (1485-1509) Henry VIII (1509-1547) Edward VI (1547-1553) Mary I (1553-1558) Elizabeth I (1558-1603) The term “Elizabethan Period” Ruled longer than any other monarch during the Renaissance. Attained new dominance and appreciation in world affairs, in art, in literature, and in music. The term “Jacobean Period” Elizabeth left no heirs, no children Succeeded by the son of her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots: James IV of Scotland He became King James I of England Ruled from 1603-1625 King James I New Humanism way of looking at the world Questioning of authority and faith Rise of rationalism and skepticism Emphasis from religious to secular matters Great thinkers: Erasmus and More Renaissance beginning Began in Italy in fourteenth century, 1300’s. Was a time of rebirth of intellectual and artistic energies that characterized and copied Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Beginnings (Continued) Famous Italians Petrach, writer Giotto, painter Brunelleschi, architect Donatello, sculptor Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael, artists and inventors Lorenzo de Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent) Encouraged intellectual trends and artistic accomplishments Encouraged the goals of Renaissance Humanism Emphasized the capacities of the human mind and the achievement of human culture Other Renaissance accomplishments in the world Territorial exploration and discovery Columbus in 1492 Sir Thomas More, center of an active and brilliant circle of English Humanists More’s Utopia (1516), first literary masterpiece of the English Renaissance Copernicus and Galileo, forerunners of modern astronomy Protestant Reformation Martin Luther, Ninety-Five Theses, Wittenberg, Germany King Henry VIII, not allowed a divorce by Pope Anglican church, Church of England, ruled by Henry VIII. Succession after Henry VIII Edward VI, nine-year-old son Death after five years Half-sister Mary, Queen of Scots (daughter of Henry and Catherine of Aragon) Half-Spanish and a devout Catholic Reign of terror (“Bloody Mary”) Succession (Continued) Mary’s death after five years (1558) Half-sister Elizabeth I (daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn) Twenty-five Accomplished linguist and poet Clever diplomat and shrewd politician Most powerful nation Defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 Smaller and more maneuverable ships Storm Control of the seas Entertainment First public theater near London in 1576 Closing of theaters in 1593-94 because of plague Public outcry; reopening of theaters King James I Jacobean Era 1603-1625 King James I King James version of The Holy Bible Puritans, dissenting beliefs End of Jacobean Era Death in 1625 Ascension of King James I’s son Charles Civil war Puritan movement King Charles I End of Jacobean Era (continued) Beheading of Charles I Military dictatorship 1653-1658 “Restoration” of the monarchy Return of Charles II as king (1660) Election of Parliament Beginning of new era King Charles II References Adventures in English Literature (1985). United States: Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich Inc. 99-118. Commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Holbein-erasmus2.jpg Commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Lorenzo_il__Magnifico En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_i_of_england The Renaissance 1485-1660. Elements of Literature Sixth Course (1993). United States: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 165-186. The Renaissance 1485-1660. Elements of Literature Sixth Course (2000). United States: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 190-212. Unit 3: The Renaissance (1485-1660). McDougal, Littel Literature Purple Level (1985). Evanston, IL: McDougal, Littel. College Notes (1967) and common knowledge *I have been using these notes since the mid-eighties with modifications over the course of time! All slides created by JB Hale.