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EUROMETAUX
Product Environmental
Footprint Category Rules
(PEFCR) for
“Metal Sheets for various
applications”
Revision 0.9a
17/06/2016
thinkstep AG
Authors
Company name
Jan Bollen
Arcelor Mittal
Annick Carpentier
Eurometaux
Johannes Drielsma
Euromines
Mirona Coropciuc
Euromines
Dr. Alistair Davidson
ELSIA
Staf Laget
Eurometaux
Christian Leroy
European Aluminium
Djibril René
European Aluminium
Laia Perez Simbor
ECI
Ladji Tikana
DKI/ECI
Rob Versfeld
Tata Steel Europe
Iain Miller
Tata Steel Europe
Nick Avery
Tata Steel Europe
Daniela Cholakova
Aurubis
Karin Hinrichs-Petersen
Aurubis
Jörn Mühlenfeld
Aurubis
Emiliano Micalizio
KME
Thomas Prayer
Hydro
Dr. Johannes Gediga
thinkstep AG
Stefan Horlacher
thinkstep AG
Dr. Constantin Herrmann
thinkstep AG
Andreas Busa
thinkstep AG
Contact:
Address Line 1
Annick Carpentier,
Address Line 2
Eurometaux
Address Line 3
Phone
+3227766314
Fax
Fax Number
E-mail
[email protected]
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS................................................................................................................... III
GLOSSARY AND TERMINOLOGY .......................................................................................................... IV
1
GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE PEFCR .................................................................. 10
1.1 Technical Secretariat ......................................................................................................... 10
1.2 Consultation and stakeholders .......................................................................................... 11
1.3 Date of publication and expiration .................................................................................... 11
1.4 Geographic region ............................................................................................................. 11
1.5 Language of PEFCR ............................................................................................................ 11
2
METHODOLOGICAL INPUTS AND COMPLIANCE ............................................................. 12
2.1 Normative references ........................................................................................................ 12
2.2 PCR references................................................................................................................... 12
3
PEFCR REVIEW AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION ....................................................... 14
3.1 PEFCR review panel ........................................................................................................... 14
3.2 Review requirements for the PEFCR document ................................................................. 14
3.3 Reasoning for development of PEFCR................................................................................ 14
3.4 Conformance with the PEFCR Guidance ............................................................................ 14
4
PEFCR SCOPE ..................................................................................................................... 15
4.1 Unit of analysis .................................................................................................................. 15
4.2 Representative product(s) ................................................................................................. 16
4.3 Product classification (NACE/CPA) ..................................................................................... 16
4.4 System boundaries – life-cycle stages and processes ........................................................ 17
4.5 Selection of the EF impact categories indicators ............................................................... 18
4.6 Additional environmental information .............................................................................. 19
4.7 Assumptions/limitations .................................................................................................... 20
5
RESOURCE USE AND EMISSION PROFILE ......................................................................... 22
5.1 Screening step ................................................................................................................... 22
5.2 Data quality requirements ................................................................................................. 29
5.3 Requirements regarding foreground specific data collection ............................................ 29
5.4 Requirements regarding background generic data and data gaps .................................... 30
5.5 Data gaps ........................................................................................................................... 33
5.6 Use stage ........................................................................................................................... 33
5.7 Logistics ............................................................................................................................. 33
5.8 End-of-life stage and related PEF equation ....................................................................... 34
i
5.9 Requirements for multifunctional products and multiproducts ........................................ 34
5.10 Guidance for determining equation parameters ............................................................... 39
6
BENCHMARK AND CLASSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE ................................ 40
7
INTERPRETATION ............................................................................................................ 41
8
REPORTING, DISCLOSURE AND COMMUNICATION ........................................................ 43
8.1 PEF external communication report .................................................................................. 43
8.2 PEF performance tracking report....................................................................................... 47
8.3 PEF Declaration .................................................................................................................. 47
8.4 PEF label ............................................................................................................................ 50
9
VERIFICATION.................................................................................................................. 51
10 REFERENCE LITERATURE ................................................................................................. 52
11 SUPPORTING INFORMATION FOR THE PEFCR ................................................................. 54
12 LIST OF ANNEXES ................................................................................................................. 55
12.1 ANNEX I – Representative Product and Existing Product standards .................................. 56
12.2 ANNEX II – Bill Of Materials (BOM) .................................................................................... 67
12.3 ANNEX III – Supporting Studies .......................................................................................... 70
12.4 ANNEX IV – Metal production............................................................................................ 85
12.5 ANNEX V – Benchmark and classes of environmental performance.................................. 88
12.6 ANNEX VI – Co-products in Metal production ................................................................... 89
12.7 ANNEX VII – Upstream scenarios (optional) ...................................................................... 92
12.8 ANNEX VIII – Downstream Scenarios (optional) ................................................................ 93
12.9 ANNEX IX – Normalisation factors ..................................................................................... 94
12.10
ANNEX X – Weighting factors ........................................................................................ 95
12.11
ANNEX XI – Foreground data ......................................................................................... 96
12.12
ANNEX XII – Background data ..................................................................................... 140
12.13
ANNEX XIII – EOL forumlas .......................................................................................... 158
12.14 ANNEX XIV – Background information on methodological choices taken during the
development of the PEFCR ....................................................................................................... 159
12.15
ANNEX XV – PCR References ....................................................................................... 174
12.16
ANNEX XVI – Hot-Spots ............................................................................................... 176
12.17
ANNEX XVII – Data quality Requirements .................................................................... 194
12.18
ANNEX XVIII – Screening Study .................................................................................... 199
ii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ADP
Abiotic Depletion Potential
AP
Acidification Potential
CML
Centre of Environmental Science at Leiden
CPA
Classification of Products by Activity
EC
European Commission
ELCD
European Life Cycle Database
EoL
End-of-Life
EP
Eutrophication Potential
FDES
Fiches de Déclaration Environnementales et Sanitaires
GaBi
Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung (German for holistic balancing)
GHG
Greenhouse Gas
GWP
Global Warming Potential
IBU
Institut Bauen und Umwelt e.V. http://construction-environment.com
ILCD
International Cycle Data System
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
LCA
Life Cycle Assessment
LCI
Life Cycle Inventory
LCIA
Life Cycle Impact Assessment
NACE
Nomenclature statistique des activités économiques dans la Communauté
Européenne (French for nomenclature of economic activities in the European Union)
ODP
Ozone Depletion Potential
PCR
Product Category Rules
PEF
Product Environmental Footprint
POCP
Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential
PSR
Product Specific Rules
VOC
Volatile Organic Compound
TS
Technical Secretariat
iii
GLOSSARY AND TERMINOLOGY
The following terms and definitions apply for this document.
Additional Environmental Information – Environmental footprint impact categories and other
environmental indicators that are calculated and communicated alongside PEF results. [PEF Guide
2013/179/EU]
Allocation – An approach to solving multi-functionality problems. It refers to partitioning the input or
output flows of a process, a product system or a facility between the system under study and one or
more other systems” (based on ISO 14040:2006).
Average Data – Refers to a production-weighted average of specific data. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Background Process – Refers to those processes of the product supply chain for which no direct access
to information is possible. For example, most of the upstream supply-chain processes and generally
all processes further downstream will be considered to be background processes. [PEF Guide
2013/179/EU]
Billet – A cast refinery shape of circular cross-section, used for the production of tube, rod, bar, profiles
or forgings [MURRAY, S., 1978].
Business-to-Business (B2B) – Describes transactions between businesses, such as between a
manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Business-to-Consumers (B2C) – Describes transactions between businesses and consumers, such as
between retailers and consumers. According to ISO 14025:2006, a consumer is defined as “an
individual member of the general public purchasing or using goods, property or services for private
purposes”. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Cathode – A rough flat refinery shape made by electrolytic deposition and normally used for remelting
[MURRAY, S., 1978].
Characterisation – Calculation of the magnitude of the contribution of each classified input/output to
their respective EF impact categories, and aggregation of contributions within each category. This
requires a linear multiplication of the inventory data with characterisation factors for each substance
and EF impact category of concern. For example, with respect to the EF impact category “climate
change”, CO2 is chosen as the reference substance and tonne CO2 -equivalents as the reference unit.
[PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Characterisation factor – Factor derived from a characterisation model which is applied to convert an
assigned Resource Use and Emissions Profile result to the common unit of the EF category indicator
(based on ISO 14040:2006)
Classification – Assigning the material/energy inputs and outputs inventoried in the Resource and
Emissions Profile to EF impact categories according to each substance’s potential to contribute to each
of the EF impact categories considered. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Close loop & open loop – A closed-loop allocation procedure applies to closed-loop product systems.
It also applies to open-loop product systems where no changes occur in the inherent properties of the
recycled material. In such cases, the need for allocation is avoided since the use of secondary material
displaces the use of virgin (primary) materials. An open-loop allocation procedure applies to openiv
loop product systems where the material is recycled into other product systems and the material
undergoes a change to its inherent properties. [based on ISO 14044:2006]
Cradle to grave – Addresses the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts (e.g. use
of resources and environmental consequences of releases) throughout a product's life cycle from raw
material acquisition until the end of life.
Cradle to gate – Addresses the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts (e.g. use
of resources and environmental consequences of releases) throughout a product's life cycle from raw
material acquisition until the end of the production process (“gate of the factory”). It may also include
transportation until use phase.
Critical review –Process intended to ensure consistency between a PEF study and the principles and
requirements of this PEF Guide and PEFCRs (if available) (based on ISO 14040:2006).
Data Quality – Characteristics of data that relate to their ability to satisfy stated requirements (ISO
14040:2006). Data quality covers various aspects, such as technological, geographical and timerelated representativeness, as well as completeness and precision of the inventory data.
Environmental Footprint (EF) impact assessment – Phase of the EF analysis aimed at understanding
and evaluating the magnitude and significance of the potential environmental impacts for a system
throughout the life cycle (ISO 14044:2006). The EF impact assessment methods provide impact
characterisation factors for elementary flows in order to aggregate the impact to obtain a limited
number of midpoint and/or damage indicators. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Environmental Footprint (EF) Impact Assessment Method – Protocol for quantitative translation of
Resource Use and Emissions Profile data into contributions to an environmental impact of concern.
[PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Environmental Footprint (EF) Impact Category – Class of resource use or environmental impact to
which the Resource Use and Emissions Profile data are related. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Environmental Footprint (EF) Impact Category Indicator – Quantifiable representation of an EF
impact category [based on ISO 14044:2006]
Environmental impact – Any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, that wholly
or partially result from an Organisation’s activities or products (EMAS regulation).
E V -specific emissions and resources consumed (per unit of analysis) arising from virgin material (i.e.
virgin material acquisition and pre-processing).
𝑛
𝑬𝒓𝒆𝒄𝒚𝒄𝒍𝒆𝒅 = ∑ 𝑅1,𝑖 × 𝐸𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒𝑑,𝑖
𝑖=1
Erecycled: specific emissions and resources consumed (per unit of analysis) arising from the
recycling processes of the secondary material (or reused) material, including collection,
sorting, transportation and melting processes. Depending on the type and origin of the
secondary material, additional processes may be included. Therefore Erecycled may be made
up of a combination of different levels of processing.
v
𝑛
𝑅1,𝑖 : 𝑅1 = ∑ 𝑅1,𝑖 ; 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑅1 𝑠𝑒𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑤
𝑖=1
R1,i is the individual recycling content that the respective technology i contributes to the total
recycled content.
i: Recycling technology number i
n: the number of all existing and/or considered recycling technologies
𝑛
𝑬𝒓𝒆𝒄𝒚𝒄𝒍𝒊𝒏𝒈𝑬𝒐𝑳 = ∑ 𝑅2,𝑖 × 𝐸𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔𝐸𝑜𝐿,𝑖
𝑖=1
ErecyclingEoL: specific emissions and resources consumed (per unit of analysis) arising from the
recycling processes at the end-of-life stage, including collection, sorting, transportation and
melting processes. Depending on the type and origin of the secondary material, additional
processes may be included. Therefore ErecyclingEoL may be made up of a combination of
different levels of processing.
𝑛
𝑅2,𝑖 : 𝑅2 = ∑ 𝑅2,𝑖 ; 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑅2 𝑠𝑒𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑤
𝑖=1
R2,i is the individual recycling share at EoL that the respective technology i contributes to the
total end of life recycling rate.
i: Recycling technology at EoL number i
n: the number of all existing and/or considered recycling technologies at EoL
Flow diagram – Schematic representation of the modelled system (foreground systems and links to
background system), and all major inputs and outputs. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Foreground Process – Refers to those processes of the product life cycle for which direct access to
information is available. For example, the producer’s site and other processes operated by the
producer or contractors (e.g. goods transport, head-office services, etc.) belong to the foreground
system. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Functional Unit – quantified performance of a product system for use as a reference unit. [based on
ISO 14044:2006]
Gate to Gate – a partial product supply chain that includes only the processes within a specific
manufacturer or site. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Gate to Grave – a partial product supply chain that includes only the processes within a specific
manufacturer or site and the processes occurring along the supply chain such as distribution, storage,
use, and disposal or recycling stages. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Generic Data – Refers to data that are not directly collected, measured, or estimated, but rather
sourced from a third-party life cycle inventory database or other source that complies with the data
quality requirements of the PEF Guide [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]; Note: synonymous with “secondary
data”.
vi
Ingot – A cast refinery shape in a form suitable only for remelting. Note – “ingots” are sometimes
called “ingot bars” [MURRAY, S., 1978].
Intermediate product – Output form a unit process that is input to other unit processes that require
further transformation within the system (ISO 14040:2006).
Life cycle – Consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system, from raw material acquisition or
generation from natural resources to final disposal (based on ISO 14040:2006).
Life Cycle Approach – Takes into consideration the spectrum of resource flows and environmental
interventions associated with a product or organisation from a supply chain perspective, including all
stages from raw material acquisition through processing, distribution, use, and end-of-life processes,
and all relevant related environmental impacts (instead of focusing on a single issue). [PEF Guide
2013/179/EU]
Life cycle assessment (LCA) – Compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential
environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle (based on ISO 14040:2006). [PEF
Guide 2013/179/EU]
Life-Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) – Phase of life cycle assessment that aims at understanding and
evaluating the magnitude and significance of the potential environmental impacts for a system
throughout the life cycle (based on ISO 14040:2006). The LCIA methods used provide impact
characterisation factors for elementary flows in order to aggregate the impact to obtain a limited
number of midpoint and/or damage indicators. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Multi-functionality – If a process or facility provides more than one function, i.e. it delivers several
goods and/or services ("co-products"), it is “multi-functional”. In these situations, all inputs and
emissions linked to the process must be partitioned between the product of interest and the other coproducts in a principled manner. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Non-elementary (or complex) flows – Remaining inputs and outputs which are not elementary flows
and need further modelling efforts to be transformed into elementary flows. Examples of nonelementary inputs are electricity, materials, transport processes and examples of non-elementary
outputs are waste and by-products. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Output – Product, material or energy flow that leaves a unit process. Products and materials include
raw materials, intermediate products, co-products and releases [based on ISO 14040:2006].
Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules (PEFCRs) – Are product-type-specific, life-cyclebased rules that complement general methodological guidance for PEF studies by providing further
specification at the level of a specific product category. PEFCRs can help to shift the focus of the PEF
study towards those aspects and parameters that matter the most, and hence contribute to increased
relevance, reproducibility and consistency. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Product Category Rules (PCR) – Set of specific rules, requirements and guidelines for developing Type
III environmental declarations for one or more product categories (based on ISO 14025).
PEF Profile – The quantified results of a PEF study. It includes the quantification of the impacts for the
most relevant impact categories and the additional environmental information considered necessary
to be reported. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
vii
Primary Raw-Materials – Primary Raw-Materials are the basic (naturally occurring) materials from
which a product is made. In LC terms it means those basic (naturally occurring) materials that are
introduced into the boundaries of the studied system.
Reserve Base (CML, 2002) – Total of the deposits which meet certain minimal chemical and physical
requirements to potentially become economically exploitable within planning horizons, but which
includes speculative estimates of undiscovered resources that may or may not be economic within
those planning horizons.
Reserve Base (USGS, 2015) - That part of an identified resource that meets specified minimum
physical and chemical criteria related to current mining and production practices, including those for
grade, quality, thickness, and depth. The reserve base is the in-place demonstrated (measured plus
indicated) resource from which reserves are estimated.
Resource (USGS, 2015) - A concentration of naturally occurring solid, liquid, or gaseous material in or
on the Earth’s crust in such form and amount that economic extraction of a commodity from the
concentration is currently or potentially feasible.
Resource Use and Emissions Profile results – Outcome of a Resource Use and Emissions Profile that
catalogues the flows crossing the PEF boundary and provides the starting point for the EF impact
assessment. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
R1 - [dimensionless] = “recycled (or reused) content of material”, is the proportion of material entering
the product that has originated from secondary material coming from outside the product system
boundary. Scrap generated from within the production system under study shall be excluded from R1
(0=<R1 <=1). Any yield loss from melting secondary material inputs shall be already accounted for. If
this information is not directly available, the choice of any proxy shall be clearly stated, explained and
justified.
R2 - [dimensionless] = “recycling (or reuse) fraction of material”, is the share of the material in the
product that is recycled (or reused) at end of life (0=<R2=<1). R2, usually called the “end of life
recycling rate”, shall consider all the material losses in the collection and recycling (or reuse) processes
up to the point of substitution (e.g. the slab). If this information is not directly available, the choice of
any proxy shall be clearly stated, explained and justified.
Reference flow - Measure of the outputs from processes in a given product system required to fulfil
the function expressed by the unit of analysis (based on ISO 14040:2006). The reference flow is the
amount of product needed in order to provide the defined function. All other input and output flows
in the analysis quantitatively relate to it. The reference flow can be expressed in direct relation to the
unit of analysis or in a more product-oriented way (PEF pilot Guidance V5.2). [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Scrap – Metal fragments, materials or components containing metal that can be used as starting
material for metal recycling. In the metal industry, metallic scrap is is recycled to produce secondary
metal. Any scrap produced along the fabrication chain is called pre-consumer scrap while metallic
scrap collected at the end of life stage is classified as post-consumer scrap.
Scrap pool – The scrap pool is a concept that represents the metallic scrap that is available for recycling
into secondary metal. It can also be considered as a sink/receptor for metal scrap generated at end
of life stage or during fabrication stages. This pool can be composed of different types of scrap which
can be classified under various categories.
viii
Secondary Raw-Material – Secondary Raw-Materials are the basic materials (recovered from previous
use or waste) from which a product is made. In LC terms it means those basic materials (recovered
from previous use or waste) that are introduced into the boundaries of the studied system.
Sensitivity analysis – Systematic procedures for estimating the effects of the choices made regarding
methods and data on the outcome of PEF study (based on ISO 14040: 2006).
Slab – A cast refinery shape of rectangular cross-section, generally used for rolling into plate, sheet,
strip or profiles [MURRAY, S., 1978]
Soil Organic Matter (SOM) – Is the measure of the content of organic material in soil. This derives
from plants and animals and comprises all of the organic matter in the soil exclusive of the matter that
has not decayed. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Specific Data – Refers to directly measured or collected data representative of activities at a specific
facility or set of facilities; synonymous with “primary data”. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
System Boundary – Definition of aspects included or excluded from the study. For example, for a
“cradle-to-grave” EF analysis, the system boundary should include all activities from the extraction of
raw materials through the processing, distribution, storage, use, and disposal or recycling stages. [PEF
Guide 2013/179/EU]
System Boundary diagram – Graphic representation of the system boundary defined for the PEF
study. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Temporary carbon storage happens when a product “reduces the GHGs in the atmosphere” or creates
“negative emissions”, by removing and storing carbon for a limited amount of time.
Uncertainty analysis – Procedure to assess the uncertainty introduced into the results of a PEF study
due to data variability and choice-related uncertainty. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Unit of analysis – The unit of analysis defines the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the function(s)
and/or service(s) provided by the Organisation being evaluated; the unit of analysis definition answers
the questions “what?”, “how much?”, “how well?”, and “for how long?”. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Unit process – Smallest element considered in the Resource Use and Emissions Profile for which input
and output data are quantified. (based on ISO 14040:2006).
Upstream – Occurring along the supply chain of purchased goods/services prior to entering the
manufacturing site for the product. [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]
Waste – Substances or objects which the holder intends or is required to dispose (based on ISO
14025).
shall, should and may – The term “shall” is used to indicate a requirement. The term “should” is used
to indicate a recommendation rather than a requirement. The term “may” is used to indicate an option
that is permissible. [PEF pilot Guidance V5.2]
ix
1
1 GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE PEFCR
2
3
This PEFCR provides Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules (PEFCR) for developing Product
Environmental Footprints for metal sheets.
4
5
It provides a structure to ensure that all Product Environmental Footprints (PEF) for metal sheets are
derived, verified and presented in a harmonised way.
6
7
8
9
10
Metal sheets are products which may require further transformation for their final application. This
PEFCR becomes a “module” to be used for the development of a PEF for products further down the
supply chain /PEF pilot Guidance V5.2/. The PEFCR of the metal sheet for various applications will
provide the necessary guidance for the PEF studies being undertaken for the final applications to help
guarantee that the consistent information is used as input into the PEF study of the final application.
11
12
Note: The structure of this document follows the “Template for Product Environmental Footprint
Category Rules”/PEF pilot Guidance V5.2/.
13
14
15
This version of the document is a draft PEFCR resulting from intensive discussion about the application
and solid interpretation of the PEF methodological guidance and rules. That includes analytical,
structural and methodological adaptation and application.
16
17
18
19
20
Upon request by the DG Environment all methodological choices taken during the development of this
PEFCR, which were dispersed throughout the document at respective points of application, were
moved to the corresponding ANNEX XIV. This was applied after closure of the stakeholder consultation
period, while the content as such did not change and before submission of this draft to the Steering
Committee. Only information related to rules remains in the core text.
21
1.1 TECHNICAL SECRETARIAT
22
The members of the technical secretariat (TS) are listed in the following table.
23
Table 1-1: Members of the Technical Secretariat
Organisation name
Eurometaux
(Coordinator)
thinkstep AG
ArcelorMittal
Aurubis Group
EAA (European Aluminium Association)
ECI (European Copper institute)
ELSIA (European Lead Sheet Industry
Association)
Euromines (European Association of
Mining Industries, Metal Ores &
Industrial Minerals)
KME
TataSteel
Sector
Non-ferrous metals association
Website
www.eurometaux.org
Sustainability consulting
Steel & Mining company
Manufacturing and processing of copper
and other non-ferrous metals (company)
Aluminium – metal sector association
Metal association
Lead Sheet in Construction Sector
association
Mining association
www.thinkstep.com
www.arcelormittal.com
www.aurubis.com
Copper products company
Steel company
http://www.kme.com/en
www.tatasteel.com
www.alueurope.eu
www.eurocopper.org
http://elsia.org.uk
www.euromines.org
10
24
1.2 CONSULTATION AND STAKEHOLDERS
This PEFCR was prepared by:
members of the technical secretariat (Table 1-1)
Consultation period:
29. April 2015 – 2.June 2015
Consultation meetings:
to be completed after consultation
25
Cumulative description of participants and statistical figures to each consultation
26
1.3 DATE OF PUBLICATION AND EXPIRATION
Version number:
Rev. 0.9a
Date of publication:
06/2016
Date of expiration:
to be completed after consultation
27
1.4 GEOGRAPHIC REGION
28
29
The PEFCR document is valid within the following geographical representativeness: All products
produced in Europe.
30
1.5 LANGUAGE OF PEFCR
31
The PEFCR document is developed in English.
11
32
2 METHODOLOGICAL INPUTS AND COMPLIANCE
33
2.1 NORMATIVE REFERENCES
34
35
36
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.
37
ISO 14040
38
Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Principles and framework
39
ISO 14044
40
Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Requirements and guidelines
41
2.2 PCR REFERENCES
42
The following PCR documents were referenced while creating the PEFCR document
43
2.2.1
Building metals
PCR Ident.
NPCR013rev1
V1.5
V1.5
V1.5
PCR name
Steel as construction
material
Basic Metals
Program operator
The Norwegian EPD
foundation
Environdec
Structural Steel
Institut Bauen und Umwelt
e.V.
Building metals
Products of aluminium and
aluminium alloys
Institut Bauen und Umwelt
e.V.
Institut Bauen und Umwelt
e.V.
Additional information
Functional unit: kg
Functional unit: not
specified
Functional unit: t
(Other declared units are
allowed if the conversion to
t is shown transparently.)
Functional unit: kg
Other declared units are
allowed if the conversion to
kg is shown transparently.)
Functional unit: kg
Other declared units are
allowed if the conversion to
kg is shown transparently.)
44
12
45
2.2.2
Other applications
PCR Ident.
PCR 2002:01
PN514 issue 0.0
V1.5
PCR – 30/01/2013
PCR name
Fabricated steel products,
except construction
products and equipment
Product Category Rules for
Type III environmental
product declaration of
construction products to
EN15804:2012
Thin walled profiles and
profiled panels of metal
Product Category Rules
(PCR) for Aluminium
Building Products
Program operator
Environdec
Additional information
Functional unit: t
BRE Group
Functional unit: Mass (1t)
/ Area (m²) / Length (m) /
Volume (m³) / Item (piece)
Institut Bauen und Umwelt
e.V.
European Aluminium
Association
(www.alueurope.eu/updatedepd-programme-2/)
(conversion factors shall
be specified to calculate
between the functional
unit an the declared unit)
Functional unit: m²
(If more suitable for the
application of profiles the
declared unit meter of
profile may be used. The
mass reference must be
specified.)
Depending on the product
type: m2 for sheet
products
46
2.2.3
47
European Copper Institute (ECI), Copper Alliance: The environmental profile of copper products, 2012
48
49
European Aluminium Association (EAA): Environmental profile Report for the Aluminium industry,
April 2013
50
51
European Lead Sheet Industry Association (ELSIA): Life Cycle Assessment Report of Lead Sheet, May
2014
52
53
World Steel Association (worldsteel): Life Cycle Inventory for steel products Methodology Report,
March 2011
54
55
International Lead Organisation (ILO): Life Cycle Inventory – LCI of Primary and Secondary Lead
production, February 2011
56
57
Recommendation 2013/179/EU on The use of common methods to measure and communicate the
life cycle environmental performance of products and organizations
58
59
Product Environmental Footprint Pilot Guidance, Guidance for the implementation of the EU Product
Environmental Footprint (PEF) during the Environmental Footprint (EF) pilot phase, version 5.1
Others
13
60
3 PEFCR REVIEW AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION
61
3.1 PEFCR REVIEW PANEL
62
3.2 REVIEW REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PEFCR DOCUMENT
63
3.3 REASONING FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PEFCR
64
65
66
This PEFCR is developed under the context of a PEF pilot project for further testing purposes through
supporting studies. The intention is that this PEFCR will inform downstream users of metal sheets,
including other pilots, on how to treat metals in their emissions profiles.
67
3.4 CONFORMANCE WITH THE PEFCR GUIDANCE
68
This PEFCR has been developed in conformance with the PEF Guide and the Guidance Products v5.2.
14
69
4 PEFCR SCOPE
70
4.1 UNIT OF ANALYSIS
71
72
This document provides Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules (PEFCR) for product
environmental footprints (PEF) for metal sheets as intermediate products.
73
74
75
76
A metal sheet is a product manufactured at an industrial site with specific properties (e.g. mechanical
properties, surface properties, conductivity etc.). It is typically an intermediate product that requires
further transformation to an end-use product within the following application sectors (non-exhaustive
list):
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
- building and construction applications
- transport
- appliances
- packaging
- engineering
Any surface treatment or finishing of the intermediate product is included in the scope and depends
on the individual specification of the product as it will be sold on the market.
84
85
86
The function of a metal sheet within an end-use product is usually multiple. Examples of these
functions are: structural integrity, weather protection, physical separation, shaping, sealing and
aesthetics (non-exhaustive list).
87
88
89
90
This PEFCR is developed in the context of a PEF pilot project covering aluminium, steel, copper and
lead sheets for building or appliance applications. For other metal sheets, any new PEF study will first
require a screening of the existing PEFCR for metal sheets and an assessment of the applicability of
the PEFCR to the other metal will have to be made.
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
Depending on the application, the metal sheet may be composed of almost 100% pure metal (e.g.
copper or lead) or an alloy ‘(e.g. steel or aluminium). For some specific applications, the metal sheet
may also be coated with a metallic or a non-metallic coating. Since metal sheets are usually composed
of low-alloyed metals or coated with a thin layer, the modelling trough a “pure metal” sheet model
appears in most cases a reasonable proxy. This PEFCR is applicable for pure metal sheets (in the case
of copper and lead) and sheets that include low level of alloying elements and /or coatings (in the case
of aluminium and steel.). The composition of the low alloyed sheets depends on the application and
it is defined in Annex II.
99
100
101
102
103
For a metal sheet made of an alloy which is not listed in Annex II, a sensitivity analysis should be
performed to assess the relevance of the other elements composing the alloy and/or the coating. If
the sensitivity analysis does not change the profile of the hot spot analysis, this PEFCR may be applied.
The contribution of these other elements to the hot spot analysis shall be documented and provided
to the verifier.
104
The unit of analysis and reference flow in this PEFCR is defined as follows:
105
4.1.1
106
107
The function includes a non-exhaustive list e.g. structural integrity, weather protection, physical
separation, shaping, sealing, aesthetics etc.
Function (“What”)
15
The extent of the function or service (“how much”)
108
4.1.2
109
The extent of the function expressed in the reference flow is defined as 1 m² of metal sheet.
110
111
112
113
Note: This reference flow was selected because it adequately quantifies the most relevant applications
of the metal sheet. However, 1 kg may also be used as an alternative reference flow, as in the case of
some existing PCRs -where it can be relevant for specific applications of the metal sheet e.g. in the
case of cold formed sections.
114
4.1.3
115
116
117
118
119
Metal sheets can be used in a very wide variety of applications. For metal sheets as intermediate
product to be used in final applications, the “how well” strongly depends on the downstream
application and its specific requirements and cannot be generalized. The “how well” is specified by
the product standard. A non-exhaustive list of applicable product standards for metal sheets is
provided in ANNEX I.
120
121
Specific product standards and technical properties of a specific metal sheet PEF shall be declared in
the PEF documentation.
122
4.1.4
123
124
125
126
The life-time of the metal sheet (“how long”?) is determined by its specific application. The use phase
and the related life time are not relevant for the PEFCR for the intermediate state of the metal sheets,
but will be required for all final products PEFs. Therefore, a typical use phase scenario shall be defined
for the various applications in a final product application.
127
4.2 REPRESENTATIVE PRODUCT(S)
128
129
130
131
132
An "intermediate" metal sheet is typically subject to additional manufacturing steps in order to be
transformed into the final product (e.g. metal sheet undergo machine or manual working operations
such as forming, bending, seaming , joining, welding to make a building‘s roof covering or facade).
Further explanation regarding the manufacturing steps see chapter 4.4 and the corresponding flow
sheet. A corresponding bill of materials is listed in ANNEX II.
133
134
135
136
137
A metal sheet is an intermediate product that can be used in many different end applications. The
grade of metal, thickness of the sheet and the surface finish will be dependent on the specific end use.
Examples are given in this PEFCR of “representative products”, but it should be stressed that these
examples do not specify exact technical parameters, and these examples should not be used as criteria
for benchmarking. These representative examples for end applications can be found in ANNEX I.
138
4.3 PRODUCT CLASSIFICATION (NACE/CPA)
139
The PEFCR cover metal sheets with the following statistical classification codes /CPA/:
140
Table 4-1: Product classification according to CPA
The expected level of quality (“how well”)
The duration/life time of the product (“how long”)
Material
Steel
Lead
Copper
Aluminium
CPA
C24.1
C24.4.3
C24.4.4
C24.4.2
16
141
4.4 SYSTEM BOUNDARIES – LIFE-CYCLE STAGES AND PROCESSES
142
143
The system boundary for a PEF of metal sheets includes the life cycle stages as shown in the following
Figure 4-1 and Table 4.2.
144
145
146
147
For the hot-spot analysis, at least the breakdown according to the group of process steps framed with
the thick border in Table 4-2 shall be used. Processes with an asterisk (*) can be fed by virgin sources
or recycling sources, i.e. with metal scrap. Figure 11 in ANNEX XIV provides a more detailed flow
diagram.
148
149
The declaration of the EoL stage is part of the mandatory additional environmental information and
details are given in chapter 4.6.
150
151
Any surface treatment or finishing of the intermediate product is included in the scope and depends
on the individual specification of the product as it will be sold on the market.
152
153
154
Figure 4-1 depicts an overview of the lifecycle of a typical metallic sheet. The dotted lines indicate
which processes and life cycle stages are included and which are excluded from this PEFCR.
Exploration, Fabrication and use are out of scope.
155
156
Figure 4-1: Product flow sheet and system boundaries
157
Table 4-2 provides details about the various processes to be considered per type of metal.
17
158
Table 4-2: Life-cycle stages and corresponding processes for the four metal sheets.
Life Cycle
Stages
Generic process
Steps (as in Fig. 1)
Specific Process Steps
Aluminium
Copper
Steel
Lead
Exploration
Not covered
Not covered
Not covered
Not covered
Mining (incl.
downstream
transport)
Mining
Mining
Mining
Mining
Beneficiation
(incl.
downstream
transport)
Alumina Refining
Beneficiation/
Flotation
Beneficiation
Beneficiation
/Flotation
Hydro- or Pyrometallurgy (incl.
downstream
transport)*
Smelting*
Solvent Extract. /
Smelting* /
Refining*
BOF / EAF*
Melting &
Casting*
Casting*
Melting &
Casting*
Casting*
Melting &
Casting*
Rolling
Hot and cold
rolling
Rolling
Rolling
Rolling
Finishing, incl.
Surface Treat.
Finishing
Finishing
Finishing
Finishing
Fabrication
Not covered
Not covered
Not covered
Not covered
Use
Use
Not covered
Not covered
Not covered
Not covered
End of Life
recycling
Collection,
transport &
scrap
preparation
Collection,
transport,
Shredding &
Sorting
Collection,
transport,
Shredding &
Sorting
Collection,
transport,
Shredding &
Sorting
Collection,
transport,
Shredding &
Sorting
Raw
Material
Acquisition
(incl. Metal
Production)
Metal Sheet
Production
Smelting* /
Refining *
159
160
A more detailed explanation of the Production and EoL stage can be found in ANNEX XIV.
161
4.5 SELECTION OF THE EF IMPACT CATEGORIES INDICATORS
162
163
164
Once the Resource Use and Emissions Profile has been compiled, the EF impact assessment shall be
undertaken to calculate the environmental performance of the product, using the selected EF impact
categories and models.
165
166
Table 4-3 and Table 4-4 contain a list of the impact categories considered as robust and non-robust
that have been screened for metal sheets and shall be declared in the PEF.
167
Table 4-3: Impact Assessment Category Descriptions considered as robust /PEF Guide 2013/179/EU/
18
EF Impact Category
Climate Change
Ozone Depletion
Particulate
Matter/Respiratory
Inorganics
Ionising Radiation –
human health effects
Photochemical Ozone
Formation
Acidification
Eutrophication –
terrestrial
Eutrophication – aquatic
(freshwater)
Eutrophication – aquatic
(marine)
Resource Depletion –
water
Land use
EF Impact Assessment Model
EF Impact Category
indicators
Bern model - Global Warming Potentials kg CO2 equivalent
(GWP) over a 100 year time horizon.
EDIP model based on the ODPs of the
kg CFC-11 equivalent
World Meteorological Organization
(WMO) over an infinite time horizon.
RiskPoll model
kg PM2,5 equivalent
Human Health effect model
LOTOS-EUROS model
kBq U235 equivalent (to
air)
kg NMVOC equivalent
Accumulated Exceedance model
mol H+ eq
Accumulated Exceedance model
mol N eq
EUTREND model
fresh water: kg P
equivalent
marine: kg N equivalent
EUTREND model
Swiss Ecoscarcity model
Soil Organic Matter (SOM) model
m3 water use related to
local scarcity of water
Kg (C deficit)
Source
Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change, 2007
WMO, 1999
Humbert, 2009
Dreicer et al., 1995
Van Zelm et al., 2008 as
applied in ReCiPe
Seppälä et al.,2006; Posch
et al., 2008
Seppälä et al.,2006; Posch
et al., 2008
Struijs et al., 2009 as
implemented in ReCiPe
Struijs et al., 2009 as
implemented in ReCiPe
Frischknecht et al., 2008
Milà i Canals et al., 2007
168
169
170
The impact categories listed in the following table, at present stage can’t be considered robust
because of the limitations of the methodologies.
171
Table 4-4: Impact Assessment Category Descriptions considered as non-robust /PEF Guide 2013/179/EU/
EF Impact Category
EF Impact Assessment
EF Impact Category indicators
Model
Ecotoxicity for aquatic fresh
USEtox model
CTUe (Comparative Toxic Unit for
wate
ecosystems)
Human Toxicity - cancer effects USEtox model
CTUh (Comparative Toxic Unit for
humans)
Human Toxicity – non-cancer USEtox model
CTUh (Comparative Toxic Unit for
effects
humans)
Resource Depletion – mineral, CML2002 model
kg antimony (Sb) equivalent
fossil
Source
Rosenbaum et al.,
2008
Rosenbaum et al.,
2008
Rosenbaum et al.,
2008
van Oers at al., 2008
172
173
174
The rationale for considering the Toxicity and Resource depletion categories not sufficiently robust is
explained in Annex XIV.
175
4.6 ADDITIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION
176
177
According to [2013/179/EU, section 4.5] additional environmental information may include “(b)
Disassembling ability, recyclability, recoverability, reusability information, resource efficiency”.
178
Recycling and end of life stage
179
180
181
For the manufacturing of metal sheets as intermediate products the above listed additional
information is essential, because it is crucial to consider properly the recycling aspects over the full
life cycle for metal-containing products.
19
182
183
184
185
186
187
The metals industry recommends to not only apply the obligatory default equation (the so-called
Annex V formula) as stated in the PEF Guidance document but to apply also the integrated equation
for cradle to grave environmental footprinting and its modular version (module D equation) for cases
where the results need to be decomposed into various life cycle stages, such as in the case of an
intermediate product. Consequently this results in three different formulas to be applied in the
context of this PEFCR.
188
189
More information about the equations and the rationale behind their recommendation can be found
in section 5.8 and Annex XIV.
190
Delayed emissions
191
192
193
194
195
196
Credits due to temporary carbon storage shall not be considered. The models shall assume that
manufacturing and end-of-life take place at the same time. Hence, any effects that would arise, if
manufacturing and end-of-life are separated in time are neglected. This is considered as a conservative
approach. Delayed emissions may be included as “additional environmental information” according
to the PEF Guide. The TS however recommends not to include information on delayed emissions in
the PEF.
197
Biodiversity
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
The PEF results for Climate Change; Acidification; Eutrophication – terrestrial; Eutrophication – aquatic
(freshwater); Eutrophication – aquatic (marine); Water Scarcity; and Land Use collectively address
potential impacts on biodiversity.1 As biodiversity impacts may also arise from site-based practices
rather than material flows, it may in future be possible to indicate under Additional Environmental
Information if a material risk of biodiversity impacts resulting from site-based practices is identified.
In most jurisdictions, mining operations assess potential biodiversity impacts through Environmental
Impact Assessment and as part of their licence to operate have management plans in place where
appropriate. Voluntary responsible sourcing schemes may also be applicable (e.g., disclosure of
biodiversity data as part of the Global Reporting Initiative).
207
4.7 ASSUMPTIONS/LIMITATIONS
208
209
210
In PEF studies, limitations to carrying out the analysis may arise and therefore assumptions need to
be made. For example, generic data may not completely represent the reality of the product analysed
and may be adapted for better representation.
211
212
213
214
Any deviations from the PEFCR and any limitation and assumptions shall be transparently reported
and justified. For example, it is acknowledged that the environmental profile of the pretreatment of
scrap in most cases are not availaible. The absence of data does not mean that there is no
environmental impact.
215
216
217
218
219
220
Company- and/or site-specific data collection shall always be preferred (see details in chapter 5 and
Annex XI and Annex XII), but in the case that site- or company-specific data are not available or cannot
be collected, the metal industry considers that industry averaged datasets are an appropriate proxy.
These Industry averaged datasets are externally reviewed and are regularly updated by industry
associations, thereby ensuring that datasets are up-to-date, accurate and representative of the
current market situation. The inclusion of multiple data sources in an average dataset helps to
1
Global Reporting Initiative (2007) Biodiversity a GRI Reporting Resource
20
221
222
neutralize the significance of any data collection errors linked to individually collected company or site
data.
223
224
It should be acknowledged that production streams can cover applications that fall outside the scope
of this PEFCR. As a result, product/application specific data collection may not be possible.
225
For the intermediate product “metal sheet”, the impact of packaging can be considered as negligible.
226
227
228
It is recognised that this draft PEFCR does not take into account the data sets selected by the
Commission, nor all of the latest rules on horizontal issues, as they had not been adopted at the time
of writing.
21
229
230
5 RESOURCE USE AND EMISSION PROFILE
The following flow chart should guide the user in the application of this PEFCR.
231
232
Figure 5-1: Flow chart for the application of this PEFCR
233
234
In addition to the simplified procedure and the guiding documents the topics on the left are to be
evaluated within or after the supporting studies.
235
5.1 SCREENING STEP
236
237
238
Based on the hot-spot analysis in the screening study [SCREENING 2015] the following most relevant
impact categories, life cycle stages, processes and flows were identified and should act as a guideline
for the application of this PEFCR.
239
240
241
The hot-spot analysis is based on the TAB rules concerning screening and hot spot analysis in version
4.0 released on 24 April 2015 [JAMES, GALATOLA 2015], which is also included in the updated Guidance
document version 5.1 (September 2015).
242
243
NOTE: For the sake of consistency, the results of the supporting studies shall be displayed in the
same format as the hot spot analysis is presented.
22
244
245
Hence, the following procedure was applied to assess the most relevant impact categories, most
relevant life cycle stages, most relevant processes and most relevant flows to identify the hot-spots.
246
Table 5-1: Applied procedure to define most relevant contributions and hot-spots [James, Galatola 2015]
Item
Most relevant impact categories
Most relevant life cycle stages
Most relevant processes
Most relevant elementary flows
Hotspots
Procedure
Starting from normalized and weighted results No threshold applied. Since
metal sheet is identified as an intermediate product, all impact categories
are relevant. The TS decided to differentiate between robust and nonrobust impact categories in general and for communication purposes.
All life cycle stages contributing cumulatively more than 80% to any impact
category
All processes contributing cumulatively more than 80% to any impact
category
All elementary flows contributing cumulatively more than 80% to any
impact category per most relevant process and all those contributing more
than 5% individually
Per impact category, the most relevant life cycle stages, processes and
elementary flows based on the procedure described above.
247
248
In Figure 5-2 the above listed items are divided into internal and external application purposes.
249
250
Figure 5-2: Hotspots process according to [PEF pilot Guidance V5.2]
251
5.1.1
252
253
For the most relevant life cycle stage for each impact category see ANNEX XVI. For a more detailed
analysis see screening report.
254
5.1.2
255
256
For the most relevant process for each impact category see ANNEX XVI. For a more detailed analysis
see screening report.
Most relevant life cycle stages
Most relevant process
23
257
5.1.3
258
259
For the most relevant flows for each impact category see ANNEX XVI. For a more detailed analysis see
screening report.
260
5.1.4
261
262
263
264
The summary tables on hot-spots based on OPTION B according to the TAB rules in version 4.0
released on 24 April 2015 [JAMES, GALATOLA 2015] are included in ANNEX XVI. As the identification of
hot-spots are based on relative contributions, the tables are included per material not per
representative product.
265
5.1.5
266
267
The following tables, i.e. Table 5-2, Table 5-3, Table 5-4 and Table 5-5, provide an overview of all
findings and guidance of relevance and hot spots for metal sheets.
Most relevant flows
Hot spots
Summary of relevancy and hot spots
268
24
269
Table 5-2: hot spot summary aluminium
Aluminium
Impact Category
Acidification, accumulated exceedance
Ecotoxicity for aquatic fresh water, USEtox (recommended)
Freshwater eutrophication, EUTREND model, ReCiPe
Human toxicity cancer effects, USEtox (recommended)
Human toxicity non-canc. effects, USEtox (recommended)
Ionising radiation, human health effect model, ReCiPe
IPCC global warming, excl biogenic carbon
IPCC global warming, incl biogenic carbon
Marine eutrophication, EUTREND model, ReCiPe
Ozone depletion, WMO model, ReCiPe
Particulate matter/Respiratory inorganics, RiskPoll
Photochemical ozone formation, LOTOS-EUROS model, ReCiPe
Resource Depletion, fossil and mineral, reserve Based, CML2002
Terrestrial eutrophication, accumulated exceedance
Resource Depleation -water-
270
Land use, Soil Organic Matter (SOM)
Raw material acquisition and pre-processing)
Mining & Concentration
Sulphur dioxide,
Nitrogen oxides
Copper (+II), Arsenic (+V),
Zinc (+II), Nickel (+II)
Phosphorus
Mercury (+II)
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V),
Formaldehyde (methanal)
Carbon (C14)
Carbon dioxide
Nitrogen oxides
Smelting & Refining
Production of
main product
Use phase
EoL
excluded
please see
additional
environmental
information
chapter
Rolling
Sulphur dioxide
Copper (+II), Arsenic (+V),
Zinc (+II), Nickel (+II)
Phosphorus, Phosphate
Carbon (C14)
Carbon dioxide
Nitrogen oxides
R 114
(dichlorotetrafluoroethane)
Dust (PM2.5 - PM10), Sulphur Dust (PM2.5 - PM10),
dioxide
Sulphur dioxide, Dust (PM2.5)
Sulphur dioxide, Nitrogen
Nitrogen oxide
oxides
Fluorspar (calcium fluoride;
Bauxite
fluorite)
Nitrogen oxides
Nitrogen oxides
Water (river water from
technosphere. turbined),
Water (river water)
From industrial
area, To
industrial area
25
271
Table 5-3: hot spot summary copper
Copper
Impact Category
Acidification, accumulated exceedance
Ecotoxicity for aquatic fresh water, USEtox (recommended)
Freshwater eutrophication, EUTREND model, ReCiPe
Human toxicity cancer effects, USEtox (recommended)
Human toxicity non-canc. effects, USEtox (recommended)
Ionising radiation, human health effect model, ReCiPe
IPCC global warming, excl biogenic carbon
IPCC global warming, incl biogenic carbon
Marine eutrophication, EUTREND model, ReCiPe
Ozone depletion, WMO model, ReCiPe
Particulate matter/Respiratory inorganics, RiskPoll
Photochemical ozone formation, LOTOS-EUROS model, ReCiPe
Resource Depletion, fossil and mineral, reserve Based, CML2002
Terrestrial eutrophication, accumulated exceedance
Resource Depleation -water-
272
Land use, Soil Organic Matter (SOM)
Production of
main product
Raw material acquisition and pre-processing)
Mining & Concentration
Sulphur dioxide,
Nitrogen oxides
Copper (+II), Arsenic (+V),
Zinc (+II)
Phosphorus
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V),
Chromium (+VI)
Mercury (+II), Zinc (+II), Lead
(+II)
Carbon (C14)
Carbon dioxide
Nitrogen oxides, Nitrate,
Ammonium/ammonia
Smelting & Refining
Secondary
Material
Production
Use phase
EoL
excluded
please see
additional
environmental
information
chapter
Rolling
Sulphur dioxide,
Copper (+II), Arsenic (+V),
Zinc (+II)
Phosphorus, Phosphate
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V)
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V),
Zinc (+II)
Carbon (C14)
Carbon dioxide
Carbon (C14)
Nitrogen oxides, Nitrate
R 114
R 114
(dichlorotetrafluo (dichlorotetrafluoro
roethane)
ethane)
Sulphur dioxide, Dust (PM2.5),
Dust (PM10), Dust
Dust (PM2.5 - PM10)
Sulphur dioxide, Dust (PM10) (PM2.5)
Nitrogen oxide
Nitrogen oxides
Bauxite
Vanadium
Nitrogen oxides
Nitrogen oxides
Water (river water from
technosphere. turbined),
Water (river water)
From industrial
area, To industrial
area
26
273
Table 5-4: hot spot summary lead
LEAD
Impact Category
Acidification, accumulated exceedance
Ecotoxicity for aquatic fresh water, USEtox (recommended)
Freshwater eutrophication, EUTREND model, ReCiPe
Human toxicity cancer effects, USEtox (recommended)
Human toxicity non-canc. effects, USEtox (recommended)
Ionising radiation, human health effect model, ReCiPe
IPCC global warming, excl biogenic carbon
Marine eutrophication, EUTREND model, ReCiPe
Mining & Concentration
Sulphur dioxide,
Nitrogen oxides
Copper (+II), Arsenic (+V), Zinc
(+II)
Phosphate
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V), Lead
(+II)
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V), Lead
(+II)
Carbon (C14)
Carbon dioxide
Photochemical ozone formation, LOTOS-EUROS model, ReCiPe
Resource Depletion, fossil and mineral, reserve Based, CML2002
Terrestrial eutrophication, accumulated exceedance
Resource Depleation -water-
274
Land use, Soil Organic Matter (SOM)
Smelting & Refining
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V),
Lead (+II)
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V),
Lead (+II)
Carbon (C14)
Carbon dioxide
R 114
(dichlorotetrafluoroethane)
Sulphur dioxide, Dust (PM2.5),
Nitrogen oxides
Nitrogen oxide
Nitrogen oxides
Water (river water from
technosphere. turbined),
Water (river water)
Secondary
Material
Production
Use phase
EoL
excluded
please see
additional
environmental
information
chapter
Rolling
Sulphur dioxide,
Copper (+II),
Arsenic (+V), Zinc
(+II)
Phosphorus
Nitrogen oxides, Nitrate
Ozone depletion, WMO model, ReCiPe
Particulate matter/Respiratory inorganics, RiskPoll
Production of
main product
Raw material acquisition and pre-processing)
Carbon (C14)
Carbon dioxide
Nitrogen oxides,
Nitrate,
Ammonium/amm
onia
R 114
(dichlorotetrafluo
roethane)
Sulphur dioxide, Dust (PM2.5) Sulphur dioxide
Sulphur dioxide,
Nitrogen oxide
Silver, Lead
Nitrogen oxides
Water (river
water from
technosphere.
turbined), Water
(river water)
From industrial
area, To industrial
area
27
275
Table 5-5: hot spot summary steel
STEEL
Impact Category
Acidification, accumulated exceedance
Virgen Material production
Sulphur dioxide,
Nitrogen oxides
Ecotoxicity for aquatic fresh water, USEtox (recommended)
Freshwater eutrophication, EUTREND model, ReCiPe
Zinc (+II)
Phosphorus
Human toxicity cancer effects, USEtox (recommended)
Mercury (+II), Lead (+II)
Human toxicity non-canc. effects, USEtox (recommended)
Ionising radiation, human health effect model, ReCiPe
IPCC global warming, excl biogenic carbon
Marine eutrophication, EUTREND model, ReCiPe
Ozone depletion, WMO model, ReCiPe
Particulate matter/Respiratory inorganics, RiskPoll
Photochemical ozone formation, LOTOS-EUROS model, ReCiPe
Resource Depletion, fossil and mineral, reserve Based, CML2002
Terrestrial eutrophication, accumulated exceedance
Resource Depleation -water-
276
Raw material acquisition and pre-processing)
Land use, Soil Organic Matter (SOM)
Smelting & Refining
Secondary
Material
Production
Sulphur dioxide,
Nitrogen oxides
Phosphorus
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V),
Mercury (+II), Zinc (+II), Lead (+II Lead (+II)
Carbon (C14)
Production of
main product
Use phase
EoL
excluded
please see
additional
environmental
information
chapter
Rolling
Zinc (+II), Sulphuric
Acid
Phosphorus
Mercury (+II),
Arsenic (+V)
Mercury (+II), Zinc
(+II)
Carbon (C14)
Carbon dioxide
Nitrogen oxides,
Nitrogen
Nitrogen oxides, Nitrogen
R 114
(dichlorotetrafluoroethane), R
11 (trichlorofluoromethane)
Sulphur dioxide, Dust (PM2.5)
Nitrogen oxide, Carbon
Monoxid
Tantalum, Vanadium, iron ore,
copper
Nitrogen oxides
Sulphur dioxide,
Dust (PM2.5)
Tantalum
Nitrogen oxides
Water (river
Water (river water
water from
from
technosphere. technosphere.
turbined), Water turbined), Water
(river water)
(river water)
From industrial
area, To industrial
area
277
28
278
5.2 DATA QUALITY REQUIREMENTS
279
280
The data quality requirements defined in PEF pilot Guidance V5.2 are applicable for the PEFCR for
metal sheets.
281
282
The data quality rating shall be calculated for foreground data as well as for background data as
described in ANNEX XVII of this document and with the following formula.
DQR 
283
TiR  TeR  GR  C  P  EoL
6
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
DQR : Data Quality Rating of the dataset
TeR: Technological Representativeness
GR: Geographical Representativeness
TiR: Time-related Representativeness
C: Completeness;
P: Precision/uncertainty;
EoL: Implementation of the End-of-Life baseline formula.
296
297
298
299
When preparing a PEF specifically the representativeness (i.e. TeR, TiR and GR) of the provided
datasets applied for the boundary conditions of the PEF study needs to be considered, accordingly
newly rated and provided as part of the PEF. In case of new data acquisition all parameters need to
be evaluated with respective information.
300
5.3 REQUIREMENTS REGARDING FOREGROUND SPECIFIC DATA COLLECTION
301
302
Foreground process refers to the core process in the life cycle for which direct access to information
is available.
303
304
305
306
Specific company data shall be used for the metal sheet producer’s core processes: rolling and
finishing (and melting and casting if included in the core process system boundary). Typically, the
specific company refers to situation 1 of Table 5-6 in chapter 5.4. Therefore primary data are typically
necessary to be collected with a minimum quality rating of DQR ≤1.6, see chapter 5.2 and Table 5-6.
307
308
309
310
A basic requirement for all data used in the PEF environment is that it shall be compliant with the
entry level (EL) requirements of the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD). All needed
information, including guidance on the DQR of the data, can be found in Annex F of the /PEF pilot
Guidance V5.2/ and also ANNEX XVII of this PEFCR.
311
312
As guidance beyond the DQR descriptions, the following requirements shall be applied for collection
of the specific data:
NOTE: Until the EF-compliant datasets are available, the above formula shall be applied without the
Eol parameter (and hence divided by five) for secondary datasets. For newly created datasets, the
formula with six parameters shall be applied. This is a temporary solution only – after the pilot
phase, the 6 parameters will be applied for all datasets.
313
314
-
The data shall be collected in accordance with the applied technology and the expected
material and energy flows as well as expected burdens of the processes
315
316
-
The data shall include all known inputs and outputs for the (typical) core processes of the
PEFCR user, including input of primary metal/recycled metal, energy, water, additives ,
29
317
318
disposal of waste/production residues, consideration of related emissions to air and water,
and recycling of production scrap
319
320
-
Information on the source of data (example direct measurements) and methodology used for
calculations shall be provided.
321
322
-
The data collection shall cover 12 months that are representative for the metal sheet
produced.
323
324
325
326
A list that can be used as data collection guide summarising typical flows (elementary and activity
flows) for the core processes is given in ANNEX XI – Foreground data. Since the metal primary
production usually dominates the environmental impact of the metal sheet, it is crucial to address and
apply the following parameters for the PEF calculations:
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
 Type of metal
 Thickness
 Grammage
 R1, if applicable R1,i
 R2, if applicable R2,i
These parameters specify the metal product / intermediate under consideration and should be
extended by collection of primary data of relevant input and output flows as described above.
334
335
336
337
338
Currently the core processes of any of the metals faces at least one impact category that calculates
the core process as “most relevant process”, which depends on the fact that land use, SOM, was not
reflected in today’s available secondary datasets. After closing this data gap, most presumably the
core process will not be a “most relevant process” for the various metals anymore. In such a case the
specific company can select Situation 1, option 2 of Table 5-6 in chapter 5.4.
339
340
In such a case, the relevant secondary dataset for this case is provided in ANNEX XII – Background
data.
341
5.4 REQUIREMENTS REGARDING BACKGROUND GENERIC DATA AND DATA GAPS
342
343
344
For all applicable generic data, that are also called secondary data, certain guidelines and minimum
quality requirements have to be regarded, see [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU, section 5.8] and ANNEX XII –
Background data.
345
346
347
348
For metal sheets, industry averaged data shall be used instead of multi-sector generic data /PEF Guide
2013/179/EU/. All industry averaged datasets shall fulfil the data quality requirements specified in
/PEF pilot Guidance V5.2/. The sources of the data used shall be clearly documented and reported in
the PEF documentation.
349
350
In consequence of this and in accordance with the Table 5-6, the following procedure for selection of
secondary datasets is defined by this PEFCR:
351
352
353
354
355


