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Social media based analytical framework for financial fraud detection
Abstract: With more and more companies go public nowadays, increasingly number of
financial fraud are exposed. Conventional auditing practices primarily focus on statistical
analysis of structured financial and market activity data in financial statement. However, it
may fail in case of misleading or well-planned financial report, such as vivid cases of highprofile frauds include Lehman Brothers, WorldCom, and Enron. With the rapid growth of
Web 2.0, social media grows to be a hot area for public firms, investors and other
stakeholders to share information and interact with each other. This paper has the first try to
use textual content in social media to detect financial fraud. A systematic analytical
framework is proposed, including the statistical language model analysis part, social network
analysis part, and target-dependent sentiment analysis part. Based on this analytical
framework, different supervised machine learning algorithms are used to classify the fraud
and non-fraud firms. Advantages of this framework over traditional financial fraud detection
techniques are to be tested in future research.
Keywords: Financial fraud detection; Social media; Analytical framework
1. Introduction
With more and more companies go public nowadays, increasingly number of financial
fraud are exposed. Falsification of financial information made by public companies not only
causes significant financial loss to broad shareholders but also triggers the bankruptcies of
some well-known companies. For instance, Enron’s case was attributed as the biggest
auditing failure, which led to nearly USD$11 billion loss to stockholders [1]. In case of these
great lost, there is an urgent need to detect and identify financial fraud, which is instrumental
to ensure a fair, open, and transparent financial market.
Wang, et al. [2] defined financial fraud as “a deliberate act that is contrary to law, rule, or
policy with intent to obtain unauthorized financial benefit”. In this paper, we deal with the
financial statement fraud (FSF) detection, one of the severe financial frauds. The broadly
accepted definition of financial statement fraud is articulated by National Commission on
Fraudulent Reporting [3] as “intentional or reckless conduct, either by act or omission, which
results in materially misleading financial statements”.
Conventional auditing practices and academic researches rely highly on statistical analysis
of structured financial and market activity data in financial statements to expose a firm’s fraud
behavior [4, 5]. However, conventional fraud detection methods work not so well in
nowadays circumstances due to the limitation of financial statement. On one hand, since the
financial statements are well-planned and ex-anti prepared reports, the management has
enough time to conceal the true financial condition, and has the abilities to circumvent
different audit mechanism by accounting shenanigans. On the other hand, financial statement
is a monologue and a one-way pitch, which is irreciprocal without considering feedbacks and
interactions from investors. Considering these shortcomings in previous researches, a new
data source that can provide timely, dynamic, updated decision support for investors is needed.
In the era of Web 2.0, Internet based social media platform has become an efficient way of
investor relations management for companies to communicate with investors, and other
stakeholders after big event of the company, such as release of quarterly report and annual
report, especially when encounter business crisis, like being accused of fraud by investors or
a short-seller [6]. Due to timely, dynamic, updated, and wide-coverage information on social
media, it shows a potential for serving as the data source to detect financial fraud.
Nevertheless, the volume and variety of the potentially relevant business information is huge,
causing cognitive load on both shareholders and data analysts. The research question of this
paper is how to effectively employ the information on social media for financial fraud
detection. In order to solve this problem, we first categorize unstructured information in social
media that are related with financial statement fraud into three categories, and then propose an
analytical framework with three components to analyze each kind of data.
This paper unfolds as follows. Section 2 reviews the extant literature and defines the
research gap. Section 3 presents the analytical framework for analyzing information in social
media. Section 4 deals with the data collection and analysis. Conclusions are in last section.
2. Literature review
Since financial fraud detection is a classic research topic, we generalize different financial
and nonfinancial measures together with the methodologies used to detect financial fraud in
literature.
In terms of measure selection, a common thread in prior literature is to develop a checklist,
which also known as red flags for auditors in their auditing practice [7]. However, Cecchini,
et al. [4] stated that there are some problems with the red flag checklist as a fraud detection
mechanism. Another thread is employing quantitative financial ratios to detect potential
financial fraud. Considering the financial ratios used, prior studies unvaryingly employed data
taken from annual financial reports. Most studies used 8 to 10 financial ratios [8-12]. Other
researchers used large feature sets, almost more than 20 ratios [13]. The most popular trend is
integrating both quantitative variables (including financial ratios) and qualitative variables
(including the red flags) together into an integrated model [14-17].
