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Volume 5, Issue 3, March 2015
ISSN: 2277 128X
International Journal of Advanced Research in
Computer Science and Software Engineering
Research Paper
Available online at:
Special Issue: E-Technologies in Anthropology
Conference Held at Bon Secours College for Women, India
Review of Heart Disease to Get Ratio Analysis
M. Shobeetha
Assitant Professor, Dept.of. Computer Science,
Bharathidasan University Constituent College (w),
Orathanadu, India
Abstract: Heart disease is a major cause of majority in modern society. Medical diagnosis is extremely important but
complicated task that should be performed accurately and efficiently. Although significant progress has been made in
the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, further investigation is still needed. The availability of huge amounts of
medical data leads to the need for powerful data analysis tools to extract useful knowledge. There is a huge data
available within the healthcare systems. For ever, there is a task of effective analysis tools to discover hide
relationships and recent trends in data. Knowledge discovery and data mining have found n applications in business
and scientific domain. Research has long been concerned with applying statistical and data mining tools to improve
data analysis on large data sets. Disease diagnosis is one of the applications where data mining tools are proving
successful results. In this paper proposed to find out the heart diseases through hospital data mining areas to support
Genetic Algorithm, rough and association rules and Neural schema data mining process and above the technique
observe the heart disease to find out the solution .
Keyword: Association rule, fuzzy record.
Heart Diseases remain the biggest cause of deaths for the last two decades. Recently computer technology and
machine learning techniques to develop software to assist doctors in making decision of heart disease in the early stage.
The diagnosis of heart disease depends on clinical and pathological data. Heart disease prediction system can assist
medical professionals in predicting heart disease status based on the clinical data of patients. In biomedical field data
mining plays an essential role for prediction of diseases In biomedical diagnosis, the information provided by the patients
may include redundant and interrelated symptoms and signs especially when the patients suffer from more than one type
of disease of the same category. The physicians may not able to diagnose it correctly. Data mining with intelligent
algorithms can be used to tackle the said problem of prediction in medical dataset involving multiple inputs. Now a day’s
Artificial neural network has been used for complex and difficult tasks. The neural network is trained from the historical
data with the hope that it will discover hidden dependencies and that it will be able to use them for predicting. Feed
forward neural networks trained by back-propagation have become a standard technique for classification and prediction
tasks. The healthcare industry collects huge amounts of healthcare data and that need to be mined to discover hidden
information for effective decision making. Discover of hidden patterns and relationships often go unexploited
Clinicians and patients need reliable information about an individual’s risk of developing Heart Disease. Ideally, they
would have entirely accurate data and would be able to use a perfect model to estimate risk. Such a model would be able
to categorize people with heart disease and others. Indeed, the perfect model would even be able to predict the timing of
the disease’s onset. The risk factors for heart disease can be divided into modifiable and non modifiable. Modifiable risk
factors include obesity, smoking, lack of physical activity and so on. The non modifiable risk factors for heart disease are
like age, gender, and family history. Many people have at least one heart disease risk factor. Some kinds of heart disease
are cardiovascular diseases, heart attack, coronary heart disease and Stroke. Stroke is a type of heart disease it is caused
by narrowing, blocking, or hardening of the blood vessels that go to the brain or by high blood pressure The rest of the
paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the heart disease prediction system using data mining techniques and
the intelligent and hybrid technique with feature subset selection are discussed in section.
Knowledge discovery in databases is well-defined process consisting of several distinct steps. Data mining is the
core step, which results in the discovery of hidden but useful knowledge from massive databases. A formal definition of
Knowledge discovery in databases is given as follows: ―Data mining is the non trivial extraction of implicit previously
unknown and potentially useful information about data.
© 2015, IJARCSSE All Rights Reserved
Page | 235
Shobeetha, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering 5 (3),
March- 2015, pp. 235-238
Data mining technology provides a user-oriented approach to novel and hidden patterns in the data. The discovered
knowledge can be used by the healthcare administrators to improve the quality of service. The discovered knowledge can
also be used by the medical practitioners to reduce the number of adverse drug effect, to suggest less expensive
therapeutically equivalent alternatives. Anticipating patient’s future behavior on the given history is one of the important
applications of data mining techniques that can be used in health care management. A major challenge facing healthcare
organizations (hospitals, medical centers) is the provision of quality services at affordable costs. Quality service implies
diagnosing patients correctly and administering treatments that are effective. Poor clinical decisions can lead to
disastrous consequences which are therefore unacceptable. Hospitals must also minimize the cost of clinical tests. They
can achieve these results by employing appropriate computer-based information and/or decision support systems. Health
care data is massive. It includes patient centric data, resource management data and transformed data. Health care
organizations must have ability to analyze data. Treatment records of millions of patients can be stored and computerized
and data mining techniques may help in answering several important and critical questions related to health care. The
availability of integrated information via the huge patient repositories, there is a shift in the perception of clinicians,
patients and payers from qualitative visualization of clinical data by demanding a more quantitative assessment of
information with the supporting of all clinical and imaging data. For instance it might now be possible for the physicians
to compare diagnostic information of various patients with identical conditions. Likewise, physicians can also confirm
their findings with the conformity of other physicians dealing with an identical case from all over the world Medical
diagnosis is considered as a significant yet intricate task that needs to be carried out precisely and efficiently. The
automation of the same would be highly beneficial. Clinical decisions are often made based on doctors’ intuition and
experience rather than on the knowledge rich data hidden in the database. This practice leads to unwanted biases, errors
and excessive medical costs which affects the quality of service provided to patients. Wu, et al proposed that integration
of clinical decision support with computer based patient records could reduce medical errors, enhance patient safety,
decrease unwanted practice variation, and improve patient outcome . This suggestion is promising as data modeling and
analysis tools, e.g., data mining, have the potential to generate a knowledge-rich environment which can help to
significantly improve the quality of clinical decisions.