Step 1: determine your situation (1, 2 or 3) depending on your role for this PEFCR.
Step 2: determine on your situation as identified in step 1 and on base of the screening results
(most relevant phases, processes, flows and hot spot analysis), see chapter 5.1, whether left
column (“most relevant process”) or right column of Table 5-6 applies and select your
envisaged option (if applicable).
30
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366



Note: Please be aware that the selection of R1 has a significant influence on the relevancy of
phases, processes and flows. Thus, the provided hot spot analysis (ANNEX XVI) is only relevant
for the R1 value of the corresponding screening report.
Step 3: depending on decision of step 2, either follow data collection and quality rating guide
of chapter 5.3 and ANNEX XI – Foreground data or refer to the secondary dataset as described
in ANNEX XII – Background data.
Step 4: recalculate the DQR, see chapter 5.2 and ANNEX XVII.
Step 5: mark new data or processes in order to allow verification. In case new datasets or
processes that substitute secondary datasets, the DQR needs to be at least equal or better
than the DQR of the available secondary dataset.
31
Most relevant process
Provide company-specific data (as
requested in the PEFCR) and create a
company specific dataset partially
disaggregated at least at level 1 2 (DQR
≤1.6).
Option 2
Option 1
Option 2
Option 1
Situation 2: process not run by
the company applying the PEFCR
but with access to companyspecific information
Situation 3: process
not run by the
company applying the
PEFCR and without
access to companyspecific information
Option 1
Table 5-6: Dataset needs matrix (DNM) according to /PEF pilot Guidance V5.2/
Situation 1: process run
by the company applying
the PEFCR
367
Other process
Provide company-specific data (as
requested in the PEFCR) and create a
company specific dataset partially
disaggregated at least at level 154 (DQR
≤1.6).
Use default secondary dataset,
aggregated form (DQR ≤3.0)
Provide company-specific activity data
(as requested in the PEFCR) and create
a company specific dataset partially
disaggregated at least at level 12 (DQR
≤1.6).
Starting from the default secondary
dataset provided in the PEFCR, use
company-specific activity data for
transport (distance), and substitute the
sub-processes used for electricity mix
and transport with supply-chain specific
PEF compliant datasets. The newly
created dataset shall have a DQR ≤3.0.
in
Use default secondary dataset, in
aggregated form (DQR ≤4.0)
Use default secondary dataset, in
aggregated form (DQR ≤3.0)
368
369
The following paragraphs provide guidance per situation and option of Table 5-6:
370
371
372
373
374
375
The most significantly contributing processes for the representative products across all metals were
identified as mining and concentration as well as smelting and refining and only in case of lead and
steel for some impact categories secondary material processing. However the determination of R1
significantly influences the significance of processes and life cycle phases 3. Therefore each case per
product case needs investigation and determination which process contributes how much by applying
the secondary datasets as default datasets.
376
Situation 1 (i.e. the specific company is under control of the process):

377
2
Option 1 (both cases): Go for primary data collection, see chapter 5.3.
The underlying sub-processes might be based on PEF-compliant secondary datasets.
3
As example the extreme values of R1 = 1 would eliminate primary metal and thus exclude mining from
significance or R1 = 0 would maximize significance of mining that possibly smelting and refining would be
reduced to not significant.
32
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390

Option 2, “other process”: Refer to respective dataset(s) in ANNEX XII – Background data and
determine the additionally important values, e.g. metal, thickness, grammage, R1 and R2, in
order to scale datasets appropriately, see also chapter 5.3
Situation 2 (i.e. the specific company has no direct control of the process, but has access to companyspecific information):

Option 1, “most relevant process”: Go for primary data collection of the considered process,
see chapter 5.3
 Option 2, “most relevant process”: this shall be excluded and is not applicable due to
confidentiality reasons and non-applicability reasons of the provided industry data
 Option 1 and 2 “other process”: Refer to respective dataset(s) in ANNEX XII – Background data
and determine the additionally important values, e.g. metal, thickness, grammage, R1 and R2,
in order to scale datasets appropriately, see also chapter 5.3
Situation 3 (i.e. the specific company has no access to any of the processes):