Recently, researchers started to analyze textual data in financial statement, i.e., MD&A
section. Cecchini, et al. [18] extracted linguistic cues from textual information and aggregated
them with financial ratios to classify the fraud and non-fraud firms. Humpherys, et al. [19]
had the first try to only use linguistic cues to detect financial statement fraud. Glancy and
Yadav [20] dealt directly with textual data in MD&A section.
In order to handle these different measures, we summarize five types of methodologies
used in literature (listed in Table 1). These researches always used just one method, and
compared their results with previous researches. In contrast, some researchers employed more
than two methods and made an overall comparison [10, 16, 21-23].
Methodology
Statistical model
Fuzzy set theory
Multi-criteria decision model
Data mining
Text mining
Specific techniques
Discriminant analysis
Logistic regression model
Fuzzy set model
UTADIS and MHDIS model
Neural networks
Decision trees
Bayesian belief network
K-nearest neighbours
Support vector machine
Linguistic cues based method
A computational fraud detection model
References
[13]
[8, 11, 12, 15, 21, 24-26]
[27, 28]
[29, 30]
[9, 10, 14, 21, 22, 31]
[10, 21, 22, 32]
[10, 22]
[22]
[4, 22]
[18, 19, 33]
[20]
Total
1
8
2
2
6
4
2
1
2
3
1
Table 1 Methodologies used in prior fraudulent financial statement detection studies
As we can see, previous literature mainly used financial statement to extract the features of
fraud and non-fraud companies, and then employ different data mining and text mining
techniques to make a classification of fraud and non-fraud ones. However, financial statement
is self-limited as we discussed in the Introduction section. Due to the drawbacks of data
source in existing research, this paper creatively test the usability of extensive and interactive
data in social media for financial fraud detection. Following the design science research
paradigm, a social media based analytical framework for detecting financial fraud is
developed below.
3. Analytical framework and research methodology
Nowadays, firms broadcast information (e.g., news and financial announcements) in social
media and investors tend to rely on social media generated information to assist their
investment decisions. This paper resorts to these information in social media to support
decision of financial fraud detection. Information about a firm’s financial statement in social
media mainly presents in textual format, which can be categorized into three types. The first
kind is the materials such as reports and announcements that are released online by the focal
firm itself, which are viewed as internal factors. The second kind is interaction factors about
the contact network between the firm and investors and other stakeholders. The third type is
the sentiment of financial news and public mood on focal firm’s financial operation
conditions and fraud behaviors, which can be called external factors. Considering three kinds
of data simultaneously, an analytical framework is proposed to address all the information in
social media for financial fraud detection (Figure 1).
Figure 1 Analytical framework for social media based financial fraud detection
The dashed part represents the data source and analysis technique in previous research, in
which financial ratios and/or textual information in financial statements are analyzed by
different data mining and/or text mining techniques. Three solid diamond parts in Figure 1
comprise the main parts of this research. They are statistical language model analysis part for
analyzing internal factors, social network analysis part for analyzing management’s social
network connections, and target-dependent sentiment analysis part for analyzing views of
financial news and public mood. Each part is discussed in detail below.
3.1 Statistical language model analysis
Zhou, et al. [34] has demonstrated the effectiveness of statistical language model (SLM) in
deception detection. To analyze the reports and announcements of the focal firm, we
introduce SLM into realm of fraudulent financial statement detection. SLM is used to estimate
the occurrence probability of a span of text, which can be adapted to detect the strategic use of
deceptive language in financial statements. However, SLM is self-limited because of its
inability to capture long-span information. To overcome this insufficiency, latent semantic
analysis (LSA) framework is integrated with SLM. The integration model not only deals with
the inability of SLM to capture long-span information, but also extract the semantic patterns
from textual information. Using this integration model, reports and announcements of the firm
are represented by a document vector, which can distinguish fraudulent financial statements
from non-fraudulent ones.