In this section the role of intelligent technique such as neural network for heart disease prediction is explained
presented Intelligent Heart Disease Prediction System using and Genetic Algorithm Adaptable based fuzzy inputs are
adapted with a modular neural network to rapidly and accurately approximate complex functions. The model combined
the neural network adaptive capabilities and the fuzzy logic quantitative approach then integrated with genetic algorithm
to diagnosis the presence of the disease. Coactive fuzzy inference system model has good training performance and
classification accuracies. Dataset of heart disease was obtained from UCI Machine Learning Repository .Coactive fuzzy
modeling was proposed as a dependable and robust method developed to identify a nonlinear relationship and mapping
between the different attributes. The total records are divided into two data sets one is used for training consists of 303
records & another for testing consists of 270 records. Initially dataset contained some fields, in which some value in the
records was missing. These were identified and replaced with most appropriate values using Replace Missing Values
filter. The Replace Missing Values filter scans all records & replaces missing values with mean mode method known as
Data Preprocessing. After pre-processing the data, data mining classification techniques such as Neural Networks, is used
for classification. Many problems in business, science, industry, and medicine can be treated as classification problems.
Owing to the wide range of applicability of and their ability to learn complex and nonlinear relationships including noisy
or less precise information, neural networks are well suited to solve problems in biomedical engineering. So here use for
the neural network technique is classification of medical dataset 14 attributes by considering the single and multilayer
neural network models
© 2015, IJARCSSE All Rights Reserved
Page | 236
Shobeetha, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering 5 (3),
March- 2015, pp. 235-238
Association rules represent a promising technique to improve heart disease prediction. Unfortunately, when association
rules are applied on a medical data set, they produce an extremely large number of rules. Most of such rules are
medically irrelevant and the time required to find them can be impractical., four constraints were proposed to reduce the
number of rules: item filtering, attribute grouping, maximum item set size, and antecedent/consequent rule filtering.
When association rules are applied on a medical data set, they produce an extremely large number of rules. Most of such
rules are medically irrelevant and the time required to find them can be impractical. A more important issue is that, in
general, association rules are mined on the entire data set without validation on an independent sample. To solve these
limitations, the author has introduced an algorithm that uses search constraints to reduce the number of rules, searches for
association rules on a training set, and finally validates them on an independent test set. Instead of using only Support
and confidence, one more parameter i.e. lift have been used as the metrics to evaluate the medical significance and
reliability of association rules. Medical doctors use sensitivity and specificity as two basic statistics to validate results.
Sensitivity is defined as the probability of correctly identifying sick patients, whereas specificity is defined as the
probability of correctly identifying healthy individuals. Lift was used together with confidence to understand sensitivity
and specificity. To find predictive association rules in a medical data set the algorithm has three major steps. First, a
medical data set with categorical and numeric attributes is transformed into a transaction data set. Second, four
constraints mentioned above are incorporated into the search process to find predictive association rules with medically
relevant attribute combinations. Third, a train and test approach is used to validate association rules. Types of association
 Multilevel association rule
 Multidimensional association rule
 Quantitative association rule
The decision tree type used in this research is the gain ratio decision tree. The gain ratio decision tree is based
on the entropy information gain approach, which selects the splitting attribute that minimizes the value of entropy, thus
maximizing the information gain Information gain is the difference between the original information content and the
amount of information needed. The features are ranked by the information gains, and then the top ranked features are
chosen as the potential attributes used in the classifier. To identify the splitting attribute of the decision tree, one must
calculate the information gain for each attribute and then select the attribute that maximizes the information gain. The
information gain for each attribute is calculated using the following formula
Gain Ratio = Information Gain / Split
This paper examines the classification techniques in data mining and shows the performance of classification among
them. In these classification accuracy among these data mining techniques has discussed. The result shows the difference
in error rates. However there are relatively differences in different techniques. Decision tree and access perform
classification more accurately than the other methods. Data mining application in heart disease Author name review
reported that the major advantage of data mining technique shows the 92.1 % 91.0 % accuracy for the heart disease. We
suggest that the age, sex, chest pain, blood pressure, personnel history, previous history, cholesterol, fasting blood sugar,
resting ECG, Maximum heart rate, slope, etc. that may be used as reliable indicators to predict presence of heart disease.
We also suggest that data should be explored and must be verified from the team of heart disease specialist doctors. In
future, we will try to increase the accuracy for the heart disease patient by increasing the various parameters suggested
from the doctors by using different data mining techniques.
© 2015, IJARCSSE All Rights Reserved
Page | 237
Shobeetha, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering 5 (3),
March- 2015, pp. 235-238
Mrs. Bharati M. Ramageri, ―Data Mining Techniques And Applications‖,Bharati M. Ramageri / Indian Journal
of Computer Science and Engineering Vol. 1 No. 4 301-305
Heart disease from‖
Bala Sundar V, Bharathiar, Development of a Data Clustering Algorithm for Predicting Heart‖ International
Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 888) Volume 48 No.7, June 2012
[4] coronary-artery-disease/coronary-artery-disease.html [5] R. Gupta, V. P.
Gupta, and N. S. Ahluwalia, Educational status, coronary heart disease, and coronary risk factor prevalence in a
rural population of India‖, BMJ. pp 1332–1336, 19 November 1994.
© 2015, IJARCSSE All Rights Reserved
Page | 238