391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
Option 1, “most relevant process”: Refer to respective dataset(s) in ANNEX XII – Background
data and determine the additionally important values, e.g. metal, thickness, grammage, R1
and R2, in order to scale datasets appropriately, see also chapter 5.3.
 Option 1, “other process”: Refer to respective dataset(s) in ANNEX XII – Background data and
determine the additionally important values, e.g. metal, thickness, grammage, R1 and R2, in
order to scale datasets appropriately, see also chapter 5.3.
It has to be noted, that the different DQR requirement for secondary datasets of situation 1 and 2 in
case of “most relevant process” compared to “other process” (see Table 5-6) is irrelevant, since either
primary data can be collected or industry data as described in ANNEX XII – Background data shall be
applied, that will provide DQR ≤3.0 in any case.
401
5.5 DATA GAPS
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
In case there is no specific or generic data available that is sufficiently representative of the given
process in the product’s life cycle, it should be filled with a data collection or a selection of available
datasets that is a best available proxy. In case of new data collection the same rules as for a core
process are applicable following chapter 5.3 and ANNEX XI – Foreground data. In case of selection of
secondary dataset procedure and lists as described in chapter 5.4 and ANNEX XII – Background data
are applicable. The selection of a best proxy from the list of available datasets should be based on
relevant expert judgement (such as sector experts) and shall be accompanied with a short explanation
respectively documentation.
410
411
412
Any data gaps shall be filled using the best available generic or extrapolated data. The contribution of
such data (including gaps in generic data) shall not account for more than 10 % of the overall
contribution to each environmental footprint (EF) impact category considered.
413
5.6 USE STAGE
414
As explained earlier, this stage is not applicable for intermediate metal sheets.
415
5.7 LOGISTICS
416
417
418
Primary data for transport should be collected.
If no primary data for transport is available, representative estimates of actual transport modes,
loading factors, and transport distances (e.g. for road transport, a default load factor of 80% and a
33
419
420
generic EURO 4 truck with a payload of 34-40t) shall be provided and justified. The transport of the
metal sheet for the fabrication is outside of the scope of this PEFCR
421
5.8 END-OF-LIFE STAGE AND RELATED PEF EQUATION
422
The End of Life scenario for metal sheets shall be described in the PEF documentation.
423
424
425
426
Scenarios shall only model processes e.g. recycling systems that have been proven to be economically
and technically viable. Scenarios shall not include processes or procedures that are not in current use
or which have not been demonstrated to be practical. The scenario parameters, especially R2 and
Qs/Qp, shall be based on today practices and shall be documented and justified.
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
Since recycled material can be both an input to the production stage and an output of the end-of-life
stage, it is essential to use a methodology which allows reconciling consistently the recycling aspects
of these two different life cycle stages. The baseline recycling equation (Annex V) as required by the
PEF Guide [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU] has to be applied. The metal industry recommends to not only
apply the obligatory default equation as stated in the PEF Guidance document but to apply also the
integrated equation for cradle to grave environmental footprinting and its modular version (module
D equation) for cases where the results need to be decomposed into various life cycle stages such as
in the case of an intermediate product. Consequently this results in three different formulas to be
applied in the context of this PEFCR.
436
Any loss in the recycling chain should be quantified.
437
Further details about the integrated equation (IE) and its application can be found in ANNEX XIV.
438
5.9 REQUIREMENTS FOR MULTIFUNCTIONAL PRODUCTS AND MULTIPRODUCTS
439
440
If within a specific PEF for metal sheet multifunctional products and multiproducts are applicable the
recommendation of the PEF guide shall be followed:
441
Requirements from the PEF Guidance:
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
[Specify multi-functionality solutions and clearly justify with reference to the PEF multifunctionality
solution hierarchy. Where subdivision is applied, specify which processes are to be sub-divided and
how to subdivide the process by specifying the principles that such subdivision should adhere to.
Where system expansion is used, specify which processes are added to the system. Where allocation
by physical relationship is applied, specify the relevant underlying physical relationships to be
considered, and establish the relevant allocation factors or rules. Where allocation by some other
relationship is applied, specify this relationship and establish the relevant allocation factors or rules.]
449
450
451
The following tables show common approaches, recommendations and rationales for co-products of
base metals based on the Harmonization of LCA Methodologies for Metals paper [ICMM 2014]. In
addition, allocation rules for by-products from metals production are listed in Table 5-10.
452
Table 5-7: Co-product approaches, recommendations, and rationales for base metals
Co-product type
Base metals
Approach
Recommendation / Rationale
Preferred approach
34
Co-product type
Approach
Recommendation / Rationale
(Co-products
include only base
metals that are
found within the
same mine)
Mass allocation
(metal)
Mass is a consistent physical property of the metal and allows for a
geographic and temporal consistency. Although mass does not
capture the economic purpose for extracting and refining multiple
metals, differences in market value between many base metals are
generally relatively small. From a physical perspective, the same
effort is needed to extract a unit mass of ore, regardless of the metal
type or content. For base metal co-products with large market value
differences, economic allocation should be considered.
Examples:
-
copper
molybdenum
nickel
lead
zinc
Use as appropriate
Mass allocation
(total)
Allocation by total mass may be appropriate when various metals in
the ore are combined or are otherwise difficult to separate using other
allocation methods. As with allocation by mass of metal, allocation
by total mass captures the physical effort needed to extract a unit mass
of ore. Allocation by total mass does not account for different
quantities of the metal co-products in the ore; allocation by mass of
metal is generally preferred due to this limitation.
Use as appropriate
Economic
allocation
Economic allocation may be appropriate when there are relatively
large differences in the market value of the base metals. In these
cases, allocation by mass of metal does not adequately capture the
economic purpose for extracting and refining the base metals. If
chosen, market data should be averaged over a long time span (10year average is recommended) so as to minimize the effect of price
volatility.
Note: it may be appropriate to allocate upstream processes (e.g.,
mining and concentration) using mass of metal and downstream
processes (e.g., smelting and refining) using economic allocation.
Preferred approach (when data is available)
System
expansion
453
System expansion is preferred when LCI data for mono-output
alternative routes are available for the co-products. In case of metals,
mono-output alternative routes, or the LCI data associated with those
routes, are often not available for the co-products; allocation should
be used in these instances.
Table 5-8: Co-product approaches, recommendations, and rationales for precious and rare metals
Co-product type
Precious metals
Approach
Recommendation / Rationale
Preferred approach
35
Co-product type
(Co-products
include precious
metals that are
found with other
base or precious
metals in the
same mine)
Approach
Recommendation / Rationale
Economic
allocation
Economic allocation accounts for the large disproportionately high
market value of precious metals and the corresponding differences in
price between metal co-products. Economic allocation captures the
economic purpose for extracting and refining metals. If chosen,
market data should be averaged over a long time span (10-year
average is recommended) so as to minimize the effect of price
volatility.
Use as appropriate
Examples
- silver
- gold
- platinum
group metals
Mass allocation
(metal)
Mass allocation does not account for the large differences in price
between precious metals and base metals. However, in certain
instances (e.g., where price is highly variable or uncertain), it may be
necessary or useful to allocate co-products using the mass of metal
content.
Note: it may be appropriate to allocate upstream processes (e.g.,
mining and concentration) using mass of metal and downstream
processes (e.g., smelting and refining) using economic allocation.
Use as appropriate
Mass allocation
(total)
Similar to allocation by mass of metal, allocation by total mass may
be necessary when economic allocation is not possible. Allocation by
total mass (i.e., total ore) may be appropriate when various metals in
the ore are combined are otherwise difficult to separate using other
allocation methods. As with allocation by mass of metal, allocation
by total mass captures the physical effort needed to extract a unit mass
of ore. Allocation by total mass does not account for different
quantities of the metal co-products in the ore. Allocation by mass of
metal is generally preferred due to this limitation.
Preferred approach (when data is available)
System
expansion*
System expansion is preferred when LCI data for mono-output
alternative routes are available for the co-products. In case of metals,
mono-output alternative routes, or the LCI data associated with those
routes, are often not available for the co-products; allocation should
be used in these instances.
*It is acknowledged that this is not an allocation method but rather a
method of avoiding its application according to ISO standards.
454
36
455
Table 5-9: Co-product approaches, recommendations, and rationales for non-metal co-products
Co-product type
Approach
Recommendation / Rationale
Preferred approach
System
expansion
Alternative production routes are often available for non-metal coproducts, making this a preferred approach for dealing with coproducts. System expansion can be used for slags, process gases, and
other non-metal co-products.
Use with caution
Non-metals
(Metals
production
non-metal
products)
with
of
Physical
allocation/
partitioning
(mass, energy,
chemical etc.)
Allocation/partitioning of non-metal co-products by physical means
may be appropriate when information (e.g., LCI data) for the coproduct is unavailable
Use with caution
Economic
allocation
Mass allocation
(metal)
Allocation of non-metal co-products by market value may be
appropriate when information (e.g., LCI data) for the co-product is
unavailable. Economic allocation accounts for the economic purpose
for generating co-products. If chosen, market data should be averaged
over a long time span (10-year average is recommended) so as to
minimize the effect of price volatility.
n/a
456
457
Table 5-10: Allocation rules to be used for metal by-products
Co-Product
Allocation rules
Dross
Mass of Aluminium metal, i.e.
considering the metal
aluminium fraction (about
60%)
Salt slag
Mass of Aluminium metal, i.e.
considering the metal
aluminium fraction (about
30%)
(non-exhaustive) Aluminium
List of by-products
Coke Production:
Coke oven gas
(non-exhaustive) Iron and Steel
List of by-products
Benzene
Tar
System expansion or subdivision of processes based on
energy and other inherent
physical/chemical realtionships
of inputs and outputs.
Approximate energy split 83%
coke : 17% by-products
37
Toluene
Xylene
Sulphuric acid
Ammonia
Hot Metal Production:
Blast furnace gas
Blast furnace slag
Steel Production:
Basic oxygen furnace gas
Steel slag
System expansion or subdivision of processes based on
energy and other inherent
physical/chemical realtionships
of inputs and outputs.
Approximate energy split: 95%
Hot metal and gas: 5% slag
(values to be confirmed)
System expansion or subdivision of processes based on
energy and other inherent
physical/chemical realtionships
of inputs and outputs .
Approximate energy split: 86%
steel and gas : 14% slag (values
to be confirmed)
Ore/Concentrate co-products
Ore type (e.g. low grade, sulfidic,
oxidic)
Molybdenum concentrate
Mass allocation: shared burden
according to the mass fraction
of metal content
Other metal concentrates
Metal co-products
(non-exhaustive) Copper
List of by-products
Gold
Silver
Nickel sulphate
Allocation by metal exchange
market value (e.g. LME) using
10 years average price
PGM (platinum group metals)
Other metals
Non-metal co-products
Sulphuric acid
Steam
Iron silica sand
System expansion using
alternative production routes:
e.g.
-
Iron silica
sand=gravel
38
Other slags (containing metals)
(non-exhaustive) Lead Sheet
List of by-products
Dross
-
Steam=alternative
steam
-
…
Mass of lead metal, i.e.
considering the metal lead
fraction (about 70%)
458
460
5.10 GUIDANCE FOR DETERMINING EQUATION PARAMETERS
461
462
463
Reflecting adequately the recycling situation of metal sheet is crucial to assess its PEF profile. This
necessity is further explained in ANNEX XIV, which also includes a guidance for determining the
equation parameters.
39
464
465
6 BENCHMARK AND
PERFORMANCE
CLASSES
OF
ENVIRONMENTAL
466
467
468
469
In the screening study /SCREENING 2015/, six representative products have been assessed following the
rules of the PEF methodology: four for the subcategory “building applications”: one for copper roofing,
one for lead roofing, one for aluminium roofing and one for steel flooring and two for the subcategory
“appliances”: aluminium and steel body sheets.
470
Note: The executive summary of the screening study is included in ANNEX XVIII – Screening Study.
471
472
473
The analysis of the impact of the recycling phase on the overall impact shows that it is important to
take the end of life recycling aspects into account when calculating the footprint of a metal sheet at
the intermediate status.
474
475
476
The scenarios for the two applications tested (building and appliances) differ from each other and this
means that those representative products of the same metal should not be combined at the
intermediate stage into one single product.
477
478
479
Each of the representative products have been tested with the most reliable data available at the time
of the study. The metal specific data originate from the most recent life cycle assessment studies
executed by the metals associations concerned and representing an overall industry average.
480
481
482
483
Each representative product has its own environmental footprint at the intermediate level and cannot
be compared to any of the other representative products at this level. Only when a function is well
defined and the life cycle assessment is performed on the entire life cycle of this final function
(including the use phase and the end of life stage), benchmarking could be considered
484
485
Since this condition is not met within this PEF pilot on metal sheets as intermediate products, no
preliminary indication about the definition of the product benchmark can be given.
486
487
If benchmarking is to be performed on the final product, it should be conducted with data collected
with consistent and comparable system boundaries.
40
489
490
491
7 INTERPRETATION
Within the development of a PEF Profile for metal sheets an interpretation shall be conducted and
reported including:
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
-
Assessment of the robustness of the Product Environmental Footprint model (e.g.
completeness and consistency check),
- Identification of Hotspots (according to /PEF pilot Guidance V5.2/), which shall clearly
distinguish between:
1. Impact categories (communication);
2. life cycle stages (communication);
3. processes; (data related requirements) and
4. elementary flows (data related requirements).
- Estimation of Uncertainty (based on relevant expert judgement),
- Conclusions, Recommendations and Limitations.
NOTE: In case of deviating results to the screening study (e.g. different hot spots) the interpretation
shall go into further detail and evaluate whether this deviation can be explained by, for example, a
method change, technical aspects or the accuracy of dataset aspects.
505
Assessment of the robustness of the PEF model
506
507
508
509
Several indicators have been identified as non-robust by the metal industry due to the lack of
robustness and the high uncertainty associated of the LCIA model or/and the overall calculation
methodology These indicators are the three toxicity indicators using the USEtox methodology and the
“Abiotic depletion potential” (ADP) indicator (See Section 4.5).
510
Conclusions and hot spots from the screening study /SCREENING 2015/:
511
512
513
The screening study revealed that the life cycle stage that contributed most to the environmental
footprint of an intermediate metal sheet was metal production. Transformation processes (e.g. rolling
and casting) were revealed to have negligible influence.
514
515
516
517
518
The manufacturing stage including mining & concentration and the smelting & refining are the two
stages that contribute most to the overall potential environmental footprint impact. In general, the
additional mandatory information calculated from the end-of-life stage also contributes significantly
to the PEF profile of the metal sheet, which demonstrates the importance of integrating properly this
end of life stage and of considering the burdens and benefits associated with the end-of-life scenario.
519
520
521
522
523
524
It can generally be observed that within the manufacturing stage, the dominant process is the
production of energy and auxiliaries for virgin material production. However, if no primary material is
actually used in a particular supply chain (which is currently the case for lead sheet), potential
environmental hotspots can only realistically occur in the secondary production processes. Therefore
PEFCRs must specify an End-of-life formula that successfully provides the correct result for the range
of cases that exist in reality – the modular version of the integrated equation (See Section 5.8).
525
526
527
According to the PEF Pilot Guidance [PEF pilot Guidance V5.2], for intermediate product all impact
categories are relevant and shall be reported. Based on the experience from the screening study the
TS considers the following impact categories as being most suitable for communication purposes.
41
528
Table 7-1: Summary of PEF impact categories for communication
Impact category
Climate Change (Global warming
potential)
Acidification
Recommended default LCIA method
Baseline model of 100 years of the
IPCC
Accumulated Exceedance
Photochemical ozone formation
LOTOS-EUROS
Classification according to ILCD
I (recommended and satisfactory)
II (Recommended, some
improvements needed)
II (Recommended, some
improvements needed)
529
42
530
8 REPORTING, DISCLOSURE AND COMMUNICATION
531
532
533
534
[PEF pilot Guidance, section 3.14.]:”The PEF-profile could be communicated in different forms,
depending on the typology of communication (B2B or B2C) and the objective of the communication.
For example, the PEF-profile could be communicated through a PEF external communication report,
a PEF performance tracking report, a PEF declaration or a PEF label.”
535
8.1 PEF EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION REPORT
536
537
The companies that performed the supporting studies are testing relevant communication vehicles to
complete this chapter.
538
Aurubis is going to test the following communication vehicles:
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
1. PEF Declaration ( similar to Environmental Product Declaration on the basis on EN 15804 for
construction products)
2. PEF Performance Tracking Report - as described in the PEF guide that would allow comparison
of the profile over time and show improvement
3. PEF Information in printed product ( e.g. information on the environmental performance
included in a leaflet on copper sheet in architecture )
The intention is also use a web site / social media for the purpose of distribution of the above
declaration/report
547
548
549
The target group will include customers of copper sheet for building applications, architects , NGO,
authorities ( e.g. related to environmental performance and resource efficiency) and an institute
performing studies on the environmental performance of products based on LCA.
550
551
Tata Steel will conduct communication using PEF EPD's, populated from the template created by the
metal sheets pilot. They will be tested with a number of stakeholders.
552
553
554
ArcelorMittal recommends to make uncertainty assessment a ‘default requirement’ on each impact
of profile report. This level of uncertainty shall be fully integrated in the communication format (e.g.
tables or graphs) of the environmental impact results.
555
KME will test the communication as follows:
556
Target audience
557
558
559
560



Tools
561
562
563
564
565
 PEF Declaration
 PEF Label
 PEF leaflets
 Barcode
Questions suggested:
566
567


Installers
Designers
Prescribers
Is the information in the label / PEF declaration understandable?
Does the results of the label or PEF report influence the decision making process?
43

568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
Do audiences understand what the meaning of impact category is? Does the audience
understand what the meaning of R1, R2, and R3 is?
 Are you convinced about the validity of the indicators / label?
 What channel is better to inform you, a label in the product or Information in a dedicated
website?
 The results of the impact categories: Climate change (CH), Eutrophication – freshwater (EP),
Photochemical Ozone Formation (POCP), Abiotic depletion mineral/fossil (ADP)
 The value of the following indicators: R1 - Recycled (or reused) content, R2 - the potential
recyclability of the material, R3 – the proportion of the material that will be used for energy
recovery
Note: This part will be completed later during the last phase of the pilot phase based on findings of
the companies carrying out the PEFCR supporting studies on their applicability in communicating PEF
results. Until the completion of the communication testing, the following external communication
guideline from the PEF Guide can be used as guidance:
582
583
584
585
586
587
[PEF Guide 2013/179/EU]: “A PEF report provides a relevant, comprehensive, consistent, accurate,
and transparent account of the study and of the calculated environmental impacts associated with
the product. It reflects the best possible information in such a way as to maximize its usefulness to
intended current and future users, whilst honestly and transparently communicating limitations.
Effective PEF reporting requires that several criteria, both procedural (report quality) and substantive
(report content), are met.
588
589
The PEF report shall follow the structure and requirements on content described in the PEF
Commission Recommendation. Deviations from this Recommendation shall be justified in the report.
590
591
592
A PEF report consists of at least three elements: a Summary, the Main Report, and an Annex.
Confidential and proprietary information can be documented in a fourth element - a complementary
Confidential Report. Review reports are either annexed or referenced.
593
8.1.1
594
595
596
The Summary shall be able to stand alone without compromising the results and
conclusions/recommendations (if included). The Summary shall fulfil the same criteria about
transparency, consistency, etc. as the detailed report. The Summary shall, as a minimum, include:
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
First element: Summary
Key elements of the goal and scope of the study with relevant limitations and assumptions;
A description of the system boundary;
The main results from the Resource Use and Emissions Profile and the EF impact assessment
components: these shall be presented in such a way as to ensure the proper use of the
information; the results shall be declared separately for each of the selected life cycle
stages.
Summary of interpretation
If applicable, environmental improvements compared to previous periods;
Relevant statements about data quality, assumptions and value judgments;
A description of what has been achieved by the study, any recommendations made and
conclusions drawn;
Overall appreciation of the uncertainties of the results.
44
609
8.1.2
610
The Main Report shall, as a minimum, include the following components:
611
Goal of the study - Mandatory reporting elements include, as a minimum:
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
Second element: Main Report







Intended application(s);
Methodological or EF impact category limitations;
Reasons for carrying out the study;
Target audience;
Whether the study is intended for comparison or for comparative assertions to be
disclosed to the public;
Reference PCRs;
Commissioner of the study.
621
Scope of the study
622
623
624
625
The Scope of the study shall identify the analyzed system in detail and address the overall approach
used to establish the system boundaries. The Scope of the study shall also address data quality
requirements. Finally, the Scope shall include a description of the methods applied for assessing
potential environmental impacts and which EF impact categories are included.
626
Mandatory reporting elements include, as a minimum:
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648








Unit of analysis and reference flow;
System boundaries, including omissions of life-cycle stages, processes or data needs,
quantification of energy and material inputs and outputs, assumptions about
electricity production, use and end-of-life stages;
The reasons for and potential significance of any exclusions;
All assumptions and value judgements, along with justifications for the assumptions
made;
Data representativeness, appropriateness of data, and types/ sources of required
data and information;
PEF impact categories, models and indicators;
normalisation and weighting factors (if used);
Treatment of any multi-functionality issues encountered in the PEF modelling activity.
Compiling and recording the Resource Use and Emissions Profile -Mandatory reporting elements
include, as a minimum:






Description and documentation of all unit process data collected;
Data collection procedures;
Sources of published literature;
Information on any use and end-of-life scenarios considered in downstream stages;
Calculation procedures;
Validation of data, including documentation and justification of allocation
procedures;
45
649
650
651

Calculating PEF impact assessment results - Mandatory reporting elements include:




652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
If a sensitivity analysis has been conducted, this shall be reported.











The EF impact assessment procedure, calculations and results of the PEF study;
Limitation of the EF results relative to the defined goal and scope of the PEF study;
The relationship of the EF impact assessment results to the defined goal and scope;
If any exclusion from the default EF impact categories has been made, the justification
for the exclusion(s) shall be reported;
If any deviation from the default EF impact assessment methods has been made
(which shall be justified and included under additional environmental information),
then the mandatory reporting elements shall also include:
Impact categories and impact category indicators considered, including a rationale for
their selection and a reference to their source;
Description of or reference to all characterisation models, characterisation factors
and methods used, including all assumptions and limitations;
Description of or reference to all value-choices used in relation to the EF impact
categories, characterisation models, characterisation factors, normalisation,
grouping, weighting and a justification for their use and their influence on the results,
conclusions and recommendations;
A statement and justification of any grouping of the EF impact categories;
Any analysis of the indicator results, for example sensitivity and uncertainty analysis
on the use of other impact categories or additional environmental information,
including any implication for the results;
Additional environmental information, if any;
Information on carbon storage in products;
Information on delayed emissions;
data and indicator results reached prior to any normalisation;
If included, normalisation and weighting factors and results.
Interpreting PEF results - Mandatory reporting elements include:





679
680
681
682
683
Assessment of data quality;
Full transparency of value choices, rationale and expert judgements;
Identification of environmental hotspots;
Uncertainty (at least a qualitative description);
Conclusions, recommendations, limitations, and improvement potentials.
684
8.1.3
685
686
The Annex serves to document supporting elements to the main report which are of a more technical
nature. It shall include:
687
Descriptions of all assumptions, including those assumptions that have been shown to be irrelevant;
Third element: Annex
46