This approach is significantly superior to existing linguistic cues based methods [18, 19]
from at least two perspectives. One is that we do not need to extract a predefined set of cues
in advance, which is time consuming and labor intensive. The other is that SLM can
essentially model the dependency relationships between words in natural language, which is
of great importance but is ignored in previous research.
3.2 Social network analysis
In social media platform, managers declare the operation conditions and financial abilities
about the focal firm. At the same time, investors can interact and argue with them, and share
their own opinions about its performance. Through this interaction, the managers, investors
and other stakeholders form a social network, in which normal information and fraudulent
information transfers between nodes. Pak and Zhou [35] has the first try to use a social
structure model to investigate the deception in computer mediated communication. Chiu, et al.
[36] used social network to detect Internet auction fraud, and they found the structures of
trade network differ greatly between fraudulent sellers and normal ones. Based on previous
work, I assume that structural characteristics of online social networks for fraudulent firms
and non-fraudulent firms are quite different.
The social structure features used in this paper includes centrality (i.e., in-degree, outdegree, closeness, betweenness), cohesion, similarity, and multiplexity.
3.3 Target-dependent sentiment analysis
Since business press acts as intermediary for information transfer from the firm to
investment community, views of financial news about firm’s financial statement can serve as
a reliable reference for investors. In addition, sentiment in public mood can also help to find
clues about firm’s financial statement. However, different from general sentiment analysis,
financial news and public posts in social media contains contents not just about financial
fraud. In other words, few contents cover the information about fraud, and few of them
discuss financial fraud directly.
According to Jiang, et al. [37] and Chen, et al. [38], a target-dependent sentiment analysis
framework is introduced to exactly classify the sentiment of financial news and public mood
as positive, negative, or neutral to the financial fraud behavior of the firm. Three steps are
involved in the target-dependent sentiment analysis process. Firstly, subdivide the topic
“financial statement fraud” into several related topics, such as financial misstatement,
misconduct, and irregularity. Then many extended targets are identified for each of the related
topics. The third step is extracting target-dependent features of each topic. At last, final
feature of financial news or public mood is formed by the integration of all features of each
topic.
4. Data collection and data analysis
4.1 Sample selection
Before collecting data, we first identify fraud and non-fraud firms. We utilize Accounting
and Auditing Enforcement Releases (AAERs), which are federal materials issued by SEC
(Securities and Exchange Commission) for alleging accounting and/or auditing misconduct in
US-listed companies, to find firms involving fraudulent financial statements. We carry out the
due diligence to check all the AAERs in last ten years, and identify 123 fraud firms. The first
fiscal year that violates the lawsuits is selected for collecting related information in social
media. Another 123 non-fraud firms are matched accordingly on the basis of year, size, and
industry directly from COMPUSTAT.
4.2 Data collection
For each firm, we collect three types of information in different social media platform
within three months after the release of financial statement in the first fiscal year.
Management’s reports and announcements, and financial news are found in three social media
platforms, i.e., Yahoo!Finance, Seekingalpha, and Twitter. The interaction content within the
network of firms and stakeholders are extracted in Twitter. Public posts are extracted from
Seekingalpha and Twitter.
4.3 Data analysis
After the data collection, several text mining and social network analysis techniques are
used to extract corresponding features. Then five types of supervised learning classifiers, i.e.,
Logistic regression, Decision trees (C4.5), Neural networks, Bayesian belief network, Support
vector machine, are employed to train and test the fraud and non-fraud samples using a fivefold cross validation. Performance metrics, such as accuracy, precision, recall, false positive
and false negative, are introduced to evaluate the results.
5. Conclusions
In this paper, we propose a systematic analytical framework for using social media content
as a new source to detect firm’s financial fraud behavior. Its potential ability to detect
financial fraud and advantages over traditional methods will be tested in my following
research.
Obviously, social media based financial fraud detection techniques would not substitute
former methods, i.e. using financial statements as the source to detect fraud. This research just
behaves as a new way to discover the truth.
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