688
689
690
691
692
693


Critical review report, including (where applicable) the name and affiliation of
reviewer or review team, a critical review, responses to recommendations (if any);
Resource Use and Emissions Profile (optional if considered sensitive and
communicated separately in the Confidential Report, see below);
Reviewers’ self-declaration of their qualification, stating how many points they
achieved for each criterion defined in section 10.3 of this PEF Guide.
694
8.1.4
695
696
697
The Confidential Report is an optional reporting element that shall contain all those data (including
raw data) and information that are confidential or proprietary and cannot be made externally
available. It shall be made available confidentially to the critical reviewers.”
698
8.2 PEF PERFORMANCE TRACKING REPORT
699
700
701
702
703
704
[PEF pilot Guidance, section 3.14.2]: “PEF communication may take the form of a PEF performance
tracking report, which allows for the comparison of a PEF profile of a specific product over time with
respect to its original or previous PEF profile. The communication of the performance tracking report
shall be based on a specific PEF study and PEFCR requirements for that product category. When
communicating a change in a PEF profile to the public, the main contributions to the change shall be
specified.
705
Communication of performance tracking may be made when they are due to:
706
a) Improvements made by the reporting organization,
707
b) Selection of other suppliers,
708
c) Deliberate and verifiable improvements made by suppliers,
709
710
d) Improvements in the use stage and in the end-of-life stage made by improved product design or an
improved end-of-life procedure,
711
e) Changes due to process improvements.
712
713
Changes due to seasonal changes24 or finding better secondary data sources shall not be reported as
performance changes.
714
715
716
The communication may be supported by a graphical representation of the processes in the life cycle
of the product, which allows an understanding of the system boundary, the contribution to the PEF
profile and the changes included.”
717
8.3 PEF DECLARATION
718
719
720
721
1. Product
1.1. Product description
The declared products must be described. If averages are declared across various products, the
average breakdown must be explained.
722
723
1.2. Application
The designated application for the products referred to must be specified.
Fourth element: Confidential Annex
47
724
725
726
1.3. Technical Data
If relevant for the declared product, the following technical construction data in the delivery status
must be provided with reference to the test standard.
727
48
728
Table 8-1: Constructional data
Name
Coefficient of thermal expansion
Tensile strength
Compressive strength
Modulus of elasticity
Melting point
Thermal conductivity
Electrical conductivity at 20°C
Density
Value
Unit
10-6K-1
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
°C
W/(mK)
Ω-1m-1
kg/m3
729
730
731
732
733
1.4. Base materials / Ancillary materials
The primary product components and/or materials must be indicated as a percentage mass to enable
the user of the PEF to understand the composition of the product in delivery status. This information
should also support safety and efficiency during installation, usage and disposal of the product.
734
735
736
737
2. LCA: Calculation rules
2.1. Unit of analysis
The unit of analysis, the mass reference and the conversion factor to 1 kg shall be indicated in the
appropriate table as declared.
738
Table 8-2: Unit of analysis
Name
Unit of analysis
Conversion factor to 1 kg
Value
Unit
m²
-
739
740
741
2.2. System boundary
Type of the PEF: cradle to gate, with mandatory additional environmental information (End-of-Life).
742
743
3. LCA: Scenarios and additional technical information
The following information is necessary for the declared modules.
744
Table 8-3: End of life
Name
Reuse
Recycling
Energy recovery
Landfilling
Value
Unit
745
746
49
747
748
749
4. LCA: Results
Table 8-4: Impact Assessment Category Descriptions considered as robust /PEF Guide 2013/179/EU/
5. EF Impact Category
EF Impact Assessment Model
EF Impact Category
Source
indicators
Climate Change
Ozone Depletion
Particulate
Matter/Respiratory
Inorganics
Ionising Radiation –
human health effects
Photochemical Ozone
Formation
Acidification
Eutrophication –
terrestrial
Eutrophication – aquatic
(freshwater)
Eutrophication – aquatic
(marine)
Resource Depletion –
water
Land use
Bern model - Global Warming Potentials kg CO2 equivalent
(GWP) over a 100 year time horizon.
EDIP model based on the ODPs of the
kg CFC-11 equivalent
World Meteorological Organization
(WMO) over an infinite time horizon.
RiskPoll model
kg PM2,5 equivalent
Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change, 2007
WMO, 1999
Human Health effect model
Dreicer et al., 1995
LOTOS-EUROS model
kBq U235 equivalent (to
air)
kg NMVOC equivalent
Accumulated Exceedance model
mol H+ eq
Accumulated Exceedance model
mol N eq
EUTREND model
fresh water: kg P
equivalent
marine: kg N equivalent
EUTREND model
Swiss Ecoscarcity model
Soil Organic Matter (SOM) model
m3 water use related to
local scarcity of water
Kg (C deficit)
Humbert, 2009
Van Zelm et al., 2008 as
applied in ReCiPe
Seppälä et al.,2006; Posch
et al., 2008
Seppälä et al.,2006; Posch
et al., 2008
Struijs et al., 2009 as
implemented in ReCiPe
Struijs et al., 2009 as
implemented in ReCiPe
Frischknecht et al., 2008
Milà i Canals et al., 2007
750
751
752
The impact categories listed in the following table, at present stage can’t be considered robust for
communication purposes because of the limitations of the methodologies.
753
Table 8-5: Impact Assessment Category Descriptions considered as non-robust /PEF Guide 2013/179/EU/
EF Impact Category
EF Impact Assessment
EF Impact Category indicators
Model
Ecotoxicity for aquatic fresh
USEtox model
CTUe (Comparative Toxic Unit for
wate
ecosystems)
Human Toxicity - cancer effects USEtox model
CTUh (Comparative Toxic Unit for
humans)
Human Toxicity – non-cancer USEtox model
CTUh (Comparative Toxic Unit for
effects
humans)
Resource Depletion – mineral, CML2002 model
kg antimony (Sb) equivalent
fossil
754
Source
Rosenbaum et al.,
2008
Rosenbaum et al.,
2008
Rosenbaum et al.,
2008
van Oers at al., 2008
8.4 PEF LABEL
755
756
757
[PEF pilot Guidance V5.2]: “The use of a PEF label, i.e. a label reporting the classes of performances
for the most relevant environmental impact categories, may be tested in the framework of the EF
pilot phase.
758
759
This Guidance will be revised with further specifications once any decision concerning a PEF label will
be taken.”
760
The possibility of a label will be discussed at a later stage.
50
761
762
9 VERIFICATION
Information about the verification process will be added after the supporting studies.
51
763
10 REFERENCE LITERATURE
GUINÉE, 2001
Guinée et al, An operational guide to the ISO-standards, Centre for Milieukunde
(CML), Leiden, the Netherlands, 2001
ISO 14040, 2006
ISO 14040 Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and
Framework, 2006
ISO 14044, 2006
ISO 14044 Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Requirements and
guidelines, 2006
ROSENBAUM, 2008
Rosenbaum et al, USEtox™—the UNEP-SETAC toxicity model: recommended
characterisation factors for human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity in life cycle
impact assessment, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment (2008) 13:532–546
VAN OERS, 2002
van Oers et al, Abiotic resource depletion in LCA: Improving characterisation factors
abiotic resource depletion as recommended in the new Dutch LCA handbook, 2002
CPA, 2008
Regulation (EC) No 451/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23
April 2008 establishing a new statistical classification of products by activity (CPA) and
repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 3696/93
NACE
Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE),
European Commission
SCREENING 2015
EUROMETAUX: Screening study for metal sheets, 2015
PEF pilot
Guidance
Product Environmental Footprint Pilot Guidance, Guidance for the implementation of
the EU Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) during the Environmental Footprint
(EF) pilot phase, version 4.0
PEF Guide
2013/179/EU
EUROPEAN COMMISSION: COMMISSION RECOMMENDATION of 9 April 2013 on the
use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental
performance of products and organisations (Text with EEA relevance) (2013/179/EU)
PEF pilot
Guidance V5.2
MAKI 1
MAKI 2
EN 15804, 2012
Product Environmental Footprint Pilot Guidance, Guidance for the implementation of
the EU Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) during the Environmental Footprint
(EF) pilot phase, Version 5.2 - February 2016
Marc-Andree Wolf & Kirana Chomkhamsri, The “Integrated formula” for modelling
recycling, energy recovery and reuse in LCA - White paper – available at http://makiconsulting.com/?p=269
Marc-Andree Wolf, Kirana Chomkhamsri, Fulvio Ardente: Modelling recycling, energy
recovery and reuse in LCA, the 6th International Conference on Life Cycle
Management in Gothenburg 2013
Sustainability of construction works — Environmental product declarations — Core
rules for the product category of construction products, 2012
52
MURRAY, S., 1978
Glossary of terms applicable to wrought products in copper and copper alloys,
International Wrought Copper Council, 1978
TILTON, LAGOS
2007
Tilton, J.E., and Lagos, G., 2007, Assessing the long-run availability of copper:
Resources Policy, v. 32, p. 19-23
JOHNSON,
HAMMARSTROM
,ZIENTEK, DICKEN
2014
Johnson, K.M., Hammarstrom, J.M., Zientek, M.L., and Dicken, C.L., 2014, Estimate of
undiscovered copper resources of the world, 2013: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet
2014–3004, 3 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/fs20143004
UNEP 2011
UNEP: Graedel et. al (2011) ”Estimating Long-Run Geological Stocks of Metals” UNEP
International Panel on Sustainable Resource Management Working Group on
Geological Stocks of Metals
JAMES, GALATOLA
2015
James, Keith; Galatola, Michele (2015), Screening and hotspot analysis: procedure to
identify the hotspots and the most relevant contributions (in terms of impact
categories, life cycle stages, processes and flows), Version 4.0, 24 April 2015
ICMM 2014
PE International (now thinkstep) on behalf of the following organizations: Aluminum
Association Cobalt Development Institute, Eurometaux, Euromines, International
Aluminium Institute, International Copper Association, International Council on
Mining and Metals, International Lead Association, International Lead Management
Center Site, International Lead Zinc Research Organization, International Manganese
Institute, International Molybdenum Association, International Stainless Steel Forum,
International Zinc Association, Nickel Institute, World Steel Association:
Harmonization of LCA Methodologies for Metals, February 2014 /
https://www.icmm.com/document/6657
53
764
765
11 SUPPORTING INFORMATION FOR THE PEFCR
Supporting information on the PEFCR are described in the screening study /SCREENING 2015/.
54
766
12 LIST OF ANNEXES
767
Annex I – Representative product
768
Annex II – Bill of Materials (BOM)
769
Annex III – Supporting studies
770
Annex IV – Metal production
771
Annex V – Benchmark and classes of environmental performance
772
Annex VI - Co-Products in metal production
773
Annex VII – Upstream scenarios (optional)
774
Annex VIII – Downstream scenarios (optional)
775
Annex IX – Normalisation factors
776
Annex X – Weighting factors
777
Annex XI – Foreground data
778
Annex XII – Background data
779
Annex XIII – EOL formulas
780
781
Annex XIV – Background information on methodological choices taken during the development of the
PEFCR
782
Annex XV – PCR References
783
Annex XVI – Hot spots
784
Annex XVII – Data quality Requirements
785
Annex XVIII – Screening Study
786
55
787
12.1 ANNEX I – REPRESENTATIVE PRODUCT AND EXISTING PRODUCT STANDARDS
788
A non-exhaustive list of relevant standards for the metals and their applications is shown below.
789
Product standards - Aluminium
790
Table 12-1: Examples of product standards for Aluminium
Standard reference
EN 1090-1:2009
EN 12258-1:2012
EN 12258-2:2004
EN 13859-1:2010
Flexible sheets for waterproofing - Definitions and
characteristics of underlays - Part 1: Underlays for
discontinuous roofing
EN 13859-2:2010
Flexible sheets for waterproofing - Definitions and
characteristics of underlays - Part 2: Underlays for walls
EN 1396:2007
Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Coil coated sheet and strip
for general applications - Specifications
EN 14509:2006
Self-supporting double skin metal faced insulating panels Factory made products - Specifications
EN 14783:2006
EN507 : 1999
EN508-22008
EN 573-1:2004
EN 573-2:1994
EN 573-3:2013
EN 573-5:2007
Area
Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 1:
Requirements for conformity assessment of structural
components
Building
Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Terms and definitions - Part
1: General terms
alloys
Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Terms and definitions - Part
2: Chemical analysis
EN 14782:2006
791
Title
Self-supporting metal sheet for roofing, external cladding and
internal lining - Product specification and requirements
Fully supported metal sheet and strip for roofing, external
cladding and internal lining - Product specification and
requirements
Roofing products of metal sheet – Specification for fully
supported roofing product of aluminium sheet
Roofing products from metal sheet – specification for selfsupporting products of steel, aluminium or stainless steel sheet
– Part 2 : Aluminium
Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Chemical composition and
form of wrought products - Part 1: Numerical designation
system
Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Chemical composition and
form of wrought products - Part 2: Chemical symbol based
designation system
Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Chemical composition and
form of wrought products - Part 3: Chemical composition and
form of products
Aluminium and aluminium alloys - Chemical composition and
form of wrought products - Part 5: Codification of standardized
wrought products
Relevance
High
High
alloys
High
Building
High
Building
High
Coil coated sheet
High
Building
High
Building
High
Building
High
Building
High
Building
High
Generic
High
Generic
High
Generic
High
Generic
High
792
56
793
Product standards - Copper
794
Table 12-2: Examples of product standards for copper
Standard reference
Title
EN 1172:2012-02
Copper and copper alloys - Sheet and strip for building purpose
EN ISO 6507-1:2005
Metallic materials - Vickers hardness test - Part 1: Test method
(ISO 6507-1:2005)
EN ISO 6507-2:2005
Metallic materials - Vickers hardness test - Part 2: Verification
and calibration of testing machines (ISO 6507-2:2005)
EN ISO 6892-1:2009
Metallic materials - Tensile testing - Part 1: Method of test at
room temperature (ISO 6892-1:2009)
EN 504:1999
Roofing products from metal sheet - Specification for fully
supported roofing products from copper sheet
Area
Building
EN 506:2008
EN 1172:2011
Copper and copper alloys - Sheet and strip for building purposes
EN 1462:2004
Brackets for eaves gutters - Requirements and testing
EN 1652:1997
Copper and copper alloys - Plate, sheet, strip and circles for
general purposes
EN 14783:2013
ISO 1811-2:1988-10
795
Roofing products of metal sheet - Specification for selfsupporting products of copper or zinc sheet
Fully supported metal sheet and strip for roofing, external
cladding and internal lining - Product specification and
requirements
Copper and copper alloys; selection and preparation of samples
for chemical analysis; part 2: sampling of wrought products and
castings
EN 1976:2012
Copper and copper alloys - Cast unwrought copper products
DIN 17933-16:1997-07
, Copper and copper alloys - Determination of residual stresses
in the Border area of slit strip
DIN 1402-1:1998-01
Fire behaviour of building materials and building components Part 1: Building materials; concepts, requirements and tests
ISO 4739:1985-05
Wrought copper and copper alloy products; Selection and
preparation of specimens and test pieces for mechanical testing
796
57
797
Product standards - Lead
798
799
For lead sheet used in roofing application, the standard BS EN 12588 2007-01-31/EN 12588:2006
applies.
800
Product standards - Steel
801
A non-exhaustive list of standards applicable for steel is provided below.
802
Table 12-3: Examples of products and standards for steel (Hot rolled products)
Standard reference
Title
EN 10025/5 (2004)
Hot rolled products of structural steels - Part 5: Technical
delivery conditions for structural steels with improved
atmospheric corrosion resistance;
Area
Hot rolled steel
EN 10083-2 (2006)
EN 10132-4 (2000)
EN 10149/2 (95)
EN 10083-3 (2006)
ASTM A 568
EN 10111 (2008)
EN 10084 (2008)
Case hardening steels - Technical delivery conditions
EN 10130 (after CR)
Cold rolled low carbon steel flat products for cold forming Technical delivery conditions
EN 10120 (2008)
Hot rolled products of structural steels - Part 2: Technical
delivery conditions for non-alloy structural steels
EN 10025/2 (2004)
Hot rolled products of structural steels - Part 2: Technical
delivery conditions for non-alloy structural steels
EN 10111 (2008)
Continuously hot rolled low carbon steel sheet and strip for cold
forming - Technical delivery conditions
API 5L (2007)
Specification for Line Pipe
EN 10028-2 (2009)
EN 10028-3 (2009)
EN 10028-5 (2009)
EN 10207 (2005)
803
Steels for quenching and tempering - Part 2: Technical delivery
conditions for non alloy steels;
Cold-rolled narrow steel strip for heat-treatment - Technical
delivery conditions - Part 4: Spring steels and other
applications;
Hot rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for
cold forming - Part 2: Technical delivery conditions for
thermomechanically rolled steels;
Steels for quenching and tempering - Part 3: Technical delivery
conditions for alloy steels
Standard Specification for Steel, Sheet, Carbon, Structural, and
High-Strength, Low-Alloy, Hot-Rolled and Cold-Rolled, General
Requirements for
Continuously hot rolled low carbon steel sheet and strip for cold
forming - Technical delivery conditions
Flat products made of steels for pressure purposes - Part 2:
Non-alloy and alloy steels with specified elevated temperature
properties
Flat products made of steels for pressure purposes - Part 3:
Weldable fine grain steels, normalized
Flat products made of steels for pressure purposes - Part 5:
Weldable fine grain steels, thermomechanically rolled
Steels for simple pressure vessels - Technical delivery
requirements for plates, strips and bars
EN 10111
Continuously hot rolled low carbon steel sheet and strip for cold
forming - Technical delivery conditions
EN 10025 (90)
Hot rolled products of structural steels - Part 1: General
technical delivery conditions
EN 10025/2 (2004)
Hot rolled products of structural steels - Part 2: Technical
delivery conditions for non-alloy structural steels
58
804
805
Table 12-4: Examples of products and standards for steel (Cold rolled, metallic/organic coated
products)
Standard reference
EN 10268 (2006)
EN 10130 (2006)
ASTM A 568
ASTM A109
EN 10268 (2006)
EN 10152 (2009)
EN 10346 (2009)
NFA 36-345
SEW 022 (2010)
806
807
EN 10169 (2010)
Area
Cold rolled steel flat products with high yield strength for cold
forming - Technical delivery conditions
Cold rolled low carbon steel flat products for cold forming Technical delivery conditions
Standard Specification for Steel, Sheet, Carbon, Structural, and
High-Strength, Low-Alloy, Hot-Rolled and Cold-Rolled, General
Requirements for
Cold rolled steel
Standard Specification for Steel, Strip, Carbon (0.25 Maximum
Percent), Cold-Rolled
Cold rolled steel flat products with high yield strength for cold
forming - Technical delivery conditions;
Electrolytically zinc coated cold rolled steel flat products for
cold forming - Technical delivery conditions
Continuously hot-dip coated steel flat products - Technical
delivery conditions
Metallic coated steel
Iron and steel. Aluminium coated sheet. Cut lengths and coils
Continuously hot-dip coated steel flat products - Zincmagnesium coatings - Technical delivery conditions
Continuously organic coated (coil coated) steel flat products Technical delivery conditions
Organic coated steel
Table 12-5: Examples of products and standards for steel (Enamelling, electrical applications)
Standard reference
Title
EN 10209 (96)
Cold rolled low carbon steel flat products for vitreous enamelling Technical delivery conditions
EN 10265 (95)
EN 10303 (2006)
EN 10106 (2007)
EN 10107 (2005)
808
Title
Magnetic materials - Specification for steel sheet and strip with
specified mechanical properties and magnetic permeability
Area
Steel for enamelling
Steels for electrical applications
Industrial automation systems and integration - Product data
representation and exchange - Part 112: Integrated application
resource: Modelling commands for the exchange of procedurally
represented 2D CAD models
Cold rolled non-oriented electrical steel sheet and strip delivered
in the fully processed state
Grain-oriented electrical steel sheet and strip delivered in the
fully processed state
EN 10265 (95)
Magnetic materials - Specification for steel sheet and strip with
specified mechanical properties and magnetic permeability
EN 10341 (2006)
Cold rolled electrical non-alloy and alloy steel sheet and strip
delivered in the semi-processed state
809
59
810
811
812
813
814
815
Table 12-6 specifies the thickness of a metal sheet for a typical end application, but this should be
considered only as a representative example, and thus a precise benchmark for thickness (defining
‘how much’) is not possible in this PEFCR. Final accurate parameters will have to be fixed by end-use
PEFCRs in order to allow meaningful comparisons and benchmarking. In this chapter illustrative
representative products for the following areas of application are defined based on the screening
study /SCREENING 2015/:
816
817
818
819
1. Building
2. Appliances
Six representative products are defined:
820
Four for the subcategory “building applications”:
821
822
823
824
825
826
- one for copper roofing,
- one for lead roofing,
- one for aluminium roofing and
- one for steel flooring
and two for the subcategory “appliances”: aluminium and steel body sheets. Table 12-6 shows the 5
main categories (and others) of applications based on market share for the metal sheets considered.
827
Table 12-6: Overview on market share, conversion factors and average thicknesses
Yearly market in
ktonnes
Lead
Aluminium
Steel
Construction
Transport
Appliances
Packaging
Engineering
Others
90
610
18.7944
0
875
21.092
0
193
3.672
76
not considered
not considered
Range and
(Example)
thickness (mm)
Lead
Construction
Transport
Appliances
0
2.328
3.456
not
considered
Packaging
0
480
20.546
not
considered
Engineering
10
0
15.343
not
considered
Others
1,7
not considered
not considered
Aluminium
Steel
0,5
0.4-10
1,1
0.4-5
1
0.2-3.5
not
considered
0,1
0.2-2
not
considered
1
1-10
not
considered
1-10
(1)
(1)
(0.6)
0,6
not considered
not considered
Conversion factor
(m² / tonnes)
Lead
Construction
Transport
Appliances
(0.2)
not
considered
Packaging
(1)
not
considered
Engineering
(1)
not
considered
Others
52
not considered
not considered
Aluminium
Steel
Copper
741
128
337
128
185
128
187
not considered
not considered
Yearly market in
millions m2
Construction
Transport
Appliances
not
considered
3704
641
not
considered
Packaging
not
considered
370
128
not
considered
Engineering
not
considered
0
128
not
considered
Others
Copper
Copper
4
only contains the tonnages of flat products, not long product
60
Lead
5
not considered
not considered
Aluminium
Steel
Copper
452
2.409
295
2.704
36
471
14
not considered
not considered
Market share
(based on market
in m2)
Lead
Construction
Transport
Appliances
0,2%
not considered
Aluminium
Steel
Copper
15,7%
83,7%
9,8%
90,2%
not
considered
7,1%
92,9%
0,5%
not considered
not considered
not
considered
8.622
2.215
not
considered
Packaging
not
considered
178
2.634
not
considered
Engineering
not
considered
0
1.967
not
considered
Others
not
considered
79,6%
20,4%
not
considered
not
considered
6,3%
93,7%
not
considered
not
considered
100,0%
not
considered
828
829
830
831
832
Table 12-7 shows typical values for the main important product properties, which are also relevant
foreground data. Specifically for R1 and R2 there are more than two combinations of (scrap) recycling
possible. The example with i=2 is an appropriate way to reflect the representative product and need
to be adapted (e.g. expanded) in case of a PEF application.
833
Table 12-7: Product properties for representative products
Steel,
Appliances
0,60
4,68
0,54
100 (0,54;
sec. billet)
Aluminium,
Building
0,70
1,90
0,40
100 (0,40;
sec. slab)
Aluminium,
Appliances
1,00
2,71
0,40
100 (0,40;
sec. slab)
0
0
0
0,95
100
(0,95;
clean
scrap)
0,90
100 (0,90;
clean
scrap)
%
0 (0)
%
46
Unit
Thickness
Grammage
R1
Share of Erecycled,1
mm
Kg/m²
(= R1,1;tech.
description)
Share of Erecycled,2
(= R1,2;tech.
description)
R2
Share of
ErecycledEoL,1
(= R2,1;tech.
description)
Share of
ErecycledEoL,2
(= R2,2;tech.
description)
Share of EV
834
Steel,
Building
1
7,8
0,54
100
(0,54;
sec.
billet)
Parameter
%
%
%
Copper
Lead
0,60
5,30
0,65
30
(0,195;
sec.
cathode)
1,70
19,20
1
80 (0,8; battery
recycling)
0
70
(0,455;
clean
scrap)
20 (0,2; clean
lead scrap
recycling)
0,95
100 (0,95;
clean scrap)
0,90
100 (0,90;
clean
scrap)
0,90
100
(0,90;
clean
scrap)
0,95
100 (0,95; clean
scrap)
0 (0)
0 (0)
0 (0)
0 (0)
0 (0)
46
60
60
35
0
na= not applicable
61
835
836
Note: The values for R1 represent sector average figures. In the PEF studies the actual rate for the
metal sheet produced shall be taken into account.5
837
5
The values for R1 represent sector average figures. In the PEF studies the actual rate for the metal sheet produced
should be preferably taken into account. Similarly, R2 values (R2=0,9-0,95) represents first estimate of end of life
recycling rates. If available, more specific values should be used in PEF studies
62
838
Disclaimer of the Technical Secretariat:
839
840
The following figures are purely indicative and shall not be used for benchmarking purposes at intermediate product level since the precise characteristics
of the metal sheet (e.g. thickness) and its performances during the use phase shall be considered to obtain a relevant comparison.
841
Table 12-8: LCA results for representative products (Annex V)
impact categories
6
Steel
Steel
Aluminium
Aluminium
Building
appliances
building
appliances
Unit
Copper
Cradle to
gate
EoL6
Cradle to
gate
EoL
Cradle to
gate
EoL
Cradle to
gate
EoL
Cradle to
gate
EoL
Lead
Cradle to
gate
EoL
Acidification
[Mole of
H+ eq.]
2,85E-02
-5,81E-03
1,71E-02
-3,28E-03
8,16E-02
-4,45E-02
1,16E-01
-6,01E-02
9,84E-02
-5,95E-02
1,43E-01
-6,49E-02
Freshwater
eutrophication
[kg P eq]
4,41E-06
1,18E-06
2,65E-06
7,35E-07
5,35E-06
-2,50E-06
7,63E-06
-3,35E-06
1,72E-05
-7,58E-06
2,65E-05
-1,66E-05
Global warming.
biogenic carbon
excl
[kg CO2Equiv.]
1,50E+01
-6,78E+00
8,98E+00
-3,85E+00
1,38E+01
-6,98E+00
1,96E+01
-9,43E+00
1,51E+01
-8,15E+00
2,54E+01
-1,08E+01
Global warming.
biogenic carbon
incl
[kg CO2Equiv.]
1,49E+01
-6,77E+00
8,95E+00
-3,84E+00
1,38E+01
-6,99E+00
1,96E+01
-9,44E+00
1,47E+01
-7,95E+00
2,52E+01
-1,06E+01
Ionising radiation
[kBq U235
eq]
2,27E-01
1,79E-01
1,36E-01
1,02E-01
8,91E-01
-4,44E-01
1,27E+00
-6,00E-01
5,33E-01
-2,23E-01
8,32E-01
-3,36E-01
Land use. Soil Organic
Matter (SOM)
[kg
C
deficit eq]
1,09E+00
0,00E+00
6,54E-01
0,00E+00
9,37E-03
0,00E+00
1,33E-02
0,00E+00
3,90E-02
0,00E+00
4,55E-02
0,00E+00
Marine eutrophication
[kg
NEquiv.]
6,78E-04
-1,66E-04
4,07E-04
-9,30E-05
1,23E-03
-6,33E-04
1,75E-03
-8,54E-04
2,20E-03
-1,28E-03
4,10E-03
-2,65E-03
Additional environmental information
63
impact categories
Steel
Steel
Aluminium
Aluminium
Building
appliances
building
appliances
Unit
Copper
Lead
Ozone depletion
[kg CFC-11
eq]
-3,42E-08
2,57E-08
-2,05E-08
1,46E-08
4,34E-09
-2,27E-09
6,19E-09
-3,06E-09
6,11E-10
-2,70E-11
1,37E-09
-1,41E-10
Particulate matter
[kg PM2.5Equiv.]
1,98E-03
-1,97E-04
1,19E-03
-8,13E-05
8,53E-03
-4,70E-03
1,22E-02
-6,33E-03
7,70E-03
-3,09E-03
6,74E-03
-3,01E-03
[kg
NMVOC]
2,94E-02
-1,09E-02
1,76E-02
-6,16E-03
3,35E-02
-1,74E-02
4,77E-02
-2,35E-02
4,03E-02
-2,39E-02
8,48E-02
-5,42E-02
Terrestrial
eutrophication
[Mole of N
eq.]
7,99E-02
-2,69E-02
4,79E-02
-1,52E-02
1,16E-01
-6,08E-02
1,66E-01
-8,21E-02
1,65E-01
-9,93E-02
3,32E-01
-2,21E-01
Total
freshwater
consumption
[kg]
1,33E+00
1,04E+00
7,99E-01
5,95E-01
1,99E+01
-1,13E+01
2,84E+01
-1,52E+01
2,15E+01
-1,19E+01
1,84E+01
-1,36E+01
Photochemical
formation
ozone
Impact categories considered as non-robust
Ecotoxicity for aquatic
fresh water
[CTUe]
1,18E+00
-3,73E-02
7,07E-01
-2,06E-02
5,16E-01
-2,80E-01
7,36E-01
-3,78E-01
3,31E+00
-1,91E+00
2,15E+00
-1,09E+00
Human toxicity cancer
effects
[CTUh]
5,20E-09
-1,35E-09
3,12E-09
-7,44E-10
7,22E-09
-3,99E-09
1,03E-08
-5,37E-09
1,49E-08
-9,02E-09
1,26E-07
-9,89E-08
Human toxicity
canc. Effects
[CTUh]
1,13E-06
-2,63E-07
6,76E-07
-1,47E-07
7,58E-07
-4,19E-07
1,08E-06
-5,64E-07
2,18E-06
-1,29E-06
1,66E-05
-1,21E-05
[kg
SbEquiv.]
9,56E-05
-2,73E-05
5,73E-05
-1,55E-05
2,00E-04
-1,18E-04
2,86E-04
-1,59E-04
2,38E-05
-1,51E-05
1,05E-03
-8,90E-04
non-
Resource
Depletion.
fossil
and
mineral.
reserve Based. CML2002
842
64
843
Table 12-9: LCA results for representative products (Modular Integrated Equation)
impact categories
7
Steel
Steel
Aluminium
Aluminium
building
appliances
building
appliances
Unit
Copper
Cradle to
gate
EoL7
Cradle to
gate
EoL
Cradle to
gate
EoL
Cradle to gate
EoL
Cradle to
gate
EoL
Lead
Cradle
to gate
EoL
Acidification
[Mole of
H+ eq.]
2,49E-02
-5,36E-03
1,49E-02
-2,79E-03
6,28E-02
-5,16E-02
8,95E-02
-6,69E-02
5,86E-02
-4,02E-02
1,31E-01
-1,05E01
Freshwater
eutrophication
[kg P eq]
5,03E-06
2,09E-07
3,02E-06
1,78E-07
4,28E-06
-3,17E-06
6,11E-06
-4,08E-06
1,18E-05
-4,86E-06
1,16E-05
-3,36E06
Global warming.
biogenic carbon
excl
[kg CO2Equiv.]
1,08E+01
-5,90E+00
6,50E+00
-3,10E+00
1,08E+01
-8,09E+00
1,54E+01
-1,05E+01
9,71E+00
-5,59E+00
2,32E+01
1,73E+01
Global warming.
biogenic carbon
incl
[kg CO2Equiv.]
1,08E+01
-5,88E+00
6,48E+00
-3,10E+00
1,08E+01
-8,11E+00
1,54E+01
-1,05E+01
9,46E+00
-5,48E+00
2,33E+01
1,75E+01
Ionising radiation
[kBq U235
eq]
3,36E-01
1,54E-01
2,02E-01
8,10E-02
7,03E-01
-5,14E-01
1,00E+00
-6,67E-01
3,97E-01
-1,74E-01
7,17E-01
-4,41E01
Land use. Soil Organic
Matter (SOM)
[kg
C
deficit eq]
1,09E+00
0,00E+00
6,54E-01
0,00E+00
9,37E-03
0,00E+00
1,33E-02
0,00E+00
3,90E-02
0,00E+00
4,55E-02
0,00E+00
Marine eutrophication
[kg
NEquiv.]
5,76E-04
-1,57E-04
3,45E-04
-8,16E-05
9,62E-04
-7,37E-04
1,37E-03
-9,55E-04
1,31E-03
-7,99E-04
1,94E-03
-9,98E04
Ozone depletion
[kg CFC-11
eq]
-1,86E-08
2,22E-08
-1,12E-08
1,17E-08
3,39E-09
-2,63E-09
4,83E-09
-3,40E-09
7,01E-10
-2,26E-10
2,09E-09
-1,71E09
Additional environmental information
65
impact categories
Steel
Steel
Aluminium
Aluminium
building
appliances
building
appliances
Unit
Copper
Lead
[kg
PM2.5Equiv.]
1,81E-03
-5,60E-04
1,09E-03
-2,62E-04
6,54E-03
-5,57E-03
9,33E-03
-7,20E-03
7,85E-03
-6,54E-03
5,92E-03
-4,38E03
[kg
NMVOC]
2,28E-02
-9,66E-03
1,37E-02
-5,07E-03
2,61E-02
-2,02E-02
3,72E-02
-2,62E-02
2,38E-02
-1,53E-02
4,29E-02
-2,46E02
Terrestrial
eutrophication
[Mole of N
eq.]
6,34E-02
-2,43E-02
3,80E-02
-1,27E-02
9,07E-02
-7,08E-02
1,29E-01
-9,17E-02
9,56E-02
-6,19E-02
1,50E-01
-7,64E02
Total
freshwater
consumption
[kg]
1,96E+00
8,69E-01
1,18E+00
4,61E-01
1,52E+01
-1,31E+01
2,16E+01
-1,70E+01
1,30E+01
-6,88E+00
5,95E+00
2,24E+00
Particulate matter
Photochemical
formation
ozone
Impact categories considered as non-robust
Ecotoxicity for aquatic
fresh water
[CTUe]
1,15E+00
-3,95E-02
6,93E-01
-2,02E-02
3,98E-01
-3,27E-01
5,67E-01
-4,23E-01
2,05E+00
-1,32E+00
1,40E+00
-6,73E01
Human toxicity cancer
effects
[CTUh]
4,34E-09
-1,46E-09
2,60E-09
-7,46E-10
5,54E-09
-4,72E-09
7,90E-09
-6,10E-09
8,73E-09
-6,07E-09
3,27E-08
-1,16E08
Human toxicity
canc. Effects
[CTUh]
9,63E-07
-2,59E-07
5,78E-07
-1,34E-07
5,81E-07
-4,96E-07
8,29E-07
-6,41E-07
1,32E-06
-8,88E-07
5,26E-06
-1,49E06
[kg
SbEquiv.]
7,90E-05
-2,36E-05
4,74E-05
-1,24E-05
1,50E-04
-1,37E-04
2,15E-04
-1,77E-04
1,30E-05
-8,67E-06
1,36E-04
4,13E-05
non-
Resource
Depletion.
fossil
and
mineral.
reserve Based. CML2002
844
66
12.2 ANNEX II – BILL OF MATERIALS (BOM)
Table 12-10: Representative Product(s) specification
Representative Products (N.)
Parameter
Unit
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Metal
Steel
Steel
Aluminium
Aluminium
Copper
Lead
Composition
See Figure
12-2, Table
12-11
See Figure
12-2, Table
12-11
See Figure
12-1
See Figure
12-1
99%Cu
99%Pb
Thickness
mm
1
0,60
0,70
1,00
0,60
1,70
Grammage
Kg/m²
7,8
4,68
1,90
2,71
5,30
19,20
0,54
0,54
0,40
0,40
0,65
1
%
100 (0,54;
sec.
billet)
100 (0,54;
sec. billet)
100 (0,40;
sec. slab)
100 (0,40;
sec. slab)
30
(0,195;
sec.
cathode)
80 (0,8; battery
recycling)
%
0
0
0
0
70
(0,455;
clean
scrap)
20 (0,2; clean lead
scrap recycling)
0,95
0,90
0,95
0,90
0,90
0,95
%
100 (0,95;
clean
scrap)
100 (0,90;
clean
scrap)
100 (0,95;
clean scrap)
100 (0,90;
clean
scrap)
100
(0,90;
clean
scrap)
100 (0,95; clean
scrap)
%
0 (0)
0 (0)
0 (0)
0 (0)
0 (0)
0 (0)
%
46
46
60
60
35
0
R1
Share of Erecycled,1
(= R1,1;tech.
description)
Share of Erecycled,2
(= R1,2;tech.
description)
R2
Share of ErecycledEoL,1
(= R2,1;tech.
description)
Share of ErecycledEoL,2
(= R2,2;tech.
description)
Share of EV
The metal sheets PEF pilot will take all the raw materials and operating materials into account as
required in the production steps explained in the system boundaries section. Certain additional
alloying-elements can be added to give the required properties. The Bill of Materials for the six
representative products will be described below per subcategory:
While copper (Cu 99%) and lead (Pb 99%) sheets are composed almost exclusively from pure metal,
aluminium and steel may also include alloying elements and/or coatings (metallic or non-metallic)
depending on the type of applications.
The main alloys for Aluminium, from the perspective of the chosen application for testing have been
specified by the European Aluminium Association and are listed below:
67
Main Alloys used
Sheet for building applications
Sheet for Appliances :
Building
Building
Building
Appliances
Building
Building & Applinaces
3003, 3004, 5005, 5182 and 5754
5005A & 5754
Alloy
Mg
Mn
Fe
Si
Si+Fe
Cu
Zn
Cr
Other
Elem
Total
Other
Al
3003
-
1.0-1.5
≤0.7
≤0.6
-
0.05-0.20
≤0.10
-
≤0.05
≤0.15
Rem.
3004
0.8-1.3
1.0-1.5
≤0.7
≤0.30
-
≤0.25
≤0.25
-
≤0.05
≤0.15
Rem.
5005
0.50-1.1
≤0.20
≤0.7
≤0.30
-
≤0.20
≤0.25
≤0.10
≤0.05
≤0.15
Rem.
5005A
0.7-1.1
≤0.15
≤0.45
≤0.30
-
≤0.05
≤0.20
≤0.10
≤0.05
≤0.15
Rem.
5182
4.0-5.0
0.20-0.50
≤0.35
≤0.20
-
≤0.15
≤0.25
≤0.10
≤0.05
≤0.15
Rem.
5754
2.6-3.6
≤0.50
≤0.40
≤0.40
-
≤0.10
≤0.20
≤0.30
≤0.05
≤0.15
Rem.
Figure 12-1: Main aluminium alloys used in the building and appliances sector
As mentioned above, the alloy compositions of the metals sheets varies according to the final
application. In the model for this screening study, several typical alloys were included in order to allow
the user to choose different alloy compositions depending on the chosen case for study. The list of
alloys is not exhaustive but sufficiently large for illustration purposes during the pilot project.
Steel in general has a very low alloying content (< 2%) to create the different mechanical properties.
Hence, one can mix all grades together in the recycling phase. Exceptions to this rule exist but involve
relatively small volumes (e.g. stainless steel - a specific family with separate recycling collection).
The Figure 12-2 shows examples for the chemical composition of alloys used in white good appliances.
Figure 12-2: Example from deep drawing sheet quality (e.g. in white good appliances)
Additionally, the table below lists the allowable content of each alloying element in carbon steels
(steels for construction) according to EN 10346. The chemical composition of carbon steel (steels for
construction) is defined by varying the ratio of these alloying elements, subject to the upper-limit
specified below.
68
Table 12-11: Example: Content of alloys according to EN 10346
Element
Chemical composition % by mass max.
C
0.20
Mn
1.70
P
0.10
S
0.045
Si
0.60
Fe
97.36
For aluminium a sensitivity analysis has been performed on alloying elements. This analysis shows
that, when considering the default EF impact categories (after weighting and normalization), potential
environmental hotspots can be reasonably expected to occur within primary aluminium production
and not within the production of the alloying elements. This finding supports a focus on aluminium
itself, rather than considering differences between the many different aluminium alloys.
For steel an analysis of the sensitivity of screening results to the inclusion of alloying elements was
performed. This analysis shows that, when considering the default EF impact categories (after
weighting and normalisation), potential environmental hotspots can be reasonably expected to occur
within primary metal production and not within the alloying elements. This finding supports a focus
on steel itself, rather than considering differences between the low alloyed steel types typically
applied in the construction sector.
For the purposes of calculating an emission profile, alloying or coating elements should be included,
unless they represent less than 1%.
69
12.3 ANNEX III – SUPPORTING STUDIES
In addition to the PEFCR screening study of the average representative products, there are four
company performed supporting studies. These are:
Coiled Hot-dip galvanized (HDG) steel sheet from ArcelorMittal
Hot Dipped Galvanised Steel for Construction from Tata Steel
NORDIC STANDARD™ Copper sheet from Aurubis
Roofing copper sheet from KME
70
Product Environment Footprint (PEF)
Supporting study for metal sheet (Galvanized steel sheet) from ArcelorMittal
Summary report
Version: June 2016 – V1.1
This report provides the outcomes of the PEF supporting study for Coiled Hot-dip galvanized (HDG)
steel sheet produced by ArcelorMittal. The results and conclusions of this report shall be used for no
other purpose than the development of the PEF Category Rules.
1. General Information
Description of intermediate product
Name of the product
Coiled Hot-dip galvanized (HDG) steel sheet in scope of data
collected is applied in automotive, construction, appliance,
packaging and/or other sectors (distribution in graph below)
AM steel sheet applications in 2014
Automotive
16%
Interworks
3%
39%
10%
Metal Processing
Construction
8%
Primary Transformation
2%
22%
Product classification (CPA)
Appliances & General Industry
Distribution
C24.10.5
71
Company name
ArcelorMittal is global steel and mining company. Scope of
this study is HDG steel sheet produced by AM EU based
integrated steel mill
Date of publication
13 May 2016
Geographic validity
Western Europe + global export
Reference PEFCR
“Draft PEFCR for Metal Sheets for various applications”,
revision 0.9 from 9th February 2016.
Critical review
No critical review has been undertaken
2. Summary: goal, scope, main results
Additional to the common goal of testing the draft PEFCR and validating the outcomes of the screening
study, ArcelorMittal is motivated to assess the level of uncertainty on the results of the PEF supporting
study, in particular the applicable confidence ranges on the environmental profile. The latter are often
omitted in communication of results and may lead to unjustified conclusions in case of benchmarking.
Communication of study results was aimed at process and technology experts within the company to
build their operational experience in verifying robustness of outcomes.
Data collection
Special effort and attention went to process of data collection in order to assess the accuracy of the
data made available and to calculate the effect of ‘uncertainty propagation’. Inaccuracies that may
have remained unidentified were identified in collection process, contributing to bias in final results.
A reference for verification was made by ArcelorMittal by linking its PEF study with the contribution
to worldsteel association (WSA) LCI update. The data pool of WSA proved that data at association level
offer a major quality advantage over individual studies as the former have built in peer cross-checking
by experts of competing producers in the sector.
Regarding the quality of data, despite some important processes that drive the environmental profile
of the steel sheet do not meet the Data Quality Rating, the overall Data Quality Rating (DQR) still
reaches a median value of 1.6, a level considered as a very good DQR. The materiality principle may
not be well reflected by simple averaging of the data Quality Factor of each processes. A weighting
factor that gives more weight to the most relevant processes is suggested.
During the quality rating of processes, it has been identified that the Data Quality Rating may overlook
representativeness issues: for example how will regional data be rated if only an insignificant fraction
of local producers have provided data? (e.g. while producing half of world steel output, only one
company in China provides data in worldsteel LCI).
A methodology for estimating uncertainty is proposed by adapting the ecoinvent Pedigree matrix with
PEF Data Quality Rating to provide systematically confidence ranges for each of the different
environmental impact categories. The ArcelorMittal study suggests that with such approach the
contribution to uncertainty of results by data collected on site may somewhat overrated while that
the contribution of secondary data sets is underrated.
72
Modelling
In context of testing the draft PEFCR rules and considering complexity of current worldsteel process
model, a Vito model was developed for making various sensitivity analyses. The results shows that
that despite a common framework of PEFCR, the complexity of real operations and their modelling
still adds to the variation/bias up to the point of making direct comparison invalid (e.g. between
supporting and screening study results).
The use of a common process model by sector would benefit the above issue however the worldsteel
process model has evolved into such a complex tool that that in practice access/application is limited
to a handful of experts.
ArcelorMittal recommends the use of subdivision as alternative to system expansion to decouple of
steel product system from other systems linked to the use of its co-products (e.g. slags applied as
fertiliser, clinker substitute in cement, process gases as input for power production…) and report the
real environmental rather than allocation driven impacts. If allocation method would be applied, a
consistent approach (e.g. 50/50) for all co-products is recommended.
Impact assessment methods, normalisation and weighting
In addition to uncertainty linked to data and modelling, the robustness of impact assessment methods
and Life Cycle Assessment models shall be considered in reporting of the environmental profile.
This supporting study has found that normalisation and weighting factors do not point to
environmental impacts traditionally associated with steel making but to concerns considered as
secondary (e.g. abiotic resources depletion indicator popping up due the use of zinc for the galvanising
process).
Reference screening study
Results of ArcelorMittal study confirm climate change, acidification and photochemical ozone
formation as most relevant impact categories.
Benchmarking with the environmental profile of the steel sheet in the screening phase proved to be
invalid due to different system boundaries/scope in product upstream:

To conform with approach of some other metals in PEF pilot that refer to ‘material pool’ rather
than ‘product pool’, the upstream scope of screening is based on average EU slab, a scope
that additionally includes steel products different from sheet within the system boundaries.
The specific technical requirements of these products make that higher levels of ferrous scrap
(R1) are typically used as input material then technically possible for sheet applications;

The non-alignment of system boundaries has also repercussions on technical
representativeness: it mixes the different functionality (‘melting’ versus ‘smelt reduction’) of
2 dominant steel process technologies: electric arc furnace using metallic ferrous input to
prepare the steel melt while the smelt-reducing process of integrated BF/BOF process embeds
the additional reduction of a mineral into metal while liquefying it together with a limited
amount of added scrap. Metal sheet products are typically made over the latter process route.
Hence for consistency of system boundaries, ArcelorMittal also recommends an approach of vertical
over horizontal averaging that includes only those process/input-output combinations that are
technically feasible for the product in scope. Further the use of the integrated equation is
73
recommended to calculate the environmental footprint of metal products while it fully accounts for
the reduction into metallic iron – directly or as an upstream impact - whatever process route is
applicable to the steel product considered.
3. Feedback on draft PEFCR used
With a focus of the ArcelorMittal study on various constituents of variability or bias in final results, we
make following recommendations to further develop draft PEFCR for ‘Metal sheets’





Scope: the PEF profile shall report in its scope the product mix be that corresponds to the
system boundary of the data collected e.g. if granularity is one site, all products made by
that site.
Modelling: Consistent modelling for production process within and between metal
commodities is recommended. This includes guidance on:
o System boundaries: vertical average vs horizontal averaging to avoid ‘upstream
system expansion’ that includes processes and input/outputs of products not in
scope (effect on R1);
o Internal allocations e.g. co-products;
o Point of substitution in relation to quality of secondary inputs;
o A fair trade-off between complexity/accessibility in recommended commodity
process models:
On all aspects of alloying, the PEFCR shall be less ‘concise’ and make recommendations on:
o Product mix effects and alloy ranges of product included/excluded from scope;
o Include reference data sets for alloying elements;
o Modelling of end-of-life recycling of alloying elements under the concept of a scrap
pool;
Packaging chapter resulted in relatively complex calculations for minimal overall
contribution. Add sentence in PEFCR to highlight packaging typically is minimal for
intermediate metals products;
Data: Considering the significant effect the selection of data has on final results:
o Further guidance on how to make DQR assessment shall become part of overall PEF
Guidance to assure a more objective assessment. Further, an overall DQR score
based on equal rather than weighted contribution for each data set does not
penalise significant bias that can be induced by selection of non-representative data
sets on hot spot contributors.
This study recommends PEF to further develop the method it has applied for
estimating of uncertainty range of each of reported impact indicators due to data
selected/collected. We suggested making uncertainty assessment a ‘default
requirement’ on each impact of profile report. This level of uncertainty shall be fully
integrated in the communication format (e.g. tables or graphs) of the
environmental impact results.
o On collected data is suggested missing data on accounted emissions are not
replaced by collection average but a 75th percentile data (typically more realistic);
o The experience from our study encountered important gaps in quality of data sets
that represent the raw material supply chain of steel making process: primary
minerals (iron ore, coal, alloying elements, ..) and secondary input, i.e. scrap
preparation (collection, shredding, sorting);
74
Product Environmental Footprint
Supporting Study
Construction Hot Dipped Galvanised Steel
1 Summary
This supporting study is part of the PEF Metal sheets pilot and is intended to support the
development of the PEFR for Metal Sheets.
The current study aims to be compliant with the Guidance Document version 5.2 and the draft
PEFCR version 0.9.
It should not used to be compared to other results outside the scope and boundary of this particular
study.
2 General
Hot Dipped Galvanised Steel for Construction
•
•
•
•
•
Tata Steel (Europe)
31st March 2016
Global Market
PEFCR for Metal Sheets for various applications – Revision 0.9
Not Critically Reviewed
3 Goal of the study
This supporting study is part of the PEF Metal sheets pilot and is intended to support the
development of the PEFR for Metal Sheets. It should not used to be compared to other
results outside the scope and boundary of this particular study.
75
4 Scope of the study
4.1 Functional/declared unit and reference flow
The functions/services provided: the “what”
The function includes a non-exhaustive list e.g. structural integrity, weather protection, physical
separation, shaping, sealing, aesthetics, etc.
The extent of the function expressed in the reference flow is defined as 1 m². This reference flow was
selected because it adequately quantifies the most relevant applications of the metal sheet. The
density of the steel is set at 7.8kg/m2
Technical product properties are specified by product standards (or technical approvals). Therefore
the quality of the representative products shall be described by test standards, i.e. the most relevant,
international, regional, national or technical standards.
Standard reference
EN 10268 (2006)
EN 10130 (2006)
ASTM A 568
ASTM A109
EN 10268 (2006)
EN 10152 (2009)
EN 10346 (2009)
NFA 36-345
SEW 022 (2010)
EN 10169 (2010)
Title
Area
Cold rolled steel flat products with high yield strength for cold
forming - Technical delivery conditions
Cold rolled low carbon steel flat products for cold forming Technical delivery conditions
Standard Specification for Steel, Sheet, Carbon, Structural, and
High-Strength, Low-Alloy, Hot-Rolled and Cold-Rolled, General
Requirements for
Cold rolled steel
Standard Specification for Steel, Strip, Carbon (0.25 Maximum
Percent), Cold-Rolled
Cold rolled steel flat products with high yield strength for cold
forming - Technical delivery conditions;
Electrolytically zinc coated cold rolled steel flat products for
cold forming - Technical delivery conditions
Continuously hot-dip coated steel flat products - Technical
delivery conditions
Metallic coated steel
Iron and steel. Aluminium coated sheet. Cut lengths and coils
Continuously hot-dip coated steel flat products - Zincmagnesium coatings - Technical delivery conditions
Continuously organic coated (coil coated) steel flat products Technical delivery conditions
Organic coated steel
4.2 System boundaries
The system boundaries are ‘cradle to steel rolling/finishing process’ gate including all the
environmentally relevant upstream processes and core processes. As this is an intermediate product
there is no use stage included. End of Life stage is included (as supplementary information)
76
4.3 Supplementary analysis

Supplementary analysis looking various EOL methodologies as required by the PEFCR beyond
that of the default recycling equation in the PEF guidance.
5 Data Gaps
Data on land use and capital goods were not available and not included at this current stage.
Regionalized data on water, AP and EP contributing emissions were also not available at this stage.
6 PEF Results
The PEFCR does not include a benchmark, due to the product being an intermediate product, so the
characterised results of the representative steel product from the screen study was used as a
benchmark.
Comparing the results of the screen study with ones of the supporting study it is possible to verify if
the same life cycle stages, processes and elementary flows are identified as relevant.
Analysis showed that the most relevant life cycle stage is the manufacturing stage which included the
raw material extraction, slab product and rolling impacts. For the supporting study the data was
broken down into these stages to see which process within the life cycle stage was also relevant.
77
Comparing the processes of the screen study and the supporting study, the impact assessments where
there was comparability were:
 Acidification
 Ecotoxicity Freshwater
 Eutrophication Freshwater
 Human Toxicity Cancer effects
 Human Toxicity Non Cancer Effects
 GWP
 Eutrophication Marine
 Ozone Depletion
 Particulate Matter
 Photochemical Ozone Formation
 Eutrophication Terrestrial
 Resource Depletion
Comparing relevant elementary flows of the screening study and the supporting study, the impact
assessments where there was comparability were:












Acidification
Eutrophication Freshwater
Human Toxicity Cancer effects
Human Toxicity Non Cancer Effects
Ionising Radiation
GWP
Eutrophication Marine
Ozone Depletion
Particulate Matter
Photochemical Ozone Formation
Eutrophication Terrestrial
Total Fresh Water
Differing Process and elementary flow impacts can be attributed to a couple of main factors.
 Upstream models were updated in-between studies.
 Technological coverage between the two studies meant that some processes and relevant
flows were captured in the screening study that were not relevant to the supporting study.
6.2 Supplementary analysis
Supplementary analysis of the EOL formulae as defined in the Guidance document with others
proposed in the PEFCR demonstrated that for the robust impact assessments, there a significant
difference of results compared to the default equation, depending on what EOL formulae was
selected.
78
Non-Confidential Summary –
PEF Supporting Study
Copper sheet
Aurubis Finland Oy,
Pori, Finland
79
General information
The Aurubis Finland production site is located in Western Finland in Pori on the Kokemäenjoki River.
The copper foundry and rolling mill are in a copper industrial park where other companies working
with copper are located.
The area of the site is about 78,000 m² and 200 employees work there.
The foundry includes a shaft melting furnace, casting induction furnace and a continuous caster for
billets and cakes. The foundry is followed by hot and cold rolling steps. The rolling mill in Pori is a
state-of-the-art hot and cold rolling mill, and it is fully integrated from casting to finishing.
The site produces a wide range of rolled products - strips, sheets, plates from copper and copper
alloys. In 2014 the site produced 28,111 t of strip, sheet, plate and circles as well as 46,906 t of shapes,
some of which were for internal use.
Copper scrap is used first and foremost for production; recycling materials account for around 75 %
of the raw materials used in the foundry.
The copper DHP sheets for architectural applications are produced in three surface qualities: plain
copper (Nordic Standard), industrially pre-oxidized copper (Nordic Brown) and patina coated on one
side (Nordic Green). Furthermore copper alloy sheets are also produced, Nordic Bronze as well as
Nordic Brass and Nordic Royal sheets
The waste heat that arises in the foundry is sold to the local power plant Pori Energia. The waste heat
produced during the hot rolling process is reused to preheat combustion air during processing.
Emissions of dust and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are reduced to a minimum using
afterburning and filters.
Cooling water in the smelting process circulates in a closed system. Cooling water and some process
water from
the
rolling mill are
treated;
copper
and
oil residues are
separated.
In the past three years, more than € 660,000 has been invested in measures that improve
environmental performance.
80
Executive Summary
The PEF supporting study was performed according to the requirements of the PEFCR on metals sheets
(version 0.9), the PEF Guide (Annex III to Recommendation (2013/179/EU)) and the Product
Environmental Footprint Pilot Guidance (version 5.2).
The purpose of this study was





To test the draft PEFCR
To validate the outcomes of the screening study, e.g. selection of relevant impact categories,
life cycle stages, processes
To test different EoL formulas
To provide results that can be used as a basis for communicating the PEF profile
To support environmental management, identification of environmental hotspots, and
environmental improvement and performance tracking
The scope of the study refers to copper sheet for architectural applications using phosphorus
deoxidized copper, designated Cu-DHP and complying with EN 1172:2011 – “Copper and Copper
Alloys: Sheet and Strip for Building Purposes” . The selected copper sheet for the study is NORDIC
STANDARD™, manufactured at Aurubis Finland Oy in Pori, which is mill finish copper without any
additional surface treatments carried out in the factory
The copper sheet (NORDIC STANDARD™) is used for architectural applications: building and
construction industry, facades, roofs, integrated roof systems.
The reference flow 1 m² of copper sheet with a thickness of 0,6mm and weight 3,5km.
The system boundary included all life cycle stages from cradle-to-gate and information on recyclability
potential at end of life was provided as mandatory additional environmental information.
The following life cycle stages were included in the study:
-
Raw material acquisition and pre-processing (Cathode & Scrap)
Production of the main product (Melting & Rolling)
End of Life considered as part of the mandatory additional environmental information
For the purpose of the hot spot analysis, the following processes were included:
-
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Secondary Material Production
Melting & Rolling
Data quality requirements identified in the PEFCR were met. Primary data were collected for the core
processes melting and rolling, while secondary data were used to model the upstream processes.
Primary activity data were used for input of recycled materials (R1) and transport of raw materials.
81
Resource Depletion mineral, fossil is by far the most relevant impact category, due also to the known
limitations of the current recommended characterization model. When excluding Resource depletion,
fossil mineral, the most relevant impact categories are the same ones identified in the screening study,
apart from ionising radiation which in the supporting study has a higher contribution.
The most relevant life cycle stage for all impact categories is “Raw Materials & Pre-Processing
(Cathode & Scrap)”. “Production of main product (Melting & Rolling)” is relevant for 3 robust impact
categories, Ozone depletion, Climate change, and Eutrophication freshwater.
The most relevant process is “Mining & Concentration” which appears as hotspot in all impact
categories, followed by “Smelting & Refining” and “Melting & Rolling”.
The data quality rating for the supporting is 1.83.
As supplementary analyses, testing of EoL formulas was performed: Annex V (baseline); Module D;
Integrated formulas. The testing of the different EoL formulas demonstrated further that the
application of formula has high impact on the results. The testing of EoL formula confirmed the
importance to identify a formula that gives consistent results for “cradle to gate” and “cradle to grave”
scenario and recognizes efforts made by an organisation to recycle scrap as well as the recyclability at
the end-of-life.
In compassion with the screening study , the results for the supporting study for the baseline scenario
(Annex V ) tend to be lower . The main reason is due to the higher amount of secondary material (clean
scrap) used in the copper product.
Important uncertainties were identified with the results related to: (1) the need to differentiate
between “pure” primary copper cathode data set and “pure” secondary copper cathode profile/data
set, (2) the characterization models used to assess some impact categories such as Toxicity-related
categories, Land use and Resource depletion, water as well as the ADP method, therefore all of these
impact categories need to be interpreted with great care; (3) Uncertainty of selected datasets, (4)
interpretation and application of the EoL formulas, (5) asymmetry between data for site activities and
upstream activities.
The following recommendations for improvement of the PEFCR are suggested:







Improve the section in the PEFCR on grouping of life cycle stages and processes
Require performing hot spot analysis separately for mining & concentration, smelting &
refining and melting & rolling
Improve consistency for calculation of results with EoL formulas - include practical example
for calculation of Ev, Ev*, Ev §
Improve the section on transportation – e.g. provide default transport distances, provide
requirements for internal transport
Clarify in the PEFCR that treatment of multi-functionality may be applicable in the core
process – e.g. the copper foundry may cast co-products (e.g. billets)
Consider development of more realistic approach for the “pure ”primary copper cathode
data set
Consider development of more realistic proxy for the emission profile related to
transformation of end-of-life products to metal scrap, e.g. mechanical pre-treatment in
shredders (currently zero impact)
82
Product Environment Footprint (PEF)
Supporting study for metal sheet (roofing copper sheet) from KME
Summary report
Goal and Scope
This supporting study relates to roofing copper sheets and strips as an interim product for roof
cladding, façade designs, and roof drainage systems, of the KME sites in Osnabrück and Fornaci di
Barga and for the year 2013.
The use stage of the sheets is not included in the system boundaries, as the sheets are an interim
product.
The current document endeavors to be compliant with the requirements of the ‘Product
Environmental Footprint (PEF) Guide’ (Annex II to Recommendation (2013/179/EU), the “Guidance
for the implementation of the EU PEF during the EF Pilot Phase” (version no. 5.2) and the Product
Environmental Footprint Category Rules (PEFCR) for ‘Metal Sheets for various applications’, Version
0.9 of 9 February 2016.
This study did not yet undergo a critical review process.
This study serves the purposes …
(i) To test the applicability of the draft PEFCR
(ii) To validate the outcomes of the screening study (such as the selection of relevant impact
categories, life cycle stages, processes and elementary flows)
(iv) To perform supplementary analysis listed in the draft PEFCR
(v) To provide results that can be used as the basis for communicating the PEF profile
Results and findings
The overall data quality of the foreground (primary) data of the sheets manufacturing from cathodes
and scrap is 1.0 (excellent), of the overall system 2.0 (very good), respectively 1.6, if the relevance of
the processes is considered when calculating the overall DQR.
Relevant assumptions, value judgements and limitations do not apply to the study.
In a number of cases, more specific data sets were used than listed in the original Draft PEFCR (e.g.
using country specific electricity data sets from the same source instead of EU-27 data sets).
A number of data sets were used for which no default data set was provided in the original Draft PEFCR
(e.g. Hydrogen). Some data gaps of low relevance exist.
83
The Production stage (excl. sheet production) is very frequently the most relevant life cycle stage, with
the end-of-life stage often as second most relevant stage. Sheet manufacturing contributes
considerably less to most impact categories.
The impact categories that are calculated using robust methods and models and that are moreover
quantitatively relevant for copper sheets are Climate change (incl. biogenic carbon), Acidification,
Particulate matter/Respiratory inorganics and Eutrophication terrestrial, and Photochemical ozone
formation (human health).
The most relevant elementary flows (across the relevant and robust impact categories) are Carbon
dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Sulphur dioxide, PM10 – almost identical to the screening study.
The characterized results of the robust and relevant impact categories are very similar to the ones of
the screening study, within +/- 5 to 10%.
As a supplementary analysis, the Integrated formula for EoL and EN 15804 module D were applied,
the results compared to the model with the Annex V 50/50 EoL formula. The result using EN 15804 is
the same as the result from the Integrated formula. The results of the model with the Integrated
formula and EN 15804 module D are typically about half as high as of the default model with the Annex
V 50/50 formula (between 17% and 60%), owed to the fact that the Integrated formula is fully
considering benefits of material recycling, while the 50/50 formula does so only at 50%.
Feedback on draft PEFCR and general requirements
Feedback on the usability of the PEFCR include recommendations for a more efficient PEFCR structure,
lacking default data sets e.g. for packaging materials and some consumables, as well as some default
parameter values, removal of several quantitatively irrelevant processes from the PEFCR (incl.
infrastructure/capital goods), and a few items that would need better clarification.
Identified issues that are already foreseen to be amended on general PEF/OEF level, are having PEFcompliant background data, improved LCIA methods and models, normalization factors and a
differentiated weighting set across impacts.
84
12.4 ANNEX IV – METAL PRODUCTION
Mining (Underground mining)
Underground mines have access to the deposits via vertical shafts or inclined roadways. There are
usually at least two access routes (one for men and materials and the other for the ore) for safety and
ease of ventilation (fresh air comes in one way and is then exhausted out the other). At the required
depth, horizontal drifts are drilled to reach the locations of the ore deposit. These are permanent
structures and therefore require more rock support. In contrast, drifts inside the ore deposit itself are
often temporary, and hence their supports are less substantial. Transport for workers and materials
can be by train, truck or conveyor belts. For mining of base metals and precious metals, mining stopes
are often backfilled with a mixture of waste-rock, tailing sand and cement. When the mines are deep,
underground mining is more economical and efficient than surface mining [BAT_Mining_Tailings].
Figure 12-3: Example of underground mining8
Mining (Open pit mining)
Hard-rock surface mining is conducted by drilling/blasting and then lifting of the broken ore from the
surface of the earth. The ore is then transported by loading it either into trucks or onto conveyors for
transportation to the processing plant. This lifting is usually by excavator (electric or hydraulic; with
shovel or backhoe configuration) or front-end loader. Open pit mining is less cost-intensive than
underground mining. The overburden in open-pit mining is heaped near the mine. Open pit mining is
suitable for ores and minerals found in shallow layers of the earth’s crust or before the superficial
layers of an ore body have been completely exploited [BAT_Mining_Tailings].
8
Source: Encyclodedia Britannica, Inc. (2007)H. Harmrin, Guide to Underground Mining
85
Figure 12-4: Example of open pit mining9
Bauxite (Aluminium) is mined in open pit mines but quite differently from the above schema. For
aluminium, the mining depth is limited since average thickness of bauxite deposits varies from 2-20m
with a production-weighted average of 5m. An average 2m of overburden layer has to be removed
before the bauxite deposits can be extracted. Hence, bauxite mines have an average depth of 5 to
30m.
Hydrometallurgical Route
Hydrometallurgical processes extract valuable metals from ores, concentrates or
recovered/secondary materials through the use of water-based chemical processes. In general terms,
hydrometallurgy begins with a leaching process to separate the metal from its ore, concentrate or
accompanying product. Strong acids or bases are most commonly used to form the leaching solution.
For example in aluminium production, sodium hydroxide is used to convert insoluble aluminium oxide
to soluble sodium aluminate. In this case, the process also serves to facilitate a
purification/concentration step as solid impurities are separated from the aluminium-containing
solution as bauxite residue. Other metals may be purified by ion exchange, carbon adsorption or
solvent extraction and filtration.
High purity metal is recovered from the solution through a chemical or electrochemical extraction
process (sometimes referred to as electrometallurgy). Two of the most common examples of such
processes include refinement of copper by electrolysis and the Hall-Héroult process for aluminium
smelting.
Pyrometallurgical Route
Pyrometallurgical processes are used to extract metals by removing impurities through the use of high
temperatures. Pyrometallurgical processes fall broadly into three categories: Roasting, smelting and
refining. Roasting processes are used to purify ores/concentrates through reactions with air at high
temperature. Smelting processes are the most common pyrometallurgical processes. Smelting
processes use a combination of heat, gases and reducing agents to separate metals from an
ore/concentrate. Impurities are driven off in the gas phase or enter a slag, leaving high purity molten
metal. In steelmaking, smelting takes place in a blast furnace to extract iron from iron ore with hot air
and coke used to enable the reaction and limestone used as a flux to form a slag.
There are pyrometallurgical lead refining processes, molten lead bullion is agitated in kettles where
impurities like antimony, copper, silver or lead oxides are removed in the form of a dross.
9
Source: Dept. Of Geology & Geophysics (University of Wyoming) http://www.gg.uwyo.edu/media/mining/diagrams/openpit-mine_dim.gif
86
For copper the hydro- or pyrometallurgical routes apply for concentrate or mixed scrap to produce
copper anodes. Theses anodes undergo a purification process called electrorefining to produce pure
copper (99,99%).
Casting
Metals are principally melted, cleaned and casted. They are often sold in ingots, which can be the case
for aluminium and zinc, in slabs, which is often the case for steel and aluminium, or in shaped pieces
of different sizes. Metal ingots are made by casting the liquid metal into moulds or into more complex
machines such as continuous casting machines where the metal solidifies and in some cases
undergoes some first physical transformation. [BAT_Non_Ferrous]. This applies also to copper sold in
ingots, cathodes (sheet shape), billets etc.
Rolling mill
Slabs are the starting-material for the fabrication of sheets and strips. The material is preheated in gas
or oil fired furnaces, hot and cold rolled and then sent for finishing. Hot rolling is usually done with a
dual rolling mill equipped with benches up to 200 m and a final coiling device [BAT_Non_Ferrous].
Figure 12-5: Example Scheme – Rolling
Finishing
The finishing operation includes re-rolling and cutting to required length and width. Surface milling,
annealing, pickling, washing and drying are required as intermediate steps to produce high quality
strips and sheets. This can also include surface treatment, e.g. galvanization of metal sheet or
application of a protective oil layer [BAT_Non_Ferrous]. Surface treatment is not considered within
this screening study.
87
12.5 ANNEX V – BENCHMARK AND CLASSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE
Benchmarking will be further discussed in the framework of the analysis of relevant communication
tools and in line with the supporting studies.
88
12.6 ANNEX VI – CO-PRODUCTS IN METAL PRODUCTION
Aluminium
Within aluminium production, the only relevant by-product is dross. Allocation has been avoided as
much as possible by applying credits. The LCI model assumes that energy generated from solid waste
generated during the production of aluminium is re-introduced to the process and that energy input
is reduced accordingly. This energy input can be expected to be very low [EAA].
Table 12-12: Aluminium - List of by-products
Aluminium
(non-exhaustive)
List of by-products
Dross
Salt slag
Copper
There are several possible co-products arising from the production chain of copper including e.g. gold,
silver and non-metallic co-products like i.e. sulphuric-acid. Following the rules of ISO 14040 and 14044
the existing LCI for primary and secondary copper cathode takes into account the above mentioned
principles in the following order:
1. Avoidance of allocation or system expansion (if possible)
2. System expansion (credit for co-product)
3. Allocation/Partitioning on physical relationships (e.g. mass)
4. Allocation/Partitioning on non-physical relationships (e.g. market value)
For further details see the Life Cycle Assessment of Primary Copper Cathode [ECI].
89
Table 12-13: Copper - List of by-products
Copper
(non-exhaustive)
Gold
List of by-products
Silver
Lead
Zinc
Cobalt
Molybdenum
Selenium
Tellurium
Tin
Sulphuric acid
Iron silicate sand ( Final slag)
Anode slime for production of other nonferrous metals
Ni SO4 , CuSO4,other salts
Steam
Lead
The associated metals in the lead ore can result in the co-production of other metals including e.g.
silver, zinc or copper. Non-metallic co-products can also arise from the primary and secondary lead
production process.
For further details see the Life Cycle Inventory of Primary and Secondary Lead production.
Table 12-14: Lead – List of by-products
Lead
(non-exhaustive)
List of by-products
Dross
Steel
Especially within the blast furnace production route, important quantities of valuable by-products are
generated from steel production. Worldsteel normally uses system expansion to deal with byproducts but has also published a methodology to determine the LCI of steel industry co-products that
90
is based on subdivision by physical partitioning. Where the LCI of by-products needs to be determined
the use of appropriate physical relationships that reflect reality of environmental impacts is always
preferable to other allocation methods.
Further detailed description can be found in the relevant Life Cycle Assessment Methodology Reports.
Table 12-15: Steel – List of by-products
Steel
(non-exhaustive)
List of by-products
BF-Slag
BOF-Slag
Benzene
Tar
Xylene
Coke oven Gas
BF Gas
BOF Gas
91
12.7 ANNEX VII – UPSTREAM SCENARIOS (OPTIONAL)
This section available for additional information if needed.
92
12.8 ANNEX VIII – DOWNSTREAM SCENARIOS (OPTIONAL)
This section available for additional information if needed.
93
12.9 ANNEX IX – NORMALISATION FACTORS
The recommended normalisation factors according to the PEF guidance protocol 5.1 shall be used.
94
12.10
ANNEX X – WEIGHTING FACTORS
The recommended weighting factors according to the PEF guidance protocol 5.2 shall be used. “Until
there is an agreed set of European weighting factors, all impact categories shall receive the same
weight (weighting factor = 1).” /PEF pilot Guidance V5.2/
95
12.11
ANNEX XI – FOREGROUND DATA
The /PEF pilot Guidance V5.2/ provides the following example for data acquisition of core processes.
Figure 12-6: An example of a partially disaggregated dataset, at level 1, with its activity data and
direct elementary flows, and underlying sub-processes in their aggregated
form. The grey text indicates elementary flows [PEF pilot Guidance V5.2],
Annex E, Figure E-2
It has to be noted, that foreground data consist of activity data, that need to be linked to LCA processes
and direct elementary data, that can have direct effect to environment. Both have to be collected. The
impact level has to be understood as the sum of impacts from the activity data multiplied with the
impact as provided from the LCA dataset, plus the impacts from the scaled direct elementary flows.
Based on this example the following tables provide guidance for data acquisition of at least the core
process rolling and finishing (and melting and casting if included in the core process system boundary).
It provides a list of typical activity data and direct elementary flows. The related dataset to be applied
for the activity data of the core process can be found in ANNEX XII – Background data.
For data collection of core processes the following guidance for selection is provided:
1. All significant flows from the hot spot analysis, see Table 5-2, Table 5-3, Table 5-4 and Table
5-5 of chapter 5.1.5, shall be checked, whether the data appear also as direct elementary
flow. In such case it shall be collected.
2. In order to guide data collection the following tables provide a list of typically appearing
activity data and direct elementary flows, that should be considered and checked during data
acquisition of core processes.
Table 12-16: Copper activity data for Melting & Casting process
Melting & Casting
ILCD flow name
Unit
96
Input
Cathode
t
Internal Scrap
t
External Scrap
t
Electricity
MWh
Fuel (Natural Gas, Butane gas etc.)
MJ
Melt Carbon, e.g. char coal
t
Oxygen
m3
Lime
t
Water in (Cooling water)
m3
Water in (Drinking water)
m3
Fuel (Internal transport)
kg
Infrastructure
Output
Copper Slab/Cake
t
Slag
t
Dust ( waste for recovery)
kg
Water out
m3
Water loss ( e.g evaporation)
kg
Steam
MJ
Copper Scrap (internal returns)
t
Waste (for recovery /for landfill)
kg
Emissions to air
Carbon dioxide
carbon dioxide
kg
NOx
nitrogen dioxide
kg
Sulphur dioxide
sulfur dioxide
kg
Metals ( Cu)
copper
kg
Dust (total /presence of PM2.5 if any)
particles (PM2.5)
kg
TOC
Total
carbon
kg
organic
PCDD/F
kg
Table 12-17: Copper activity data for Rolling, Milling & Conditioning process
Rolling, Milling & Conditioning
ILCD flow name
Unit
Input
Electricity
MWh
Fuel (Natural Gas, Butane gas etc.)
MJ
Slabs/Cakes
t
Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen or similar
m3
Lubricant
kg
Emulsion product (e.g. oil)
kg
Degreasing products (e.g. surfactants )
kg
Pickling solution (e.g. H2SO4, HCl etc.)
kg
97
Water in (Process water, cooling water)
m3
Water in (Drinking water)
m3
Fuel (Internal transport)
kg
Infrastructure
Output
Copper sheet
t
Copper Scrap Internal (returns)
t
Water out
m3
Water losses ( e,g evaporation)
kg
Used Emulsions
kg
Used Lubricant
kg
Spent pickling solution
kg
Copper scale ( kg)
kg
Waste ( for recovery/for landfill)
kg
Emissions to air
Carbon dioxide
NOx
carbon dioxide
nitrogen dioxide
kg
copper
kg
kg
Emissions to water
Cu
For aluminium, the foreground processes are composed at least of the rolling processes aiming at
converting the slab, i.e. the aluminium ingot, into the aluminium sheet. In the case that process scrap
generated along the sheet production chain are remelted within the company, the remelting process
is also part of the foreground processes (case 1).
In the other cases, the remelting process is not part of the foreground process (case 2) and secondary
datasets shall be used.
Table 12-18: Aluminium activity data for Rolling process (case 1 and 2)
Rolling
ILCD flow
name
Unit
Relative figures per tonne of
sheet product
Input
Aluminium
Rolling ingots (unscalped)
Energy
Coal
Heavy oil
Diesel and light fuel oil
Natural gas
Propane
Other source
Electricity
Ancillary products
Nitrogen
Emulsion, hot rolling (oil content)
Oil, cold rolling
kg/t
MJ/t
MJ/t
MJ/t
MJ/t
MJ/t
MJ/t
kWh/t
kg/t
kg/t
kg/t
98
Filter earths for cold rolling
Paper & cardboard for packaging
Wood for packaging
Steel for packaging
Plastic for packaging
Water
kg/t
kg/t
kg/t
kg/t
kg/t
Fresh Water
m3/t
Output
Aluminium
Scrap (for recycling)
Other
By-products
kg/t
kg/t
Metal scrap for recycling, excluding aluminium
kg/t
Emissions to air
carbon
dioxide
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Particulates / dust
kg/t
kg/t
particles
(PM10)
particles
(PM2.5)
sulfur
dioxide
nitrogen
dioxide
-% of particles >10µm
-% of particles <2.5µm
SO2
NOx (as NO2)
Water
Water output
%
%
kg/t
kg/t
m3/t
Waste (excluding dross, aluminium scrap & demolition
waste)
Total hazardous waste
-% for land-filling
-% for recycling
-% for further operations
Total non hazardous waste
-% for land-filling
-% for recycling
-% for further operations
kg/t
%
%
%
kg/t
%
%
%
Table 12-19: Aluminium activity data for Remelting process (case 1)
Remelting
ILCD flow
name
Unit
Relative figures per tonne of
ingot
Input
Aluminium
Scrap (process and old scrap)
Ingot
Alloying elements – Mn
Alloying elements – Mg
Alloying elements – Si
Others
Total
kg/t
kg/t
kg/t
kg/t
kg/t
kg/t
kg/t
99
Energy
Heavy oil
Diesel and light fuel oil
Natural gas
Propane
Other source
Electricity
Ancillary products
Argon
Nitrogen
Chlorine
Absorbant for exhaust gas treatment
Other ancillary material input
Water
MJ/t
MJ/t
MJ/t
MJ/t
MJ/t
kWh/t
kg/t
kg/t
kg/t
kg/t
kg/t
m3/t
Fresh Water
Output
Aluminium
Unscalped rolling ingots
Dross / skimmings
Metal content of dross/skimmings
Emissions to air
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Chlorine (as Cl2)
kg/t
kg/t
%
carbon
dioxide
chlorine
kg/t
g/t
Other inorganic chlorinated compounds (expressed as HCl)
g/t
Particulates / dust
kg/t
-% of particles >10µm
-% of particles <2.5µm
SO2
NOx (as NO2)
Water
Water output
By-products
Metal scrap for recycling, excluding aluminium
Waste (excluding dross, aluminium scrap & demolition
waste)
Total hazardous waste
-% for land-filling
-% for recycling
-% for further operations
Total non hazardous waste
-% for land-filling
-% for recycling
-% for further operations
particles
(PM10)
particles
(PM2.5)
sulfur
dioxide
nitrogen
dioxide
1000
%
%
kg/t
kg/t
m³/t
kg/t
kg/t
%
%
%
kg/t
%
%
%
100
Table 12-20: Lead activity data for Smelting & Refining process
Smelting & Refining
ILCD flow name
Unit
Input
Air [Operating materials]
kg
Ammonium chloride (Salmiac) [Inorganic intermediate products]
kg
Antimony [Metals]
kg
Arsenic [Metals]
kg
Arsenic [Non renewable elements]
kg
Calcium / Magnesium [Metals]
kg
Calcium [Metals]
kg
Calcium hydroxide [Inorganic intermediate products]
kg
Copper [Metals]
kg
Flue dust [Waste for recovery]
kg
Hard coal coke [Coke, at production]
kg
Iron oxide (II-oxide) [Inorganic intermediate products]
kg
Iron oxides [Metals]
kg
Lead (concentrate) [Minerals]
kg
Lead (PbSb oxides) [Metals]
kg
Lead (PbSn oxides) [Metals]
kg
Lead [Metals]
kg
Lead bullion [Metals]
kg
Lead grids [Metals]
kg
Lead paste (desulphurized) [Metals]
kg
Lead paste (not desulphurized) [Metals]
kg
Lead sinter [Metals]
kg
Light fuel oil [Refinery products]
kg
Lime quicklime (lumpy) [Minerals]
kg
Limestone (calcium carbonate) [Non renewable resources]
kg
Limestone [Minerals]
kg
Master alloy Sb/Se 80/20% [Metals]
kg
Metallics (Feed from preparation) [Metals]
kg
Nitrogen gaseous [Inorganic intermediate products]
kg
Oxygen gaseous [Inorganic intermediate products]
kg
Potassium hydroxide (potash) [Inorganic intermediate products]
kg
Pyrite [Metals]
kg
Pyrite [Non renewable resources]
kg
Reducing agent [Operating materials]
kg
Sand [Non renewable resources]
kg
Selenium [Metals]
kg
Selenium [Non renewable elements]
kg
Silver [Metals]
kg
Soda (sodium carbonate) [Inorganic intermediate products]
kg
Sodium hydroxide (100%; caustic soda) [Inorganic intermediate products]
kg
Sodium nitrate [Inorganic intermediate products]
kg
Sodium nitrate [Non renewable resources]
kg
101
Sodium nitrite [Inorganic intermediate products]
kg
Sulphur [Inorganic intermediate products]
kg
Tin (99.92%) [Metals]
kg
Tin [Metals]
kg
Water [Water]
kg
Zinc [Metals]
kg
Energy
Electricity [Electric power]
MJ
Natural gas [Natural gas, at production]
kg
Thermal energy from hard coal [Thermal energy]
MJ
Thermal energy from heavy fuel oil [Thermal energy]
MJ
Thermal energy from light fuel oil [Thermal energy]
MJ
Thermal energy from Natural gas [Thermal energy]
MJ
Waste
Glass for recovery (shards) [Waste for recovery]
kg
Iron scrap [Waste for recovery]
kg
Lead dross [Hazardous waste for disposal]
kg
Lead scrap [Waste for recovery]
kg
Refinery returns [Waste for recovery]
kg
Slag (containing Pb) [Hazardous waste for recovery]
kg
Slag (containing Pb) [Hazardous waste]
kg
Slime / dross (for rotary furnace) [Waste for recovery]
kg
Sludge (from processing) [Waste for recovery]
kg
Steel scrap [Waste for recovery]
kg
Output
Caustic skim [Metals]
kg
Copper-Lead matte [Metals]
kg
Flue gas (for treatment) [Others]
kg
Lead - silver by-product (95%;5%) [Metals]
kg
Lead (99.97%) [Metals]
kg
Lead (99.995%) [Metals]
kg
Lead [Metals]
kg
Lead alloys [Metals]
kg
Lead bullion [Metals]
kg
Lead-Zinc-Silver (crust) [Metals]
kg
PbCa alloy [Metals]
kg
PbCu alloy [Metals]
kg
PbSb alloy [Metals]
kg
PbSn alloy [Metals]
kg
Silver Dore# [Metals]
kg
Tin [Metals]
kg
Tin-Lead alloy [Metals]
kg
Emissions to air
Carbon dioxide [Inorganic emissions to air]
carbon dioxide
kg
Carbon monoxide [Inorganic emissions to air]
carbon monoxide
kg
Sulphur dioxide [Inorganic emissions to air]
sulfur dioxide
kg
102
Waste
Flue gas (for treatment) [Waste for recovery]
kg
Hazardous waste (unspec.) [Hazardous waste]
kg
Lead dross [Hazardous waste for disposal]
kg
Metallurgical concentrate [Hazardous waste for recovery]
kg
Refinery returns [Waste for recovery]
kg
Slag (containing Pb) [Hazardous waste]
kg
Slime / dross (for rotary furnace) [Waste for recovery]
kg
Waste (unspecified) [Consumer waste]
kg
Waste water processing residue [Hazardous waste for recovery]
kg
Table 12-21: Lead activity data for Rolling process
Rolling
ILCD flow name
Input
Calcium hydroxide [Inorganic intermediate products]
kg
Copper [Metals]
kg
Joint gasket tape [Plastic parts]
kg
Lead secondary [Metals]
kg
Lead primary [Metals]
kg
Lime quicklime (lumpy) [Minerals]
kg
Lubricant (unspecified) [Operating materials]
kg
Oxygen gaseous [Inorganic intermediate products]
kg
Polyethylene-film (PE) [Plastic parts]
kg
Sodium hydroxide (100%; caustic soda) [Inorganic intermediate products]
kg
Sodium nitrate [Inorganic intermediate products]
kg
Tin (99.92%) [Metals]
kg
Water (process water) [Operating materials]
kg
Wooden pallets (EURO, 40% moisture) [Materials from renewable raw materials]
kg
Energy
Electricity [Electric power]
MJ
Thermal energy from diesel fuel [Thermal energy]
MJ
Thermal energy from light fuel oil [Thermal energy]
MJ
Thermal energy from natural gas [Thermal energy]
MJ
Thermal energy from propane [Thermal energy]
MJ
Waste
Lead scrap (intern) [Waste for recovery]
kg
Lead scrap [Waste for recovery]
kg
Output
Lead sheet [Metals]
kg
Emissions to air
Aluminium oxide (dust) [Particles to air]
particles (PM10)
kg
Antimony [Heavy metals to air]
antimony
kg
Arsenic (+V) [Heavy metals to air]
arsenic V
kg
Cadmium (+II) [Heavy metals to air]
cadmium
kg
103
Carbon dioxide [Inorganic emissions to air]
carbon dioxide
kg
Carbon monoxide [Inorganic emissions to air]
carbon monoxide
kg
Copper (+II) [Heavy metals to air]
copper
kg
Dust (PM10) [Particles to air]
particles (PM10)
kg
Lead (+II) [Heavy metals to air]
lead
kg
Methane [Organic emissions to air (group VOC)]
methane
kg
Nickel (+II) [Heavy metals to air]
nickel
kg
Nitrogen oxides [Inorganic emissions to air]
nitrogen dioxide
kg
Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) [Inorganic emissions to air]
nitrous oxide
kg
Tin (+IV) [Heavy metals to air]
tin
kg
volatile
organic
kg
compound
zinc
kg
VOC (unspecified) [Organic emissions to air (group VOC)]
Zinc (+II) [Heavy metals to air]
Emissions to water
Arsenic (+V) [Heavy metals to fresh water]
arsenic V
kg
Chromium (+III) [Heavy metals to fresh water]
chromium III
kg
Copper (+II) [Heavy metals to fresh water]
copper
kg
Lead (+II) [Heavy metals to fresh water]
lead
kg
Nickel (+II) [Heavy metals to fresh water]
nickel
kg
Waste
Waste water - untreated [Production residues in life cycle]
kg
Dross [Waste for recovery]
kg
Lead scrap (intern) [Waste for recovery]
kg
Table 12-22: Steel activity data for Hot Strip Mill process
Hot Strip Mill
ILCD flow name
Unit
Inputs
Flows
-
Production residues in life cycle
Waste for recovery
-
Hot rolling sludge
Oxycutting slag
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Scales internal
Scarfing dust
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Steel scrap (Home scrap)
Used oil
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Waste water treatment sludge
Resources
kg (reference unit)
-
Material resources
Renewable resources
-
Water
Water (fresh water)
Water (fresh water)
kg (reference unit)
Water (sea water)
Water (softened, deionized)
sea water
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Water Cooling fresh
Water Cooling sea
Water Cooling fresh
Water Cooling sea
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
104
Valuable substances
Energy carrier
-
Electric power
Electricity
MJ (reference unit)
Fuels
Crude oil products
-
Heavy fuel oil
Light fuel oil
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Liquefied petroleum gas
Natural gas products
kg (reference unit)
-
Natural gas
Other fuels
kg (reference unit)
-
Basic Oxygen Furnace Gas (MJ) (Copy)
Blast furnace gas (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
MJ (reference unit)
Coke oven gas (external supply, in MJ)
Coke oven gas (MJ) (Copy)
MJ (reference unit)
MJ (reference unit)
Smelting furnace gas (MJ)
Mechanical energy
MJ (reference unit)
-
Compressed air for process
Thermal energy
m³ (reference unit)
-
Hot water (MJ)
Steam (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
MJ (reference unit)
Materials
Intermediate products
-
Inorganic intermediate products
Ferric chloride
kg (reference unit)
Ferrous sulphate (FeSO4)
Hydrochloric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen gaseous
Oxygen gaseous
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hydroxide (100%; caustic soda)
Sodium hypochlorite
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Sulphuric acid (100%)
Organic intermediate products
kg (reference unit)
-
Lubricant
Propane
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Metals
Cold rolled coil (from DSP)
kg (reference unit)
Slab (from BOF)
Slab (from EAF)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Slab (from external supply)
Steel strap
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Minerals
Lime quicklime (lumpy)
kg (reference unit)
Refractories (magnesia, alumina, chromic oxide)
Refractories (silica, alumina)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Operating materials
Anticorroding Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Antifur Agent (unspecified)
Detergent
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
105
Grease
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Waste water treatment
Aluminum sulfate
kg (reference unit)
anticorroding agent
Antifoaming Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Antifur Agent (unspecified)
Carbon dioxide
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Citric acid (C6H8O7)
Coagulation agent
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Compressed air
Ferric chloride
m³ (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Flocculating agent
Hydrochloric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
Lime quicklime (lumpy)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Natural gas
Nitric acid
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Oxygen gaseous
Phosphoric acid
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Polyelectrolyte
Power
kg (reference unit)
MJ (reference unit)
Soda (sodium carbonate)
Sodium bisulphite
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium chloride (rock salt)
Sodium hydrosulfite (Na2O4S2)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hydroxide (100%; caustic soda)
Sodium hypochlorite
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium nitrite
Steam
kg (reference unit)
MJ (reference unit)
Sulphuric acid (100%)
Water (fresh water)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Water (sea water)
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Outputs
Flows
-
Emissions to air
Heavy metals to air
-
Arsenic (+V)
Cadmium (+II)
arsenic V
cadmium
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Cobalt
Copper (+II)
Cobalt
copper
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Iron
Lead (+II)
Iron
Lead
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Manganese (+II)
Mercury (+II)
manganese
mercury
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Molybdenum
Nickel (+II)
molybdenum
Nickel
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Selenium
Tin (+IV)
selenium
Tin
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
106
Titanium
Vanadium (+III)
titanium
vanadium
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Zinc (+II)
Inorganic emissions to air
Zinc
kg (reference unit)
-
Ammonia
Carbon dioxide
ammonia
carbon dioxide
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Carbon monoxide
Chlorine
carbon monoxide
chlorine
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen chloride
Hydrogen cyanide (prussic acid)
hydrogen chloride
hydrocyanic acid
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen fluoride
Hydrogen sulphide
hydrogen fluoride
hydrogen sulfide
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen oxides
Nitrous oxide (laughing gas)
nitrogen dioxide
nitrous oxide
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Sulphur hexafluoride
Sulphuric acid
sulfur hexafluoride
sulphuric acid
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Sulphur oxides (as SO2)
Organic emissions to air (group VOC)
sulfur oxides
kg (reference unit)
-
Group NMVOC to air
Group PAH to air
-
Benzo{a}pyrene
Naphthalene
benzo[a]pyrene
naphthalene
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, carcinogenic)
polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons
kg (reference unit)
Halogenated organic emissions to air
Dioxins (unspec.)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB unspecified)
NMVOC (unspecified)
Methane
2,3,7,8tetrachlorodibenzop-dioxin
polychlorinated
biphenyls
non-methane
volatile
organic
compounds
methane
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Particles to air
Dust (PM2.5)
particles (PM2.5)
kg (reference unit)
Dust (PM2.5, from stack)
Dust (PM10)
particles (PM10)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Dust (PM10, from stack)
Dust (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
particles (PM2.5 PM10)
Dust (unspecified, from stack)
Dust (unspecified, fugitive)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Emissions to fresh water
Analytical measures to fresh water
Biological oxygen demand (BOD)
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
biological
demand
chemical
demand
oxygen
oxygen
Nitrogenous Matter (Kjeldahl, as N)
Nitrogenous Matter (unspecified, as N)
Total organic bounded carbon
Heavy metals to fresh water
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Nitrate
total organic carbon
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
-
107
Arsenic (+V)
Cadmium (+II)
arsenic V
cadmium
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Chromium
Cobalt
chromium
Cobalt
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Copper (+II)
Iron
Copper
Iron
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Lead (+II)
Manganese (+II)
Lead
manganese
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Mercury (+II)
Metals to water (unspecified)
mercury
nickel
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Molybdenum
Nickel (+II)
molybdenum
nickel
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Permanganate (MeMnO4)
Selenium
selenium
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Tin (+IV)
Titanium
Tin
titanium
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Vanadium (+III)
Zinc (+II)
vanadium
Zinc
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Inorganic emissions to fresh water
Acid (calculated as H+)
acid (as H+)
kg (reference unit)
Aluminium (+III)
Ammonia (NH4+, NH3, as N)
aluminium
ammonia
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Barium
Chloride
barium
chloride
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Cyanide
Fluoride
cyanide
fluoride
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Nitrate
Nitrite
nitrate
nitrite
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen dioxide
Nitrogen
nitrogen dioxide
nitrate
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Phosphates (as P)
Phosphorus
phosphorus, total
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Sulphate
Sulphide
sulfate
sulfite
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Sulphite
Organic emissions to fresh water
sulfide
kg (reference unit)
-
Carbon, organically bound
Hydrocarbons to fresh water
total organic carbon
kg (reference unit)
-
Benzene
Hexane (isomers)
benzene
hexane
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrocarbons (unspecified)
Naphthalene
Oil (unspecified)
Phenol (hydroxy benzene)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, unspec.)
Toluene (methyl benzene)
Xylene (isomers; dimethyl benzene)
Thiocyanates (CNS-)
Other emissions to fresh water
hydrocarbons
(unspecified)
naphthalene
decane
phenol
polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons
toluene
xylene (all isomers)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
-
108
Waste water
Particles to fresh water
Solids (suspended)
Production residues in life cycle
Hazardous waste for disposal
Hazardous non organic waste for disposal
kg (reference unit)
particles (> PM10)
kg (reference unit)
-
Hazardous Waste
Hot Rolling Sludge
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Refractories (silica, alumina)
Scale internal
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Waste from steel works
Hazardous organic waste for disposal
kg (reference unit)
-
Waste water treatment sludge
Waste for disposal
kg (reference unit)
-
Non hazardous non organic waste for disposal
Hot Rolling Sludge
kg (reference unit)
Scale internal
Waste from steel works
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Non hazardous organic waste for disposal
Waste water treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Waste for recovery
Hot rolling sludge
kg (reference unit)
Oxycutting slag
Refractories (silica, alumina)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Refractories
Scales internal
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Scarfing dust
Steel scrap (external supply)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Steel scrap (Home scrap)
Used oil
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Waste water treatment sludge
Resources
kg (reference unit)
-
Material resources
Renewable resources
-
Water
Water Cooling fresh
kg (reference unit)
Water Cooling sea
Valuable substances
kg (reference unit)
-
Energy carrier
Thermal energy
-
Hot water from process stages
Steam (from process stages)
MJ (reference unit)
MJ (reference unit)
Materials
Metals
-
Steel hot rolled coil
Operating materials
kg (reference unit)
-
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
109
Table 12-23: Steel activity data for Pickling process
Pickling
ILCD flow name
Unit
Input
Flows
-
Production residues in life cycle
-
Waste for recovery
Iron oxides (by-product of the regeneration of used hydrochloryc pickling
bath)
kg (reference unit)
Iron oxide sludge
kg (reference unit)
Pickled hot rolled coil sludge
kg (reference unit)
Scales internal
kg (reference unit)
Used bath hydrochloric acid
kg (reference unit)
Used oil
kg (reference unit)
Waste water treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Resources
-
Material resources
-
Renewable resources
-
Water
-
Water (fresh water)
Water (fresh water)
kg (reference unit)
Water (sea water)
sea water
kg (reference unit)
Water (softened, deionized)
kg (reference unit)
Water Cooling fresh
Water Cooling fresh
kg (reference unit)
Water Cooling sea
Water Cooling sea
kg (reference unit)
Valuable substances
-
Energy carrier
-
Electric power
-
Electricity
MJ (reference unit)
Fuels
-
Natural gas products
-
Natural gas
kg (reference unit)
Other fuels
-
Basic Oxygen Furnace Gas (MJ) (Copy)
MJ (reference unit)
Blast furnace gas (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Coke oven gas (external supply, in MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Coke oven gas (MJ) (Copy)
MJ (reference unit)
Diesel (Internal Transportation)
kg (reference unit)
Ethine (acetylene)
kg (reference unit)
Mechanical energy
-
Compressed air for process
m³ (reference unit)
Thermal energy
-
Hot water (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Steam (external supply) (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Steam (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Materials
-
110
Intermediate products
-
Inorganic intermediate products
-
Ferric chloride
kg (reference unit)
Ferrous sulphate (FeSO4)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrochloric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hydroxide (100%; caustic soda)
kg (reference unit)
Sulphuric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Organic intermediate products
-
Lubricant
kg (reference unit)
Propane
kg (reference unit)
Metals
-
Cold rolled coil (from DSP)
kg (reference unit)
Steel hot rolled coil
kg (reference unit)
Steel strap
kg (reference unit)
Minerals
-
Lime quicklime (lumpy)
kg (reference unit)
Operating materials
-
Anticorroding Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Antifoaming Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Grease
kg (reference unit)
Oxidation inhibitor
kg (reference unit)
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
Waste water treatment
-
Aluminum sulfate
kg (reference unit)
anticorroding agent
kg (reference unit)
Antifoaming Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Antifur Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Carbon dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Citric acid (C6H8O7)
kg (reference unit)
Coagulation agent
kg (reference unit)
Compressed air
m³ (reference unit)
Ferric chloride
kg (reference unit)
Flocculating agent
kg (reference unit)
Hydrochloric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
kg (reference unit)
Lime quicklime (lumpy)
kg (reference unit)
Natural gas
kg (reference unit)
Nitric acid
kg (reference unit)
Oxygen gaseous
kg (reference unit)
Phosphoric acid
kg (reference unit)
Polyelectrolyte
kg (reference unit)
Power
MJ (reference unit)
Soda (sodium carbonate)
kg (reference unit)
111
Sodium bisulphite
kg (reference unit)
Sodium chloride (rock salt)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hydrosulfite (Na2O4S2)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hydroxide (100%; caustic soda)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hypochlorite
kg (reference unit)
Sodium nitrite
kg (reference unit)
Steam
MJ (reference unit)
Sulphuric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Water (fresh water)
kg (reference unit)
Water (sea water)
kg (reference unit)
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
Output
Flows
-
Emissions to air
-
Heavy metals to air
-
Arsenic (+V)
arsenic V
kg (reference unit)
Cadmium (+II)
cadmium
kg (reference unit)
Cobalt
cobalt
kg (reference unit)
Copper (+II)
copper
kg (reference unit)
Iron
iron
kg (reference unit)
Lead (+II)
lead
kg (reference unit)
Manganese (+II)
manganese
kg (reference unit)
Mercury (+II)
mercury
kg (reference unit)
Molybdenum
molybdenum
kg (reference unit)
Nickel (+II)
nickel
kg (reference unit)
Selenium
selenium
kg (reference unit)
Tin (+IV)
tin
kg (reference unit)
Titanium
titanium
kg (reference unit)
Vanadium (+III)
vanadium
kg (reference unit)
Zinc (+II)
zinc
kg (reference unit)
Inorganic emissions to air
-
Ammonia
ammonia
kg (reference unit)
Carbon dioxide
carbon dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Carbon monoxide
carbon monoxide
kg (reference unit)
Chlorine
chlorine
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen chloride
hydrogen chloride
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen cyanide (prussic acid)
hydrocyanic acid
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen fluoride
hydrogen fluoride
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen sulphide
hydrogen sulfide
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen oxides
nitrogen dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Nitrous oxide (laughing gas)
nitrous oxide
kg (reference unit)
Sulphur hexafluoride
sulfur hexafluoride
kg (reference unit)
Sulphuric acid
sulphuric acid
kg (reference unit)
Sulphur oxides (as SO2)
sulfur oxides
kg (reference unit)
112
Organic emissions to air (group VOC)
-
Group NMVOC to air
-
Group PAH to air
-
Benzo{a}pyrene
benzo[a]pyrene
kg (reference unit)
Naphthalene
naphthalene
kg (reference unit)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, carcinogenic)
Halogenated organic emissions to air
Dioxins (unspec.)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB unspecified)
NMVOC (unspecified)
polycyclic aromatic
kg (reference unit)
hydrocarbons
2,3,7,8tetrachlorodibenzo- kg (reference unit)
p-dioxin
polychlorinated
kg (reference unit)
biphenyls
non-methane
volatile
organic kg (reference unit)
compounds
Oil Mist
Methane
kg (reference unit)
methane
kg (reference unit)
Particles to air
-
Dust (PM2.5)
particles (PM2.5)
kg (reference unit)
Dust (PM10)
particles (PM10)
kg (reference unit)
Dust (unspecified)
particles (PM2.5 kg (reference unit)
PM10)
Emissions to fresh water
-
Analytical measures to fresh water
Biological oxygen demand (BOD)
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
biological
demand
chemical
demand
oxygen
oxygen
Nitrogenous Matter (Kjeldahl, as N)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogenous Matter (unspecified, as N)
nitrate
kg (reference unit)
Total organic bounded carbon
total organic carbon
kg (reference unit)
Heavy metals to fresh water
-
Arsenic (+V)
arsenic V
kg (reference unit)
Cadmium (+II)
cadmium
kg (reference unit)
Chromium
chromium
kg (reference unit)
Cobalt
cobalt
kg (reference unit)
Copper (+II)
copper
kg (reference unit)
Iron
iron
kg (reference unit)
Lead (+II)
lead
kg (reference unit)
Manganese (+II)
manganese
kg (reference unit)
Mercury (+II)
mercury
kg (reference unit)
Metals to water (unspecified)
nickel
kg (reference unit)
Molybdenum
molybdenum
kg (reference unit)
Nickel (+II)
nickel
kg (reference unit)
Permanganate (MeMnO4)
kg (reference unit)
Selenium
selenium
kg (reference unit)
Tin (+IV)
tin
kg (reference unit)
113
Titanium
titanium
kg (reference unit)
Vanadium (+III)
vanadium
kg (reference unit)
Zinc (+II)
zinc
kg (reference unit)
Inorganic emissions to fresh water
-
Acid (calculated as H+)
acid (as H+)
kg (reference unit)
Aluminium (+III)
aluminium
kg (reference unit)
Ammonia (NH4+, NH3, as N)
ammonia
kg (reference unit)
Barium
barium
kg (reference unit)
Chloride
chloride
kg (reference unit)
Cyanide
cyanide
kg (reference unit)
Fluoride
fluoride
kg (reference unit)
Nitrate
nitrate
kg (reference unit)
Nitrite
nitrite
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen dioxide
nitrogen dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen
nitrate
kg (reference unit)
Phosphates (as P)
kg (reference unit)
Phosphorus
phosphorus, total
kg (reference unit)
Sulphate
sulfate
kg (reference unit)
Sulphide
sulfite
kg (reference unit)
Sulphite
sulfide
kg (reference unit)
Organic emissions to fresh water
-
Carbon, organically bound
kg (reference unit)
Hydrocarbons to fresh water
-
Benzene
benzene
kg (reference unit)
Hexane (isomers)
hexane
kg (reference unit)
Naphthalene
hydrocarbons
(unspecified)
naphthalene
Oil (unspecified)
decane
kg (reference unit)
Phenol (hydroxy benzene)
phenol
kg (reference unit)
Hydrocarbons (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Toluene (methyl benzene)
polycyclic aromatic
kg (reference unit)
hydrocarbons
toluene
kg (reference unit)
Xylene (isomers; dimethyl benzene)
xylene (all isomers)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, unspec.)
kg (reference unit)
Thiocyanates (CNS-)
kg (reference unit)
Other emissions to fresh water
-
Waste water
kg (reference unit)
Particles to fresh water
Solids (suspended)
particles (> PM10)
kg (reference unit)
Production residues in life cycle
-
Hazardous waste for disposal
-
Hazardous non organic waste for disposal
-
Iron oxide
kg (reference unit)
Pickled hot rolled coil sludge
kg (reference unit)
Used bath hydrochloric acid
kg (reference unit)
114
Waste from steel works
kg (reference unit)
Hazardous organic waste for disposal
-
Waste water treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Waste for disposal
-
Non hazardous non organic waste for disposal
-
Iron oxides
kg (reference unit)
Pickled hot rolled coil sludge
kg (reference unit)
Waste from steel works
kg (reference unit)
Non hazardous organic waste for disposal
-
Waste water treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Waste for incineration
-
Used oil
kg (reference unit)
Waste for recovery
-
Ferrous sulphate (FeSO4)
kg (reference unit)
Iron oxides (by-product of the regeneration of used hydrochloryc pickling
bath)
kg (reference unit)
Iron oxide sludge
kg (reference unit)
Pickled hot rolled coil sludge
kg (reference unit)
Scales internal
kg (reference unit)
Steel scrap (external supply)
kg (reference unit)
Steel scrap (Home scrap)
kg (reference unit)
Used bath hydrochloric acid
kg (reference unit)
Used oil
kg (reference unit)
Waste water treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Resources
-
Material resources
-
Renewable resources
-
Water
-
Water Cooling fresh
kg (reference unit)
Water Cooling sea
kg (reference unit)
Valuable substances
-
Materials
-
Intermediate products
-
Inorganic intermediate products
-
Ferrous sulphate (FeSO4)
kg (reference unit)
Metals
-
Steel pickled hot rolled coil
kg (reference unit)
Operating materials
-
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
115
Table 12-24: Steel activity data for Cold Rolling process
Cold Rolling
ILCD flow name
Unit
Input
Flows
-
Production residues in life cycle
-
Waste for recovery
-
Cold rolling sludge
kg (reference unit)
Iron oxides (by-product of the regeneration of used hydrochloryc pickling bath)
kg (reference unit)
Steel scrap (Home scrap)
kg (reference unit)
Used bath hydrochloric acid
kg (reference unit)
Used oil
kg (reference unit)
Waste water treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Resources
-
Material resources
-
Renewable resources
-
Water
Water (fresh water)
Water (river water)
Water (sea water)
Water (softened, deionized)
Water Cooling fresh
Water Cooling sea
Water
(fresh
kg (reference unit)
water)
river water
kg (reference unit)
Sea water
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Water
Cooling
kg (reference unit)
fresh
Water Cooling sea kg (reference unit)
Valuable substances
-
Energy carrier
-
Electric power
-
Electricity
MJ (reference unit)
Fuels
-
Natural gas products
-
Natural gas
kg (reference unit)
Other fuels
-
Basic Oxygen Furnace Gas (MJ) (Copy)
MJ (reference unit)
Blast furnace gas (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Coke oven gas (external supply, in MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Coke oven gas (MJ) (Copy)
MJ (reference unit)
Mechanical energy
-
Compressed air for process
m³ (reference unit)
Thermal energy
-
Hot water (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Steam (external supply) (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Steam (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Materials
-
Intermediate products
-
116
Inorganic intermediate products
-
Ferric chloride
kg (reference unit)
Ferrous sulphate (FeSO4)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrochloric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen gaseous
kg (reference unit)
Phosphoric acid
kg (reference unit)
Soda (sodium carbonate)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hydroxide (100%; caustic soda)
kg (reference unit)
Sulphuric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Organic intermediate products
-
Lubricant
kg (reference unit)
Oil (animal)
kg (reference unit)
Oil (vegetable)
kg (reference unit)
Metals
-
Ferro molybdenium
kg (reference unit)
Steel hot rolled coil
kg (reference unit)
Steel pickled hot rolled coil
kg (reference unit)
Steel strap
kg (reference unit)
Minerals
-
Lime quicklime (lumpy)
kg (reference unit)
Operating materials
-
Anticorroding Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Antifoaming Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Cold rolling emulsion treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Detergent
kg (reference unit)
Emulsion (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Grease
kg (reference unit)
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
Waste water treatment
-
Aluminum sulfate
kg (reference unit)
anticorroding agent
kg (reference unit)
Antifoaming Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Antifur Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Carbon dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Citric acid (C6H8O7)
kg (reference unit)
Coagulation agent
kg (reference unit)
Compressed air
m³ (reference unit)
Ferric chloride
kg (reference unit)
Flocculating agent
kg (reference unit)
Hydrochloric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
kg (reference unit)
Lime quicklime (lumpy)
kg (reference unit)
117
Natural gas
kg (reference unit)
Nitric acid
kg (reference unit)
Oxygen gaseous
kg (reference unit)
Phosphoric acid
kg (reference unit)
Polyelectrolyte
kg (reference unit)
Power
MJ (reference unit)
Soda (sodium carbonate)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium bisulphite
kg (reference unit)
Sodium chloride (rock salt)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hydrosulfite (Na2O4S2)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hydroxide (100%; caustic soda)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hypochlorite
kg (reference unit)
Sodium nitrite
kg (reference unit)
Steam
MJ (reference unit)
Sulphuric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Water (fresh water)
kg (reference unit)
Water (sea water)
kg (reference unit)
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
Output
Flows
-
Emissions to air
-
Heavy metals to air
-
Arsenic (+V)
arsenic V
kg (reference unit)
Cadmium (+II)
cadmium
kg (reference unit)
Cobalt
cobalt
kg (reference unit)
Copper (+II)
copper
kg (reference unit)
Iron
iron
kg (reference unit)
Lead (+II)
lead
kg (reference unit)
Manganese (+II)
Manganese
kg (reference unit)
Mercury (+II)
Mercury
kg (reference unit)
Molybdenum
molybdenum
kg (reference unit)
Nickel (+II)
nickel
kg (reference unit)
Selenium
selenium
kg (reference unit)
Tin (+IV)
tin
kg (reference unit)
Titanium
titanium
kg (reference unit)
Vanadium (+III)
vanadium
kg (reference unit)
Zinc (+II)
zinc
kg (reference unit)
Inorganic emissions to air
-
Ammonia
ammonia
kg (reference unit)
Carbon dioxide
carbon dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Carbon monoxide
carbon monoxide
kg (reference unit)
Chlorine
chlorine
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen chloride
hydrogen chloride
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen cyanide (prussic acid)
hydrocyanic acid
kg (reference unit)
118
Hydrogen fluoride
hydrogen fluoride
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen sulphide
hydrogen sulfide
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen oxides
nitrogen dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Nitrous oxide (laughing gas)
nitrous oxide
kg (reference unit)
Sulphur hexafluoride
Sulphuric acid
sulfur hexafluoride kg (reference unit)
sulphuric acid
kg (reference unit)
Sulphur oxides (as SO2)
sulfur oxides
kg (reference unit)
Organic emissions to air (group VOC)
-
Group NMVOC to air
-
Group PAH to air
-
Benzo{a}pyrene
benzo[a]pyrene
kg (reference unit)
Naphthalene
naphthalene
kg (reference unit)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, carcinogenic)
polycyclic
aromatic
hydrocarbons
kg (reference unit)
Halogenated organic emissions to air
Oils (unspecified)
2,3,7,8tetrachlorodibenz kg (reference unit)
o-p-dioxin
polychlorinated
kg (reference unit)
biphenyls
non-methane
volatile
organic kg (reference unit)
compounds
kg (reference unit)
Methane
methane
Dioxins (unspec.)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB unspecified)
NMVOC (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Particles to air
-
Dust (PM2.5)
particles (PM2.5)
kg (reference unit)
Dust (PM10)
particles (PM10)
kg (reference unit)
Dust (unspecified)
Emissions to fresh water
Analytical measures to fresh water
Biological oxygen demand (BOD)
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
particles (PM2.5 kg (reference unit)
PM10)
biological oxygen
kg (reference unit)
demand
chemical oxygen
kg (reference unit)
demand
Nitrogenous Matter (Kjeldahl, as N)
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogenous Matter (unspecified, as N)
nitrate
Total organic bounded carbon
total
carbon
Heavy metals to fresh water
kg (reference unit)
organic
kg (reference unit)
-
Arsenic (+V)
arsenic V
kg (reference unit)
Cadmium (+II)
cadmium
kg (reference unit)
Chromium
chromium
kg (reference unit)
Cobalt
cobalt
kg (reference unit)
Copper (+II)
copper
kg (reference unit)
Iron
iron
kg (reference unit)
Lead (+II)
lead
kg (reference unit)
119
Manganese (+II)
manganese
kg (reference unit)
Mercury (+II)
mercury
kg (reference unit)
Metals to water (unspecified)
nickel
kg (reference unit)
Molybdenum
molybdenum
kg (reference unit)
Nickel (+II)
nickel
kg (reference unit)
Permanganate (MeMnO4)
kg (reference unit)
Selenium
selenium
kg (reference unit)
Tin (+IV)
tin
kg (reference unit)
Titanium
titanium
kg (reference unit)
Vanadium (+III)
vanadium
kg (reference unit)
Zinc (+II)
zinc
kg (reference unit)
Inorganic emissions to fresh water
-
Acid (calculated as H+)
acid (as H+)
kg (reference unit)
Aluminium (+III)
aluminium
kg (reference unit)
Ammonia (NH4+, NH3, as N)
ammonia
kg (reference unit)
Barium
barium
kg (reference unit)
Chloride
chloride
kg (reference unit)
Cyanide
cyanide
kg (reference unit)
Fluoride
fluoride
kg (reference unit)
Nitrate
nitrate
kg (reference unit)
Nitrite
nitrite
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen dioxide
nitrogen dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen
nitrate
kg (reference unit)
Phosphates (as P)
kg (reference unit)
Phosphorus
phosphorus, total
kg (reference unit)
Sulphate
sulfate
kg (reference unit)
Sulphide
sulfite
kg (reference unit)
Sulphite
sulfide
kg (reference unit)
Organic emissions to fresh water
Carbon, organically bound
total
carbon
organic
Hydrocarbons to fresh water
kg (reference unit)
-
Benzene
benzene
kg (reference unit)
Hexane (isomers)
hexane
kg (reference unit)
Naphthalene
hydrocarbons
(unspecified)
naphthalene
Oil (unspecified)
decane
kg (reference unit)
Phenol (hydroxy benzene)
phenol
kg (reference unit)
Hydrocarbons (unspecified)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, unspec.)
Toluene (methyl benzene)
Xylene (isomers; dimethyl benzene)
Thiocyanates (CNS-)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
polycyclic
aromatic
hydrocarbons
toluene
xylene
isomers)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
(all
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
120
Other emissions to fresh water
-
Waste water
kg (reference unit)
Particles to fresh water
Solids (suspended)
particles (> PM10)
kg (reference unit)
Production residues in life cycle
-
Hazardous waste for disposal
-
Hazardous non organic waste for disposal
-
Cold rolling emulsion treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Cold Rolling Sludge
kg (reference unit)
Iron oxide
kg (reference unit)
Scale internal
kg (reference unit)
Waste from steel works
kg (reference unit)
Hazardous organic waste for disposal
-
Waste water treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Waste for disposal
-
Non hazardous non organic waste for disposal
-
Cold rolling emulsion treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Cold Rolling Sludge
kg (reference unit)
Iron oxides
kg (reference unit)
Waste from steel works
kg (reference unit)
Non hazardous organic waste for disposal
-
Waste water treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Waste for incineration
-
Used oil
kg (reference unit)
Waste for recovery
-
Cold rolling emulsion treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Cold rolling sludge
kg (reference unit)
Iron oxides (by-product of the regeneration of used hydrochloryc pickling bath)
kg (reference unit)
Scarfing dust
kg (reference unit)
Steel scrap (external supply)
kg (reference unit)
Steel scrap (Home scrap)
kg (reference unit)
Used bath hydrochloric acid
kg (reference unit)
Used oil
kg (reference unit)
Waste water treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Resources
-
Material resources
-
Renewable resources
-
Water
-
Water Cooling fresh
kg (reference unit)
Water Cooling sea
kg (reference unit)
Valuable substances
-
Materials
-
Metals
-
Steel cold rolled coil
kg (reference unit)
121
Operating materials
-
Cold rolling emulsion treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Emulsion (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
Table 12-25: Steel activity data for Annealing and Tempering process
Annealing and Tempering
ILCD flow names
Unit
Input
Flows
-
Production residues in life cycle
-
Waste for recovery
-
Deoiling agent
kg (reference unit)
Used bath hydrochloric acid
kg (reference unit)
Used oil
kg (reference unit)
Waste water treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Resources
-
Material resources
-
Renewable resources
-
Water
-
Water (fresh water)
Water (fresh water)
kg (reference unit)
Water (sea water)
sea water
kg (reference unit)
Water (softened, deionized)
kg (reference unit)
Water Cooling fresh
Water Cooling fresh
kg (reference unit)
Water Cooling sea
Water Cooling sea
kg (reference unit)
Valuable substances
-
Energy carrier
-
Electric power
-
Electricity
MJ (reference unit)
Fuels
-
Natural gas products
-
Natural gas
kg (reference unit)
Other fuels
-
Basic Oxygen Furnace Gas (MJ) (Copy)
MJ (reference unit)
Blast furnace gas (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Coke oven gas (external supply, in MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Coke oven gas (MJ) (Copy)
MJ (reference unit)
Smelting furnace gas (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Mechanical energy
-
Compressed air for process
m³ (reference unit)
Thermal energy
-
Hot water (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Steam (external supply) (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
122
Steam (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Materials
-
Intermediate products
-
Inorganic intermediate products
-
Ammonia
kg (reference unit)
Chromium solution, as H2CrO4
kg (reference unit)
Ferric chloride
kg (reference unit)
Ferrous sulphate (FeSO4)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrochloric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen
kg (reference unit)
Nickel carbonate (NiCO3)
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen gaseous
kg (reference unit)
Soda (sodium carbonate)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hydroxide (100%; caustic soda)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hypochlorite
kg (reference unit)
Sulphuric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Synthetic gas (H2, N2, from NH3 cracking)
kg (reference unit)
Organic intermediate products
-
Lubricant
kg (reference unit)
Oil (animal)
kg (reference unit)
Propane
kg (reference unit)
Metals
-
Steel cold rolled coil
kg (reference unit)
Steel strap
kg (reference unit)
Minerals
-
Lime quicklime (lumpy)
kg (reference unit)
Operating materials
-
Anticorroding Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Antifoaming Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Biocides
kg (reference unit)
Deoiling agent
kg (reference unit)
Emulsion (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Oxidation inhibitor
kg (reference unit)
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
Waste water treatment
-
Aluminum sulfate
kg (reference unit)
anticorroding agent
kg (reference unit)
Antifoaming Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Antifur Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Carbon dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Citric acid (C6H8O7)
kg (reference unit)
Coagulation agent
kg (reference unit)
Compressed air
m³ (reference unit)
123
Ferric chloride
kg (reference unit)
Flocculating agent
kg (reference unit)
Hydrochloric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
kg (reference unit)
Lime quicklime (lumpy)
kg (reference unit)
Natural gas
kg (reference unit)
Nitric acid
kg (reference unit)
Oxygen gaseous
kg (reference unit)
Phosphoric acid
kg (reference unit)
Polyelectrolyte
kg (reference unit)
Power
MJ (reference unit)
Soda (sodium carbonate)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium bisulphite
kg (reference unit)
Sodium chloride (rock salt)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hydrosulfite (Na2O4S2)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hydroxide (100%; caustic soda)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hypochlorite
kg (reference unit)
Sodium nitrite
kg (reference unit)
Steam
MJ (reference unit)
Sulphuric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Water (fresh water)
kg (reference unit)
Water (sea water)
kg (reference unit)
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
Output
Flows
-
Emissions to air
-
Heavy metals to air
-
Arsenic (+V)
arsenic V
kg (reference unit)
Cadmium (+II)
cadmium
kg (reference unit)
Cobalt
cobalt
kg (reference unit)
Copper (+II)
copper
kg (reference unit)
Iron
iron
kg (reference unit)
Lead (+II)
lead
kg (reference unit)
Manganese (+II)
manganese
kg (reference unit)
Mercury (+II)
mercury
kg (reference unit)
Molybdenum
molybdenum
kg (reference unit)
Nickel (+II)
nickel
kg (reference unit)
Selenium
selenium
kg (reference unit)
Tin (+IV)
tin
kg (reference unit)
Titanium
titanium
kg (reference unit)
Vanadium (+III)
vanadium
kg (reference unit)
Zinc (+II)
zinc
kg (reference unit)
Inorganic emissions to air
Ammonia
ammonia
kg (reference unit)
124
Carbon dioxide
carbon dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Carbon monoxide
carbon monoxide
kg (reference unit)
Chlorine
chlorine
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen chloride
hydrogen chloride
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen cyanide (prussic acid)
hydrocyanic acid
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen fluoride
hydrogen fluoride
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen sulphide
hydrogen sulfide
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen oxides
nitrogen dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Nitrous oxide (laughing gas)
nitrous oxide
kg (reference unit)
Sulphur hexafluoride
sulfur hexafluoride
kg (reference unit)
Sulphuric acid
sulphuric acid
kg (reference unit)
Sulphur oxides (as SO2)
sulfur oxides
kg (reference unit)
Organic emissions to air (group VOC)
-
Group NMVOC to air
-
Group PAH to air
-
Benzo{a}pyrene
benzo[a]pyrene
Naphthalene
naphthalene
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, carcinogenic)
Halogenated organic emissions to air
Dioxins (unspec.)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB unspecified)
NMVOC (unspecified)
Methane
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
polycyclic aromatic
kg (reference unit)
hydrocarbons
2,3,7,8tetrachlorodibenzop-dioxin
polychlorinated
biphenyls
non-methane
volatile
organic
compounds
methane
Particles to air
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
-
Dust (PM2.5)
particles (PM2.5)
kg (reference unit)
Dust (PM10)
particles (PM10)
kg (reference unit)
Dust (unspecified)
Dust (unspecified, from stack)
particles (PM2.5 kg (reference unit)
PM10)
kg (reference unit)
Emissions to fresh water
-
Analytical measures to fresh water
-
Biological oxygen demand (BOD)
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
biological
demand
chemical
demand
oxygen
oxygen
Nitrogenous Matter (Kjeldahl, as N)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogenous Matter (unspecified, as N)
nitrate
kg (reference unit)
Total organic bounded carbon
total organic carbon
kg (reference unit)
Heavy metals to fresh water
-
Arsenic (+V)
arsenic V
kg (reference unit)
Cadmium (+II)
cadmium
kg (reference unit)
Chromium
chromium
kg (reference unit)
125
Cobalt
cobalt
kg (reference unit)
Copper (+II)
copper
kg (reference unit)
Iron
iron
kg (reference unit)
Lead (+II)
lead
kg (reference unit)
Manganese (+II)
manganese
kg (reference unit)
Mercury (+II)
mercury
kg (reference unit)
Metals to water (unspecified)
nickel
kg (reference unit)
Molybdenum
molybdenum
kg (reference unit)
Nickel (+II)
nickel
kg (reference unit)
Permanganate (MeMnO4)
kg (reference unit)
Selenium
selenium
kg (reference unit)
Tin (+IV)
tin
kg (reference unit)
Titanium
titanium
kg (reference unit)
Vanadium (+III)
vanadium
kg (reference unit)
Zinc (+II)
zinc
kg (reference unit)
Inorganic emissions to fresh water
-
Acid (calculated as H+)
acid (as H+)
kg (reference unit)
Aluminium (+III)
aluminium
kg (reference unit)
Ammonia (NH4+, NH3, as N)
ammonia
kg (reference unit)
Barium
barium
kg (reference unit)
Chloride
chloride
kg (reference unit)
Cyanide
cyanide
kg (reference unit)
Fluoride
fluoride
kg (reference unit)
Nitrate
nitrate
kg (reference unit)
Nitrite
nitrite
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen dioxide
nitrogen dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen
nitrate
kg (reference unit)
Phosphates (as P)
kg (reference unit)
Phosphorus
phosphorus, total
kg (reference unit)
Sulphate
sulfate
kg (reference unit)
Sulphide
sulfite
kg (reference unit)
Sulphite
sulfide
kg (reference unit)
Organic emissions to fresh water
Carbon, organically bound
total organic carbon
Hydrocarbons to fresh water
kg (reference unit)
-
Benzene
benzene
kg (reference unit)
Hexane (isomers)
hexane
kg (reference unit)
Naphthalene
hydrocarbons
(unspecified)
naphthalene
Oil (unspecified)
decane
kg (reference unit)
Phenol (hydroxy benzene)
phenol
kg (reference unit)
Hydrocarbons (unspecified)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, unspec.)
Toluene (methyl benzene)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
polycyclic aromatic
kg (reference unit)
hydrocarbons
toluene
kg (reference unit)
126
Xylene (isomers; dimethyl benzene)
xylene (all isomers)
kg (reference unit)
Thiocyanates (CNS-)
kg (reference unit)
Other emissions to fresh water
-
Waste water
kg (reference unit)
Particles to fresh water
-
Solids (suspended)
kg (reference unit)
Production residues in life cycle
-
Hazardous waste for disposal
-
Hazardous non organic waste for disposal
-
Pickled hot rolled coil sludge
kg (reference unit)
Tempering sludge
kg (reference unit)
Waste from steel works
kg (reference unit)
Hazardous organic waste for disposal
-
Waste water treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Waste for disposal
-
Non hazardous non organic waste for disposal
-
Tempering Sludge
kg (reference unit)
Waste from steel works
kg (reference unit)
Non hazardous organic waste for disposal
-
Waste water treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Waste for incineration
-
Used oil
kg (reference unit)
Waste for recovery
-
Cold rolling emulsion treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Deoiling agent
kg (reference unit)
Refractories
kg (reference unit)
Steel scrap (external supply)
kg (reference unit)
Steel scrap (Home scrap)
kg (reference unit)
Tempering sludge
kg (reference unit)
Used oil
kg (reference unit)
Waste water treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Resources
-
Material resources
-
Renewable resources
-
Water
-
Water Cooling fresh
kg (reference unit)
Water Cooling sea
kg (reference unit)
Valuable substances
-
Energy carrier
-
Thermal energy
-
Steam (from process stages, in MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Materials
-
Metals
-
Steel finished cold rolled coil
kg (reference unit)
127
Operating materials
-
Emulsion (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
Table 12-26: Steel activity data for Hot-dip Galvanasing process
Hot-dip Galvanising
ILCD flow name
Unit
Input
Flows
-
Production residues in life cycle
-
Waste for recovery
-
Chromium sludge
kg (reference unit)
Deoiling agent
kg (reference unit)
Tempering sludge
kg (reference unit)
Used bath hydrochloric acid
kg (reference unit)
Zinc sludge
kg (reference unit)
Resources
-
Material resources
-
Renewable resources
-
Water
-
Water (fresh water)
Water (fresh water)
kg (reference unit)
Water (sea water)
sea water
kg (reference unit)
Water (softened, deionized)
kg (reference unit)
Water Cooling fresh
Water Cooling fresh
kg (reference unit)
Water Cooling sea
Water Cooling sea
kg (reference unit)
Valuable substances
-
Energy carrier
-
Electric power
-
Electricity
MJ (reference unit)
Fuels
-
Crude oil products
-
Light fuel oil
kg (reference unit)
Liquefied petroleum gas
kg (reference unit)
Natural gas products
-
Natural gas
kg (reference unit)
Other fuels
-
Basic Oxygen Furnace Gas (MJ) (Copy)
MJ (reference unit)
Blast furnace gas (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Coke oven gas (external supply, in MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Coke oven gas (MJ) (Copy)
MJ (reference unit)
Diesel (Internal Transportation)
kg (reference unit)
Liquified Petroleum Gas (Internal Transportation)
kg (reference unit)
Smelting furnace gas (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
128
Mechanical energy
-
Compressed air for process
m³ (reference unit)
Thermal energy
-
Hot water (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Steam (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Materials
-
Intermediate products
-
Inorganic intermediate products
-
Ammonia
kg (reference unit)
Argon
kg (reference unit)
Chromium solution, as H2CrO4
kg (reference unit)
Ferric chloride
kg (reference unit)
Ferrous sulphate (FeSO4)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrochloric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen gaseous
kg (reference unit)
Oxygen gaseous
kg (reference unit)
Silicon
kg (reference unit)
Soda (sodium carbonate)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hydroxide (100%; caustic soda)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hypochlorite
kg (reference unit)
Sulphuric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Synthetic gas (H2, N2, from NH3 cracking)
kg (reference unit)
Organic intermediate products
-
Ethine (acetylene)
kg (reference unit)
Fire retardant
kg (reference unit)
Hardener
kg (reference unit)
Lubricant
kg (reference unit)
Propane
kg (reference unit)
Materials from renewable raw materials
-
Timber (12% moisture; 10.7% H2O content)
kg (reference unit)
Metals
-
Aluminium
kg (reference unit)
Antimony
kg (reference unit)
Lead
kg (reference unit)
Steel cold rolled coil
kg (reference unit)
Steel finished cold rolled coil
kg (reference unit)
Steel hot-dip galvanised coil
kg (reference unit)
Steel strap
kg (reference unit)
Zinc
kg (reference unit)
Minerals
-
Lime quicklime (lumpy)
kg (reference unit)
Operating materials
-
Anticorroding Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
129
Antifoaming Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Antifur Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Deoiling agent
kg (reference unit)
Emulsion (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Surface cleaning agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Surfactants (tensides)
kg (reference unit)
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
Packaging
-
Corrugated board boxes
kg (reference unit)
Plastics
-
Protection foil (PE-LD)
kg (reference unit)
Waste water treatment
-
Aluminum sulfate
kg (reference unit)
anticorroding agent
kg (reference unit)
Antifoaming Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Antifur Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Carbon dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Citric acid (C6H8O7)
kg (reference unit)
Coagulation agent
kg (reference unit)
Compressed air
m³ (reference unit)
Ferric chloride
kg (reference unit)
Flocculating agent
kg (reference unit)
Hydrochloric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
kg (reference unit)
Lime quicklime (lumpy)
kg (reference unit)
Natural gas
kg (reference unit)
Nitric acid
kg (reference unit)
Oxygen gaseous
kg (reference unit)
Phosphoric acid
kg (reference unit)
Polyelectrolyte
kg (reference unit)
Power
MJ (reference unit)
Soda (sodium carbonate)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium bisulphite
kg (reference unit)
Sodium chloride (rock salt)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hydrosulfite (Na2O4S2)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hydroxide (100%; caustic soda)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hypochlorite
kg (reference unit)
Sodium nitrite
kg (reference unit)
Steam
MJ (reference unit)
Sulphuric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Water (fresh water)
kg (reference unit)
Water (sea water)
kg (reference unit)
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
Output
130
Flows
-
Emissions to air
-
Heavy metals to air
-
Arsenic (+V)
arsenic V
kg (reference unit)
Cadmium (+II)
cadmium
kg (reference unit)
Chromium
chromium
kg (reference unit)
Cobalt
cobalt
kg (reference unit)
Copper (+II)
copper
kg (reference unit)
Iron
iron
kg (reference unit)
Lead (+II)
lead
kg (reference unit)
Manganese (+II)
manganese
kg (reference unit)
Mercury (+II)
mercury
kg (reference unit)
Molybdenum
molybdenum
kg (reference unit)
Nickel (+II)
nickel
kg (reference unit)
Selenium
selenium
kg (reference unit)
Tin (+IV)
tin
kg (reference unit)
Titanium
titanium
kg (reference unit)
Vanadium (+III)
vanadium
kg (reference unit)
Zinc (+II)
zinc
kg (reference unit)
Inorganic emissions to air
-
Ammonia
ammonia
kg (reference unit)
Carbon dioxide
carbon dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Carbon monoxide
carbon monoxide
kg (reference unit)
Chlorine
chlorine
kg (reference unit)
Fluorine
fluorine
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen chloride
hydrogen chloride
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen cyanide (prussic acid)
hydrocyanic acid
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen fluoride
hydrogen fluoride
kg (reference unit)
Hydrogen sulphide
hydrogen sulfide
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen oxides
nitrogen dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Nitrous oxide (laughing gas)
nitrous oxide
kg (reference unit)
Phosphoric acid
phosphoric acid
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
kg (reference unit)
Sulphur hexafluoride
sulfur hexafluoride
kg (reference unit)
Sulphuric acid
sulphuric acid
kg (reference unit)
Sulphur oxides (as SO2)
sulfur oxides
kg (reference unit)
Organic emissions to air (group VOC)
-
Group NMVOC to air
-
Group PAH to air
-
Benzo{a}pyrene
benzo[a]pyrene
Naphthalene
naphthalene
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, carcinogenic)
Halogenated organic emissions to air
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
polycyclic aromatic
kg (reference unit)
hydrocarbons
-
131
Dioxins (unspec.)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB unspecified)
NMVOC (unspecified)
Methane
2,3,7,8tetrachlorodibenzop-dioxin
polychlorinated
biphenyls
non-methane
volatile
organic
compounds
methane
Particles to air
Dust (PM2.5)
Dust (PM10)
particles (PM10)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Emissions to fresh water
-
Analytical measures to fresh water
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
particles (PM2.5 kg (reference unit)
PM10)
Dust (unspecified, from stack)
Biological oxygen demand (BOD)
kg (reference unit)
particles (PM2.5)
Dust (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
biological
demand
chemical
demand
oxygen
oxygen
Nitrogenous Matter (Kjeldahl, as N)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogenous Matter (unspecified, as N)
nitrate
kg (reference unit)
Total organic bounded carbon
total organic carbon
kg (reference unit)
Heavy metals to fresh water
-
Arsenic (+V)
arsenic V
kg (reference unit)
Cadmium (+II)
cadmium
kg (reference unit)
Chromium
chromium
kg (reference unit)
Cobalt
cobalt
kg (reference unit)
Copper (+II)
copper
kg (reference unit)
Iron
iron
kg (reference unit)
Lead (+II)
lead
kg (reference unit)
Manganese (+II)
manganese
kg (reference unit)
Mercury (+II)
mercury
kg (reference unit)
Metals to water (unspecified)
nickel
kg (reference unit)
Molybdenum
molybdenum
kg (reference unit)
Nickel (+II)
nickel
kg (reference unit)
Permanganate (MeMnO4)
kg (reference unit)
Selenium
selenium
kg (reference unit)
Tin (+IV)
tin
kg (reference unit)
Titanium
titanium
kg (reference unit)
Vanadium (+III)
vanadium
kg (reference unit)
Zinc (+II)
zinc
kg (reference unit)
Inorganic emissions to fresh water
-
Acid (calculated as H+)
acid (as H+)
kg (reference unit)
Aluminium (+III)
aluminium
kg (reference unit)
Ammonia (NH4+, NH3, as N)
ammonia
kg (reference unit)
132
Barium
barium
kg (reference unit)
Chloride
chloride
kg (reference unit)
Cyanide
cyanide
kg (reference unit)
Fluoride
fluoride
kg (reference unit)
Nitrate
nitrate
kg (reference unit)
Nitrite
nitrite
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen dioxide
nitrogen dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen
nitrate
kg (reference unit)
Phosphorus
phosphorus, total
kg (reference unit)
Sulphate
sulfate
kg (reference unit)
Sulphide
sulfite
kg (reference unit)
Sulphite
sulfide
kg (reference unit)
Organic emissions to fresh water
Carbon, organically bound
total organic carbon
Hydrocarbons to fresh water
kg (reference unit)
-
Benzene
benzene
kg (reference unit)
Hexane (isomers)
Hexane (isomers)
kg (reference unit)
Naphthalene
hydrocarbons
(unspecified)
naphthalene
Oil (unspecified)
decane
kg (reference unit)
Phenol (hydroxy benzene)
phenol
kg (reference unit)
Hydrocarbons (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Toluene (methyl benzene)
polycyclic aromatic
kg (reference unit)
hydrocarbons
toluene
kg (reference unit)
Xylene (isomers; dimethyl benzene)
xylene (all isomers)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, unspec.)
kg (reference unit)
Thiocyanates (CNS-)
kg (reference unit)
Other emissions to fresh water
-
Waste water
kg (reference unit)
Particles to fresh water
Solids (suspended)
particles (> PM10)
kg (reference unit)
Emissions to sea water
-
Analytical measures to sea water
-
Biological oxygen demand (BOD)
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
biological
demand
chemical
demand
oxygen
oxygen
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogenous Matter (Kjeldahl, as N)
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogenous Matter (unspecified, as N)
kg (reference unit)
Solids (dissolved)
sodium
kg (reference unit)
Total organic bounded carbon
total organic carbon
kg (reference unit)
Heavy metals to sea water
-
Arsenic (+V)
arsenic V
kg (reference unit)
Cadmium (+II)
cadmium
kg (reference unit)
Chromium
chromium
kg (reference unit)
Cobalt
cobalt
kg (reference unit)
133
Copper
copper
kg (reference unit)
Iron
iron
kg (reference unit)
Lead
lead
kg (reference unit)
Manganese
manganese
kg (reference unit)
Mercury
mercury
kg (reference unit)
Molybdenum
molybdenum
kg (reference unit)
Nickel
nickel
kg (reference unit)
Selenium
selenium
kg (reference unit)
Vanadium
vanadium
kg (reference unit)
Zinc
zinc
kg (reference unit)
Inorganic emissions to sea water
-
Acid (calculated as H+)
acid (as H+)
kg (reference unit)
Ammonia (NH4+, NH3, as N)
ammonia
kg (reference unit)
Barium
barium
kg (reference unit)
Chloride
choride
kg (reference unit)
Cyanide
cyanide
kg (reference unit)
Fluoride
fluoride
kg (reference unit)
Nitrate
nitrate
kg (reference unit)
Nitrite
nitrite
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen dioxide
nitrogen dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen
nitrate
kg (reference unit)
Phosphates (as P)
kg (reference unit)
Phosphorus
kg (reference unit)
Sulphate
sulphate
kg (reference unit)
Sulphide
sulphide
kg (reference unit)
Sulphite
sulphite
kg (reference unit)
Organic emissions to sea water
-
Hydrocarbons to sea water
-
Benzene
benzene
Oil (unspecified)
hydrocarbons
(unspecified)
decane
Phenol (hydroxy benzene)
phenol
Hydrocarbons (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
Xylene (isomers; dimethyl benzene)
kg (reference unit)
polycyclic aromatic
kg (reference unit)
hydrocarbons
toluene
kg (reference unit)
xylene (all isomers) kg (reference unit)
Naphthalene
naphthalene
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, unspec.)
Toluene (methyl benzene)
Other emissions to sea water
Waste water
sea water
Particles to sea water
Solids (suspended)
kg (reference unit)
kg (reference unit)
-
particles (> PM10)
kg (reference unit)
Production residues in life cycle
-
Hazardous waste for disposal
-
Hazardous non organic waste for disposal
-
134
Chromium Solution
kg (reference unit)
Pickled hot rolled coil sludge
kg (reference unit)
Waste from steel works
kg (reference unit)
Zinc Sludge
kg (reference unit)
Hazardous organic waste for disposal
-
Waste water treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Waste for disposal
-
Municipal waste
kg (reference unit)
Non hazardous non organic waste for disposal
-
Waste from steel works
kg (reference unit)
Non hazardous organic waste for disposal
-
Waste water treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Waste for incineration
-
Timber (12% moisture / 10.7% H2O)
kg (reference unit)
Used oil
kg (reference unit)
Waste for recovery
-
Aluminum
kg (reference unit)
Chromium solution
kg (reference unit)
Corrugated board boxes
kg (reference unit)
Deoiling agent
kg (reference unit)
Emulsion (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Steel scrap (external supply)
kg (reference unit)
Steel scrap (Home scrap)
kg (reference unit)
Tempering sludge
kg (reference unit)
Used bath hydrochloric acid
kg (reference unit)
Used oil
kg (reference unit)
Waste incineration of plastics (unspecified) fraction in municipal solid waste
(MSW)
kg (reference unit)
Waste water treatment sludge
kg (reference unit)
Wood
kg (reference unit)
Zinc (dross)
kg (reference unit)
Zinc dust
kg (reference unit)
Zinc sludge
kg (reference unit)
Resources
-
Material resources
-
Renewable resources
-
Water
-
Water Cooling fresh
kg (reference unit)
Water Cooling sea
kg (reference unit)
Valuable substances
-
Energy carrier
-
Thermal energy
-
Steam (from process stages, in MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Materials
-
135
Metals
-
Steel hot-dip galvanised coil
kg (reference unit)
Operating materials
-
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
Table 12-27: Steel activity data for Boiler process
Boiler
ILCD flow names
Unit
Input
Flows
-
Production residues in life cycle
-
Waste for recovery
-
Used oil
kg (reference unit)
Resources
-
Material resources
-
Renewable resources
-
Water
-
Water (fresh water)
Water (fresh water)
kg (reference unit)
Water (river water)
river water
kg (reference unit)
Water (sea water)
sea water
kg (reference unit)
Water (softened, deionized)
Water Cooling fresh
kg (reference unit)
Water Cooling fresh kg (reference unit)
Water Cooling sea
Water Cooling sea
kg (reference unit)
Valuable substances
-
Energy carrier
-
Electric power
-
Electricity
MJ (reference unit)
Fuels
-
Crude oil products
-
Diesel High Sulphur
kg (reference unit)
Diesel Low Sulphur
kg (reference unit)
Heavy fuel oil
kg (reference unit)
Light fuel oil
kg (reference unit)
Liquefied petroleum gas
kg (reference unit)
Hard coal products
-
Coal
kg (reference unit)
Natural gas products
-
Natural gas
kg (reference unit)
Other fuels
-
Basic Oxygen Furnace Gas (MJ) (Copy)
MJ (reference unit)
Blast furnace gas (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Coke oven gas (MJ) (Copy)
MJ (reference unit)
Off gas from alternative iron making (used as fuel, MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
136
Smelting furnace gas (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Mechanical energy
-
Compressed air for process
m³ (reference unit)
Thermal energy
-
Steam (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Materials
-
Intermediate products
-
Inorganic intermediate products
-
Ferric chloride
kg (reference unit)
Hydrochloric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen gaseous
kg (reference unit)
Potassium hydroxide (potash)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium chloride (rock salt)
kg (reference unit)
Sodium hydroxide (100%; caustic soda)
kg (reference unit)
Sulphuric acid (100%)
kg (reference unit)
Organic intermediate products
-
Lubricant
kg (reference unit)
Propane
kg (reference unit)
Tar
kg (reference unit)
Minerals
-
Lime quicklime (lumpy)
kg (reference unit)
Operating materials
-
Anticorroding Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Antifoaming Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Antifur Agent (unspecified)
kg (reference unit)
Coagulation agent
kg (reference unit)
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
Waste water treatment
-
Water for industrial use
kg (reference unit)
Output
Flows
-
Emissions to air
-
Heavy metals to air
Vanadium (+III)
vanadium
Inorganic emissions to air
kg (reference unit)
-
Carbon dioxide
carbon dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Carbon monoxide
carbon monoxide
kg (reference unit)
Nitrogen oxides
nitrogen dioxide
kg (reference unit)
Nitrous oxide (laughing gas)
nitrous oxide
kg (reference unit)
Sulphur oxides (as SO2)
sulfur oxides
kg (reference unit)
Organic emissions to air (group VOC)
-
Group NMVOC to air
-
137
NMVOC (unspecified)
Methane
non-methane
volatile
organic kg (reference unit)
compounds
methane
kg (reference unit)
Particles to air
-
Dust (PM2.5)
particles (PM2.5)
kg (reference unit)
Dust (PM10)
particles (PM10)
kg (reference unit)
Dust (unspecified)
Dust (unspecified, from stack)
particles (PM2.5 kg (reference unit)
PM10)
kg (reference unit)
Emissions to fresh water
-
Analytical measures to fresh water
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
chemical
demand
oxygen
Heavy metals to fresh water
kg (reference unit)
-
Cadmium (+II)
cadmium
kg (reference unit)
Chromium
chromium
kg (reference unit)
Lead (+II)
lead
kg (reference unit)
Nickel (+II)
nickel
kg (reference unit)
Zinc (+II)
zinc
kg (reference unit)
Inorganic emissions to fresh water
-
Ammonia (NH4+, NH3, as N)
ammonia
kg (reference unit)
Phosphorus
phosphorus, total
kg (reference unit)
Other emissions to fresh water
-
Waste water
kg (reference unit)
Particles to fresh water
Solids (suspended)
particles (> PM10)
kg (reference unit)
Production residues in life cycle
-
Waste for recovery
-
Tar
kg (reference unit)
Resources
-
Material resources
-
Renewable resources
-
Water
-
Water Cooling fresh
kg (reference unit)
Water Cooling sea
kg (reference unit)
Valuable substances
-
Energy carrier
-
Electric power
-
Electricity
MJ (reference unit)
Thermal energy
-
Hot water (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
Steam (MJ)
MJ (reference unit)
138
For primary data collection beyond the processes discussed and listed above (e.g. upstream
processes), the user of this PEFCR should follow the same principles and rules that apply for the core
processes (see chapter 5.3).
Due to the multiple environmental aspects, technical complexity and sector specific characteristics it
is recommended to contact relevant environmental and LCA-expertised persons with the respective
sector knowledge.
For example:

European Copper Institute (ECI), Copper Alliance: The environmental profile of copper
products, 2012
 European Aluminium Association (EAA): Environmental profile Report for the Aluminium
industry, April 2013
 European Lead Sheet Industry Association (ELSIA): Life Cycle Assessment Report of Lead Sheet,
May 2014
 Methodology Report: Life Cycle Inventory for steel products, World Steel Association, March
2011
 International Lead Zinc Research Organisation (ILZRO): Life Cycle Inventory – LCI of Primary
and Secondary Lead production, February 2011
These resources also include high quality industry average datasets, in case the user decides to rely
on datasets that are most up-to-date, accurate and representative of the current market situation.
Further information can be found under 12.12.1 below.
139
12.12
ANNEX XII – BACKGROUND DATA
[PEF Guide 2013/179/EU, section 5.8]:”Generic data refers to data that are not based on direct
measurements or calculation of the respective processes in the system. Generic data can be either
sector-specific, i.e. specific to the sector being considered for the PEF study, or multi- sector. Examples
of generic data include:
-
Data from literature or scientific papers;
Industry-average life-cycle data from life-cycle-inventory databases, industry association
reports, government statistics etc.”
In the course of the PEF development it is specifically defined in [PEF pilot Guidance V5.2, section 3.9]:
“For all final PEFCRs developed during the EF pilot phase secondary data shall be those provided for
free by the Commission or created by the Technical Secretariat and provided in the PEFCR. In case a
secondary dataset is not available among those provided by the Commission, then they shall be
provided in one of the following form (in hierarchical order):
1. To use one of the PEF-compliant datasets freely available in a Life Cycle Data Network node
and considered being a good proxy for the missing one
2. To use another dataset coming from a free or commercial source. This dataset shall have a recalculated DQR not higher than required in the DNM.
Any deviation from the hierarchy above shall be duly justified in the final PEFCR. Any other source of
secondary data shall not be used in the final PEFCR.”
The following tables provide the list of datasets to be used for the activity data of the core processes
to be used in case of data acquisition.
140
Table 12-28: datasets to be used for activity data of copper processes
Material/
Process
Year
Geographic
al reference
Dataset name
Primary source
Primary cathode
PE/ICA/ECI
Secondary cathode
PE/ICA/ECI
Clean scrap
PE/ICA/ECI
Thermal energy from natural gas
PE
2011
EU-27
Electricity grid mix
PE
2011
EU-27
Natural gas mix
PE
2010
EU-27
Charcoal production
PE
2013
BR
Tap water
PE
2013
EU-27
Process water
PE
2013
EU-27
Lubricant (aqueous emulsion of fatty substances)
PE
2013
DE
Lime (CaO; quicklime lumpy)
PE
2013
DE
Nitrogen
PE
2012
EU-27
Oxygen
PE
2013
EU-27
PE
2011
GLO
2012/
2005
2012/
2005
2012/
2005
EU-27
EU-27
EU-27
GUID
{2B8627D2-C668-46B5-8320A352024CA25D}
{41AB5B10-00F6-4976-A289496C0F0E7922}
{07C81FBB-E7D5-481A-913E4CD64CB8A0DB}
DQR
(GaBi)
DQR criteria
1.5
1.5
1.5
Energy
{CFE8972E-6B51-4A17-B499D78477FA4294}
{001B3CB7-B868-4061-8A913E6D7BCC90C6}
{C6387E19-933F-4726-A7AD7A8050AA418C}
{C871CEFF-D2DD-47FE-B13CD528C3A3D84E}
1.8
1.8
1.8
Water
{DB009013-338F-11DD-BD110800200C9A66}
{DB009016-338F-11DD-BD110800200C9A66}
1.7
1.7
Auxiliary materials
{0C1AC2DA-2D9C-4C4A-B88BACD5872C05A9}
{0C1AC2DA-2D9C-4C4A-B88BACD5872C05A9}
{4A259AEC-C66F-4375-AA9E5B8C745ADDC0}
{DE25DD0E-0072-4E8D-AF0DDF6B17C05E1E}
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
Internal Logistic & Transport
Diesel mix at refinery
{244524ed-7b85-4548-b345f58dc5cf9dac}
1.8
Capital goods
141
Infrastructure
Aluminium sheet mix
PE
2012
DE
Brass (CuZn20)
PE
2013
EU-27
Concrete C20/25
PE
2013
DE
Float flat glass
PE
2013
EU-27
Copper Sheet Mix
DKI/ECI
2012
EU-27
Epoxy Resin (EP) Mix
PE
2012
DE
Glass fibres
PE
2013
DE
Lead
PE
2013
DE
Lubricants at refinery
PE
2011
DE
Solid construction timber (softwood) (EN15804
A1-A3)
PE
2013
DE
Polyethylene Cross-Linked (PEXa)
PE
2013
DE
Polypropylene GMT part
PE
2013
DE
Cast iron component (EN15804 A1-A3)
PE
2013
DE
Polyvinylchloride granulate (Suspension, S-PVC)
PE
2012
BE
Stone mastic asphalt SMA (EN15804 A1-A3)
PE
2013
DE
Steel cold rolled coil
PE
2013
DE
Polystyrene granulate (PS)
PE
2013
DE
Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) Mix
PE
2013
DE
Zinc redistilled mix
PE
2013
DE
Stainless Steel slab (X6CrNi17)
PE
2013
DE
{DFD81AC6-600B-4867-B59AC27AA33C5763}
{AC2760C3-78B6-479C-8ADFFD933AEF33F1}
{8C7EA01A-6B4F-45C5-8EA7ED2F9D54CC51}
{641CA70F-FCA3-4F27-BAC0B8AD236EFAFF}
{D4587458-3DD0-4C6E-A1F873D440813310}
{50125A08-978E-4156-BCC02D13EC3B49C7}
{EE377281-8D03-4DBE-90BFFA51F61556A2}
{FD9DB253-4998-11DD-AE160800200C9A66}
{5CB700AC-6476-4CE3-A0CE8486AAEC945B}
{5934211E-A447-4A61-90ED86803BC879C3}
{0CB4A09E-0614-4754-8773C9EFA124C04E}
{1B830C14-5D47-48C0-9A954BE1D4E6C632}
{54041876-2BAE-4229-8AD14AAE5E8B91A9}
{BC010A86-AD91-4FAC-98FA4AB00CF5ADB4}
{379A5A8D-0AF6-4626-ADA5AB9D156BD4B6}
{E4DECB5D-6711-42AA-86E903204B518AC3}
{077F6DEA-B740-4604-AFEC84120C4655AB}
{9B317E5C-A721-4912-BB2806BD6B6FBE9F}
{19720938-1090-44EE-AD576D2BE1320D67}
{DB14C527-8AB6-4F5C-B21CD5C789E94D82}
1.8
1.8
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.8
2.2
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.5
1.5
1.8
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
142
Table 12-29: datasets to be used for activity data of aluminium core processes (case 1: Rolling and remelting, case 2: only rolling)
Material/
Process
Dataset name
Case
Primary
source
Year
Geograp.
reference
Thermal energy from natural gas
1&2
PE
2011
EU-27
Thermal energy from light fuel oil (LFO)
1&2
PE
2011
EU-27
Electricity grid mix
1&2
PE
2011
EU-27
Thermal energy (natural gas) to Propane
1&2
PE
2010
EU-27
Thermal energy from heavy fuel oil (HFO)
1
PE
2011
EU-27
Process water
1&2
PE
2013
EU-27
Lubricant (aqueous emulsion of fatty substances)
1&2
PE
2013
DE
Argon (gaseous)
1
PE
2013
DE
Chlorine mix
1
PE
2012
DE
Lime (CaO; quicklime lumpy)
1
PE
2013
DE
Nitrogen
1
PE
2013
EU-27
Sodium chloride (rock salt)
1
PE
2012
EU-27
EAA aluminium clean scrap remelting datasets
2
EAA/PE
2010
EU-27
Manganese
1
PE
2015
ZA
GUID
DQR
(GaBi)
DQR criteria
Aluminium
Energy
{CFE8972E-6B51-4A17B499-D78477FA4294}
{261369F8-8AD9-4CAC81BC-4F308F2D80BE}
{001B3CB7-B868-40618A91-3E6D7BCC90C6}
{DA9376F1-F043-44FDAC37-3C1AD26A60B8}
{69AA7B8E-842A-41EEB0BD-DBE368E16F9F}
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
Water
{DB009015-338F-11DDBD11-0800200C9A66}
1,7
Auxiliary materials & processes
{0C1AC2DA-2D9C-4C4AB88B-ACD5872C05A9}
{0DA1788B-4E73-47E1A484-2167AF7839F0}
{50ACDFF1-D4CC-4FD2AA80-D5BFDA4F32A7}
{0C1AC2DA-2D9C-4C4AB88B-ACD5872C05A9}
{4A259AEC-C66F-4375AA9E-5B8C745ADDC0}
{AEC293F4-A509-44229929-B8612C0F0188}
{a23e6cc7-4bff-4d17-8ce164f58922ca4e}
1,8
1,7
1,5
1,8
1,8
1,5
143
Magnesium
1
PE
2015
CN
Silicon Mix (99%)
1
PE
2015
GLO
1&2
PE
2013
EU-27
1&2
PE
2013
EU-27
2005
RER
2010
RER
{47cff7c4-6816-4093-a8e46a690bde0613}
{b356811f-fba4-4faf-9a325bfc950b8beb}
1,5
1,8
Waste treatment
Commercial waste in municipal waste incinerator
Landfill for inert matter (Unspecific construction
waste)
Salt slag recycling (scrap rotary) EUROPEAN
ALUMINIUM 2005
1
EUROPEAN
ALUMINIUM
EUROPEAN
ALUMINIUM
RER: dross recycling EAA update 2010
1
Wooden pallets (EURO, 40% moisture)
1&2
PE
2012
EU-27
Polyethylene Film (PE-HD) without additives
1&2
PE
2013
DE
Steel sheet HDG
1&2
PE
2012
DE
Corrugated board (average composition) XX-02
1&2
FEFCO
2012
RER
{90D0DF95-53B8-40FEA695-3ED01F53CE47}
{68B5B6E9-290B-47C7A1FA-465588D81906}
1,8
1,7
Packaging
{79BDEEF3-BCF4-4E52B4B0-8B5375961C5E}
{19EE9FE9-8C8F-4FF1BBBD-715466EBA346}
1,8
1,7
{89BF11C5-EB26-11E09572-0800200C9A66}
Table 12-30: datasets to be used for activity data of lead processes Smelting & Refining
Material/
Process
Dataset name
Primary
source
Year
Geograp.
reference
Aluminium ingot mix
PE
2013
DE
Coke mix
PE
2011
DE
Copper
PE
2013
SE
Copper mix (99,999% from electrolysis)
PE
2013
GLO
GUID
DQR
(GaBi)
DQR criteria
Raw
Materials
{01D9DFDD-DFBC-4BDEB7BA-6233AE10A31A}
{0AF25D7C-55B0-4EE0B9EA-9B5822A91444}
{D3C290CE-C977-44C7ADFD-FDB03912E697}
{301D375B-4F27-43F2BBE0-89F87CAE0DF1}
1,8
1,8
1,5
1,8
144
Silver mix
PE
2013
GLO
Tin
PE
2013
GLO
Zinc
PE
2011
SE
Electricity grid mix
PE
2011
AT
Electricity grid mix
PE
2011
SE
Electricity grid mix
PE
2011
DE
Electricity grid mix
PE
2011
BE
Electricity grid mix
PE
2011
CZ
Electricity grid mix
PE
2011
GB
Natural gas mix
PE
2011
SE
Natural gas mix
PE
2011
DE
Natural gas mix
PE
2011
EU-27
Natural gas mix
PE
2011
GB
Thermal energy from heavy fuel oil (HFO)
PE
2011
EU-27
Thermal energy from natural gas
PE
2011
EU-27
Thermal energy from natural gas
PE
2011
BE
Ammonium chloride (Salmiac, Solvay-process)
PE
2013
DE
Antimony (from antimony tri oxide)
PE
2006
ZA
Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2; dry; slaked lime)
PE
2012
DE
{521F27F6-95CF-4A87AE24-3D60124EBC20}
{CD01E11A-8582-4E679A3C-F49192DCF753}
{12011431-23E0-4C748021-E2402CC46BDD}
2,2
2,2
Energy
{F8A2668D-9B8C-4759B736-1B848A211902}
{0982D3BC-3459-44F882D4-C0B90B3BCAFC}
{48AB6F40-203B-48958742-9BDBEF55E494}
{383A1240-40C5-483ABFAE-1DBE2CD63F92}
{B255D9FC-82EA-4F5CACF2-30E13DF2C86A}
{00043BD2-4563-4D738DF8-B84B5D8902FC}
{ADEEBEF2-B0B7-439CA129-2DF1FE128C4D}
{297D0F72-A589-4624A088-B33E12ECCA15}
{C6387E19-933F-4726A7AD-7A8050AA418C}
{D67B8058-F299-40C1A985-6C6F3F8B2646}
{69AA7B8E-842A-41EEB0BD-DBE368E16F9F}
{CFE8972E-6B51-4A17B499-D78477FA4294}
{64FEF8F5-3B34-4B589BD7-24871156AFE2}
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
Auxiliary
materials
{B822F8A5-51A1-4139A873-88682788FADD}
{965D4A92-F893-4F3B9BC6-59896813B873}
{63FBBB79-50AA-4E3FA2CC-29AC76F51182}
1,8
1,8
145
{898618B7-3306-11DDBD11-0800200C9A66}
{4F6D4794-46C7-4200AB99-E63C6C1EF8F7}
{33243685-F975-462D9F01-BE2865C3B10A}
{0C1AC2DA-2D9C-4C4AB88B-ACD5872C05A9}
{7489BE48-7C9D-45CA9964-719A5EB64847}
{A6334129-F3D4-46ECA4F3-41D2B549C92D}
{CEC773B5-653E-409081F0-B35734FFA3DD}
{0F793E81-307E-4627ADAD-8992ADAE9E7B}
{2F4DB8B8-8B1E-4AE6869E-6714BBBEF4C1}
{4BF3CD06-F2D0-43438F0E-BF77050E4D19}
{C600F04F-E6B4-4354B79A-F29B6444E75B}
{615F6504-AF48-436DA345-8FE47693B403}
Calcium silicate
PE
2013
EU-27
Caustic soda mix
PE
2012
BE
Iron (II) sulphate
PE
2012
DE
Lime (CaO; quicklime lumpy)
PE
2013
DE
Limestone hydrate (Ca(OH)2) (Version 2006)
PE
2000
DE
Oxygen
PE
2012
DE
Oxygen
PE
2013
NO
Oxygen
PE
2013
BE
Oxygen
PE
2013
GB
Petrol coke at refinery
PE
2011
BR
Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
PE
2012
DE
Soda (Na2CO3)
PE
2013
DE
Sodium hydroxide (100%; caustic soda)
PE
1996
(calc.
2005)
ELCD/
{F7BA74A4-E81C-4084PlasticsEurope 97C9-B9DD5456446C}
Sodium hydroxide (from chlorine-alkali electrolysis, diaphragm)
PE
2012
DE
Sodium nitrate
PE
2012
DE
Sulphur (elemental) at refinery
PE
2011
NL
Sulphur (elemental) at refinery
PE
2011
EU-27
Sulphur (elemental) at refinery
PE
2011
GB
Value of scrap
worldsteel
2007
GLO
{6C6AD0BC-D2D1-4740A1B8-249630D1B6A3}
{3469924F-74EA-4643842C-35FA9B3408DD}
{AADF3D33-FE5D-4D348E2B-BBB90D56ECDC}
{EC450CE7-4598-4CA59AB3-452FF1C750A4}
{00E04DC2-4468-46C8BDC4-5B1920B28D6D}
{B33A6B69-A161-451A8881-459894841187}
2,0
1,5
1,5
1,8
1,7
1,7
1,7
1,7
1,8
1,7
1,5
1,5
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
146
Table 12-31: datasets to be used for activity data of lead processes Rolling
Material/
Process
Dataset name
Primary
source
Year
Geograp.
reference
Tin
PE
2013
GLO
Copper mix (99,999% from electrolysis)
PE
2013
GLO
Secondary lead mix
PE/ILZRO
2012/2008/09 EU-27
Waste water treatment (contains organic load)
PE
2010
EU-27
Electricity grid mix
PE
2011
DE
Electricity grid mix
PE
2011
GB
Electricity grid mix
PE
2011
ES
Electricity grid mix
PE
2011
NL
Electricity grid mix
PE
2011
FR
Diesel fuel supplied and combusted in diesel generator (direct)
PE
2011
EU-27
Thermal energy from natural gas
PE
2011
EU-27
Thermal energy from LPG
PE
2011
EU-27
Thermal energy from propane
PE
2011
US
GUID
DQR
(GaBi)
DQR
criteria
Raw Material
{CD01E11A-8582-4E679A3C-F49192DCF753}
{301D375B-4F27-43F2BBE0-89F87CAE0DF1}
{148C58A8-D69B-488D9FC7-39074050ADA5}
2,2
1,8
1,5
Waste
{DB009020-338F-11DDBD11-0800200C9A66}
1,8
Energy
{48AB6F40-203B-4895-87429BDBEF55E494}
{00043BD2-4563-4D738DF8-B84B5D8902FC}
{F0A6C237-873E-474EA9CB-BCFF8A6B3FE2}
{BA65B4F5-B979-460981FF-D0E16D8D2E59}
{C8D7F695-1C5B-4F9A8491-8C58C20C190F}
{EAC3260E-3C60-4FC09F1C-21CB1FE491D2}
{CFE8972E-6B51-4A17B499-D78477FA4294}
{9CF765FA-2226-421BA013-1869B9081D70}
{9AF2AF7F-E514-4E25B398-C7AB380493FE}
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,7
1,8
1,8
1,8
Auxiliary materials
147
Process water
PE
2013
RER
Lubricants at refinery
PE
2011
EU-27
Oxygen
PE
2013
EU-27
Caustic soda mix
PE
2012
DE
Sodium nitrate
PE
2012
DE
Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2; dry; slaked lime)
PE
2012
DE
Lime (CaO; quicklime lumpy)
PE
2013
DE
Wooden pallets (EURO, 40% moisture)
PE
2012
EU-27
Polyethylene Film (PE-HD) without additives
PE
2013
DE
Expanded polypropylene foam packing (EPP; estimation)
PE
2012
EU-27
{DB009015-338F-11DDBD11-0800200C9A66}
{BDFAC21C-7415-46AFACBC-8916CB95B9B8}
{DE25DD0E-0072-4E8DAF0D-DF6B17C05E1E}
{B8D4609E-05BD-4398973A-12FA3865E373}
{3469924F-74EA-4643-842C35FA9B3408DD}
{63FBBB79-50AA-4E3FA2CC-29AC76F51182}
{0C1AC2DA-2D9C-4C4AB88B-ACD5872C05A9}
1,7
1,8
1,8
1,5
1,8
1,8
1,8
Packaging
{79BDEEF3-BCF4-4E52B4B0-8B5375961C5E}
{19EE9FE9-8C8F-4FF1BBBD-715466EBA346}
{FA67E5A9-8C2F-436DB9FC-A08D3B4A71B6}
1,8
1,7
1,7
Table 12-32: datasets to be used for activity data of steel processes
Material/
Process
Dataset name
Primary
source
Nickel mix
GaBi
2013 GLO
Ammonia mix (NH3)
GaBi
2012 EU-27
Coking coal mix
GaBi
2011 GLO
Dolomite calcination
GaBi
2012 EU-27
Hydrochloric acid mix (100%)
GaBi
2012 DE
Magnesium
GaBi
2013 CN
Year
Geograp.
reference
GUID
{87B2BB39-FF19-427EA6A2-68A870FCECBC}
{7963A3C7-823F-47A7-A761CD04A4FECC40}
{29088CF6-37FF-423F-8A09313B3DC023B3}
{A0E53327-8FA7-4A12AE98-BAF4B5E3A74C}
{B80355FF-D10C-42BBA0AF-49DEA028C527}
{47CFF7C4-6816-4093A8E4-6A690BDE0613}
DQR
(GaBi)
DQR criteria
1,8
1,7
1,8
1,5
1,5
1,5
148
Propane at refinery
GaBi
2011 EU-27
Argon [Inorganic intermediate products]
GaBi
2013 DE
Copper mix (99,999% from electrolysis)
GaBi
2013 GLO
Iron Ore 2008
worldsteel
Aluminium ingot mix
GaBi
2013 EU-27
Bauxite
GaBi
2013 EU-27
Diesel mix at refinery
GaBi
2011 EU-27
Dolomite mining
GaBi
2012 DE
Electricity grid mix
GaBi
2011 GB
Ferro manganese
GaBi
2013 ZA
Ferro silicon mix
GaBi
2013 GLO
Hard coal mix
GaBi
2011 GB
Heavy fuel oil at refinery (1.0wt.% S)
GaBi
2011 EU-27
Light fuel oil at refinery
GaBi
2011 EU-27
Lime (CaO; quicklime lumpy)
GaBi
2013 DE
Limestone (CaCO3; washed)
GaBi
2012 DE
Lubricants at refinery
GaBi
2011 EU-27
Natural gas mix
GaBi
2011 GB
Silica sand (flour)
GaBi
2013 DE
Sulphur (elemental) at refinery
GaBi
2011 EU-27
{F8389945-6532-4128-A98BB0FB3F461ECA}
{0DA1788B-4E73-47E1A484-2167AF7839F0}
{301D375B-4F27-43F2BBE0-89F87CAE0DF1}
{964BB2CA-99EA-47B0A0ED-ADA91C661BE3}
{DD93261C-D6DA-44ECA842-78B4A42C2884}
{9284544B-5DC6-453FBFEA-27472D7CC830}
{244524ED-7B85-4548-B345F58DC5CF9DAC}
{6EA9BA93-A353-4CACBE9B-AD300095888F}
{00043BD2-4563-4D738DF8-B84B5D8902FC}
{48B45900-1A16-4CC091F7-ECC739BC3CE9}
{D6FA768A-7C27-497493CD-69F4E2E3120B}
{27C4CA8F-245E-4BE5A74B-2E8FA4FBD0F1}
{50462B0D-7D2B-40D4843E-9857061E3C08}
{909C9A65-3B16-4923-9C91FE585CA9D194}
{0C1AC2DA-2D9C-4C4AB88B-ACD5872C05A9}
{F5DCD4D0-6EE3-424CA82B-ADDF92BBD66D}
{BDFAC21C-7415-46AFACBC-8916CB95B9B8}
{D67B8058-F299-40C1A985-6C6F3F8B2646}
{D5205A28-5D8E-4D159301-1E6833465043}
{EC450CE7-4598-4CA59AB3-452FF1C750A4}
1,8
1,7
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
149
Ferro-Vanadium
GaBi
2012 ZA
Manganese
GaBi
2013 ZA
Silica sand (Excavation and processing)
GaBi
2013 DE
BOF route, 1kg slab, weighted average, EU (inverse)
worldsteel
EAF route, 1kg slab, weighted ave (EU & EU Scrap)
worldsteel
1kg global HRC for steel strap
worldsteel
BOF route, 1kg pellet, weighted average (pellet upstream)
worldsteel
BOF route, 1kg sinter, weighted average (sinter/pellet fines)
worldsteel
BOF route, 1kg slab, weighted average, global (inverse)
worldsteel
Coke 1kg weighted average, upstream Global 2009
worldsteel
DRI, 1kg (for external), 2009
worldsteel
EAF route, 1kg Slab, weighted ave, Global scrap
worldsteel
Electrode mix
GaBi
Ferro Chromium (ICDA world average)
GaBi
Hydrogen
GaBi
Insulation brick (high in alumina)
GaBi
Nitrogen
GaBi
Oxygen
GaBi
Power grid mix (Version 2006)
GaBi
Sodium hypochlorite solution
GaBi
2013 EU-27
2013 EU-27
2012 DE
{C720D386-55C6-4AB8B613-ADC084FEFA40}
{A23E6CC7-4BFF-4D178CE1-64F58922CA4E}
{4CB83C4D-5A3E-460D9969-9C42AD57C1FE}
{69D8C9D0-8063-4F26961E-B1FFF0143A61}
{8E1E5A30-A791-48F2A26A-633966CB03DF}
{34576442-7C47-4B1ABE1D-CC52B1F70AF4}
{1A1AB678-41A3-4B4D861A-F4003E1EB7F9}
{FDCE4570-1735-40F19EC7-88020A7F3EF8}
{9531D761-CCC6-42B1AB0E-99F9AB9CB12C}
{868D46E3-7E87-4555-9A13B2E2B481C942}
{1E32A337-D6E5-4E5F81EB-F3E234D292A3}
{3FC79687-075D-44E6953C-E9E8457F8DD6}
{980DC7BA-7B67-49D89511-CEEBE238CECB}
{D096C521-5CE4-48E8BBF0-9BA84E9AB494}
{C5939440-AAA9-47ADA415-BB07130ADA34}
{8E28B660-6BD5-4D3FA138-984FE2AB6E54}
{4A259AEC-C66F-4375AA9E-5B8C745ADDC0}
{9A34828C-B16A-449EB61A-F64A5553853D}
{FFE526F1-6FA2-49DC91C0-DD2BA5BB2D0B}
{C12C6566-82D3-42ECAF58-136D97E4043D}
1,7
1,5
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,5
150
Titanium dioxide pigment
GaBi
2012 EU-27
Transport
GaBi
Zinc mix
GaBi
Bulk commodity carrier/10000 to 200000 dwt/high se (Scope 3)
?
Bulk commodity carrier/1500 to 20000 dwt /coast (Scope 3)
?
Rail transport-Diesel (Scope 3)
?
Rail transport-Electric (Scope 3)
?
River freight ship/4400t payload/downstream (Scope 3)
?
River freight ship/4400t payload/upstream (Scope 3)
?
Small transporter/3.5t total cap./2t payload/local (Scope 3)
?
Tanker/10000 to 300000 dwt/high sea (Scope 3)
?
Truck/16t total cap./10.3t payload/local (Scope 3)
?
Truck-trailer/38t total cap./26t payload/local (Scope 3)
?
Truck-trailer/38t total cap./26t payload/long dist (Scope 3)
?
Thermal energy from natural gas
GaBi
2011 GB
Gravel (Grain size 2/32) (EN15804 A1-A3)
GaBi
2013 DE
Cement (CEM I 32.5) (EN15804 A1-A3)
GaBi
2013 DE
Cement (CEM I 42.5) (EN15804 A1-A3)
GaBi
2013 DE
Cement (CEM I 52.5) (EN15804 A1-A3)
GaBi
2013 DE
Cement (CEM III 32.5) (EN15804 A1-A3)
GaBi
2013 DE
2012 GLO
{F6AD0631-33EA-42F5971D-6DC43EFA2248}
{C23F0BA4-A375-441CB2A4-DF65BB428825}
{7DA4F1AD-4E3D-49E28A93-CCF349F45D57}
{E491361C-5BE7-488C85A2-D499091D7410}
{54B7B09B-C520-4BE78B9F-D01B430DEB07}
{DF4DEC24-A70C-44D0B953-854269D64B03}
{2DC8C8FB-340A-408780E7-D57160593A90}
{D3216177-3D95-4A4E9BF1-B381A0213645}
{FB83255A-F029-4630-9F15948A0CFDAC8F}
{7230C6D6-368E-48F68DDF-4963F3AE8F47}
{8BCE2F19-2D92-42CD96FF-4B89C17FD1C9}
{9EC53DB9-7E30-44A894B1-BC39A1DB6785}
{8926DBBE-9E1B-4C1C95E3-D233D481361A}
{C5F991E8-B462-4F589E36-C883E08D95B4}
{9006A870-750C-49B1-90B1BC48372B88CA}
{5571FBD8-FA36-4576BA6A-E332E250433B}
{B1DF41C3-D646-4CB2B4E5-45C55E822727}
{C41A795D-8006-4F3A8131-B18DA81C0418}
{6EB8DA16-5AE2-41C08A05-8F3E60BCAB3E}
{9BFD948B-2BE7-4C76AE64-67B2DA30B15C}
1,8
1,5
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
151
Fertilizer
credit
Lime (CaO; quicklime lumpy)
GaBi
Benzene mix
GaBi
Iron Ore 2008
?
Tar Credit
Used Oil
Credit
Bitumen at refinery
GaBi
2011 EU-27
Thermal energy from light fuel oil (LFO)
GaBi
2011 EU-27
Zinc Credit
Ammonium
Sulphate
Credit
Sulphuric
Acid Credit
Used oil
Credit
Zinc mix
GaBi
2012 GLO
Ammonium sulphate mix (by-product)
GaBi
2013 DE
Sulphuric acid (96%)
GaBi
2012 EU-27
Thermal energy from light fuel oil (LFO)
GaBi
2011 EU-27
(C) Coke Making (new)
worldsteel
CO Gas Flaring Master Process (new)
worldsteel
(D1) Sinter (new)
worldsteel
(D2) Pellet Plant (new)
worldsteel
(F1) Blast Furnace (new)
worldsteel
BF Gas Flaring Master Process (new)
worldsteel
(G1) BOF Steel Making (new)
worldsteel
BOF Gas Flaring Master Process (new)
worldsteel
(H) Hot Strip Mill (new)
worldsteel
(L) Pickling (new)
worldsteel
Scales
Credit
2013 DE
{0C1AC2DA-2D9C-4C4AB88B-ACD5872C05A9}
{58F182C7-EE11-4A5B889B-B07819ABFEF1}
{964BB2CA-99EA-47B0A0ED-ADA91C661BE3}
{6304E047-E197-49BAA63C-ADFAEC29106E}
{261369F8-8AD9-4CAC81BC-4F308F2D80BE}
{7DA4F1AD-4E3D-49E28A93-CCF349F45D57}
{1D5F9DA1-CEBC-49538E6A-DB80D8A3E680}
{BF9C0154-1389-4F19BCC1-15AEC086624E}
{261369F8-8AD9-4CAC81BC-4F308F2D80BE}
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,5
1,5
1,8
1,8
{4833D0D1-7F71-4B83B3E4-7683D5DE38DE}
{248500C4-D169-4D72A642-78413E62321D}
{ACFCD6E6-86E6-4C31A132-5223E6E9DB0F}
{15DCF232-AD86-4520A052-903F04FA5F1D}
{4E877F9B-D7B8-40F7BF37-8407F3008B48}
{45C147A3-A7A5-49C8BBA2-B609F750C9E6}
{F4EA4D9D-4AA4-4E3A8BF7-646ABC6F376B}
{81699AF5-0523-49B6-A7F08C8E0D8A3714}
{6DE018F6-10D2-4FF392C3-DFDC208077C4}
{9AED6708-9FF0-4A989D50-F6240E7CFAA7}
152
(O) Cold Rolling (new)
worldsteel
(R) Hot-dip Galvanising (new)
worldsteel
Boiler I (new)
worldsteel
{A2B140A3-056F-4782-B225562CA1929BD6}
{F2854CEF-CC54-4305B94B-B9F409915D50}
{063D5F89-4A9A-4DD9AB2B-5454A12509BA}
In case your company faces situation 3 for the main important background datasets (as they are usually not directly under the control of the metal sheet
producer) high quality industry average datasets should be used. Considering the usual multiple origins of the metal supply to sheet production plant, the
metal industry considers that industry averaged datasets are the most accurate and representative of current production and metal supply practices. These
Industry averaged datasets are externally reviewed and are regularly updated by industry associations, thereby ensuring that datasets are the most up-todate, accurate and representative of the current market situation. However, if those processes are under the control of the metal sheet producer and if the
metal supply for the metal sheet production is issued from those processes, specific company data may be used instead.
Industry averaged datasets are available from the following sources:





European Copper Institute (ECI), Copper Alliance: The environmental profile of copper products, 2012
European Aluminium Association (EAA): Environmental profile Report for the Aluminium industry, April 2013
European Lead Sheet Industry Association (ELA): Life Cycle Assessment Report of Lead Sheet, May 2014
Methodology Report: Life Cycle Inventory for steel products, World Steel Association, March 2011
International Lead Zinc Research Organisation (ILZRO): Life Cycle Inventory – LCI of Primary and Secondary Lead production, February 2011
A more detailed list provides Table 12-33.
153
Table 12-33: datasets to be used for main important background data
Dataset name
Primary
source
Year
Geographical
reference
Aluminium
Aluminium ingot mix (2010)
PE/EAA
2012/2010
EU-27
Secondary
Aluminium
Aluminium recycling (2010)
PE/EAA
2012/2010
EU-27
Aluminium recycling
Aluminium recycling (2010)
PE/EAA
2012/2010
EU-27
{EE5C6B93-B51F-4257-80B5E51DA2B226F3}
1,4
Landfill
Landfill for inert matter (Aluminium)
PE
2012
EU-27
{2BB26C32-23C1-459D-929DF07917830678}
1,4
Copper
Primary copper cathode
PE/ICA/ECI
2012/2005
EU-27
Secondary Copper
Secondary copper cathode
PE/ICA/ECI
2012/2005
EU-27
Landfill for inert matter (Copper)
PE
2012
EU-27
1,4
Lead
Primary lead mix
PE/ILZRO
2012/2008/09
EU-27
1,5
Secondary Lead
Secondary lead mix
PE/ILZRO
2012/2008/09
EU-27
Material/ Process
GUID
DQR
(GaBi)
DQR
criteria
Aluminium
Manufacturing
{05F94D68-6435-4312-9AE2091ABADC5B24}
{EE5C6B93-B51F-4257-80B5E51DA2B226F3}
1,4
1,4
End-of-life stage
Copper
Manufacturing
{2B8627D2-C668-46B5-8320A352024CA25D}
{41AB5B10-00F6-4976-A289496C0F0E7922}
1,5
1,5
End-of-life stage
Landfill
Lead
Manufacturing
{148C58A8-D69B-488D-9FC739074050ADA5}
1,5
End-of-life stage
154
Lead recycling
Refining of lead sheet scrap
PE/ELSIA
2012/2013
EU-27
1,4
Landfill
Landfill for inert matter (Lead)
PE
2012
EU-27
1,4
Steel
(Theoretical) Primary steel slab
PE/worldsteel
2008
EU-27
1,8
Secondary steel
Secondary steel slab
PE/worldsteel
2008
EU-27
1,8
Secondary steel slab
PE/worldsteel
2008
EU-27
Steel
Manufacturing
End-of-life stage
Steel recycling
Landfill
Landfill for inert matter (Steel)
PE
2012
EU-27
1,8
{05958C80-8334-436B-BE65346AB4C83D39}
1,4
155
The following chapter provide some more information on these industry data.
12.12.1 Metal production and recycling datasets
For processes in the supply chain that are not directly under the control of the metal sheet producer
(such as mining and concentration, smelting and in some cases refining) it is necessary to use
representative datasets instead of specific primary data. In such cases, even if EV poses a significant
contribution, it is necessary to use market-representative data to compensate the missing specific
data. This is also applicable for Erecycled. Industry averaged datasets shall be preferred to literature
based unit processes.
Industry averaged datasets are available from the following sources:





European Copper Institute (ECI), Copper Alliance: The environmental profile of copper
products, 2012
European Aluminium Association (EAA): Environmental profile Report for the Aluminium
industry, April 2013
European Lead Sheet Industry Association (ELSIA): Life Cycle Assessment Report of Lead Sheet,
May 2014
Methodology Report: Life Cycle Inventory for steel products, World Steel Association, March
2011
International Lead Zinc Research Organisation (ILZRO): Life Cycle Inventory – LCI of Primary
and Secondary Lead production, February 2011
Additional information on metal industry averaged datasets:
Aluminium
Average unit-process data is published by the European Aluminium Association within the
Environmental Profile Report for the European Aluminium Industry. High quality industry data,
including process synergies, efficiencies, losses and yields have been collected. These companyindividual data are consolidated and those representative averages are modelled in the LCA
calculations. Mining, electrolyse (Electricity production is particularly critical for the electrolysis step),
cast house, rolling process, transport (Recycling) As much as possible, allocation has been avoided.
Each LCI dataset includes aluminium scrap and dross recycling so that the only valuable material
exiting the product system is aluminium sheet. Any further details are described in the EAA
Environmental Profile Report for the European Aluminium Industry, April 2013.
Lead
Lead: LCI of Primary and Secondary Lead production and the Life Cycle Assessment of Lead Sheet.
Steel
Steel: Life Cycle Inventory has been taken by authorization of worldsteel and representatives of the
steel industry, from the LCA Methodology report. The worldsteel Life Cycle Inventory has been
designed on vertical averaging per product group. This approach was chosen in order to harmonise
and cope with the multitude of process set-ups co-existing in the industry, with different physical
interlinks (e.g. of process gases) internally between individual process steps or externally.
156
Copper
Unit process data is confidential and cannot be disclosed to the public. It is the responsibility of the
association to collect high quality primary data from industry, including process synergies, efficiencies,
losses and yields. These company-individual data are modelled individually in the LCA database and
consolidated into an aggregated data set that reflects a representative market mix. Currently only
environmental-profiles for semi-products are published.
12.12.2 Other background datasets
The other background datasets used in the LCA model to generate the LCI of metal sheet shall be
transparently listed in the PEF documentation. In addition, for the background datasets contributing
significantly to the results, e.g. electricity data, their selection shall be justified in the PEF
documentation. A list of exemplary datasets can be obtained from the GaBi 6 database and should be
listed like the following generic nomenclature:
“Country Code”: “Name”, “GUID {..}”, “reference year”
157
12.13
ANNEX XIII – EOL FORUMLAS
The baseline recycling equation (Annex V) as required by the PEF Guide [PEF Guide 2013/179/EU] has
to be applied. However, the metal industry considers that the integrated equation is a more adequate
equation than the default equation proposed in the PEF guide. Hence, the TS recommends to apply
also the integrated equation for cradle to grave environmental footprinting and its modular version
(module D equation) for cases where the results need to be decomposed into various life cycle stages,
such as in the case of an intermediate product. Consequently this results in three different formulas
to be applied in the context of this PEFCR.
158
12.14
ANNEX XIV – BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON METHODOLOGICAL
CHOICES TAKEN DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PEFCR
1. System boundaries – life-cycle stages and processes
Figure 12-7: Product flow sheet and system boundaries
The Production stage (red dotted area) and EoL stage (blue dotted as a mandatory additional
environmental information) are included in the PEFCR for metal sheets. The use stage (fabrication of
final product, use stage and demolition incl. transport processes) is not considered in this PEFCR and
shall be covered by a specific PEFCR for the metal sheet application, due to the fact that metal sheets
are intermediate products and can be used for the manufacture of end-use products for various
applications. Exploration and identification of reserves of natural resources have been excluded from
the Screening Study used to develop this PEFCR (see below). The impact of the use stage of a metal
sheet is unknown and excluded from this PEFCR. Specifications for use by Original Equipment
Manufacturers (OEM), architects and other designers of the final applications can vary according to
the type of application (and also within each specific application). Therefore it would be necessary to
define the exact conditions of downstream applications, when evaluating the use-stage of the sheets.
159
Figure 12-7 describes the generic metal sheet production route. This generic flow-diagram includes a
metal supply based on primary production, on recycling or on a mix of both sourcing. Primary
production requires exploration, mining, beneficiation, hydro- or pyrometallurgical processing
followed by melting and/or casting, rolling and finishing. Secondary production requires collection of
waste and recycling.
The metal sheet collected at end of life enters the scrap pool. The scrap pool will comprise metallic
scrap generated from many life cycles of the same metal. The end of life scrap (post-consumer scrap)
is then recycled into secondary metal. This metal can subsequently be used in the manufacture
products (for use in the same application that generated the scrap, or for use in new applications).
The scrap pool comprises not only post-consumer scrap from various product life cycles but also
process scrap generated during the fabrication stage. Similarly, the scrap pool is used as a secondary
material source by various product life cycles of the same metal. The concept of scrap pool is further
detailed below in this Annex under 5. Guidance for determining equation parameters. .
Depending on the metal sheet and the purity of the metal scrap (i.e. secondary material), recycling
may follow the different routes represented by the blue dotted line in Figure 12-7. Recycling of
secondary material can be a stand-alone production process or can be performed in conjunction with
the primary production process, covering additional upstream operations such as scrap collection and
sorting. The red-dotted line encompasses the scope of the PEFCR. The rolling mill and finishing step
can be regarded as the core process (foreground system) to manufacture a metal sheet from virgin
and / or secondary material. In specific cases, e.g. continuous strip casting process, this core process
may also include melting and/or casting. For the upstream metallurgical processes, there is a solid
data basis provided by the commodity association based on representative and robust industry
averaged LCI datasets which are usually third party reviewed. See section 5.2.
For the core process (rolling and finishing which includes in some cases melting and casting before the
rolling process) primary data shall be collected for a PEF, deviations from this are possible if justified.
Production stage
The production stage can include some or all of the following steps:
1. Raw material extraction, beneficiation and metallurgical treatment and primary material
preparation (smelting and refining) including alloying. Casting of slab/ingot/billet/cathode
(starting material for sheet production). This includes transportation.
2. Secondary material (i.e. scrap) preparation and recycling, metal melting/remelting including
alloying. Casting of slab/ingot/billet/cathode (starting material for sheet production). This
includes transportation. Transportation of the slab/billet/ingot/cathode to the sheet
production site. Transport shall be considered. In some cases the ingot will be produced at the
same site as that conducts sheet production, and in some cases this will be a fully automated
process (e.g. lead sheet production).
3. Manufacturing, the transformation of ingots/slab/billet/cathode into the finished
intermediate sheet, including rolling, direct casting and finishing processes. The life cycle
model should loop back the Manufacturing scrap into the input side of the core process,
including processes of treatment if necessary. This internal scrap loop should not be
considered in the evaluation of R1.
Provision of all materials, products and energy, as well as waste processing up to the end-of waste
state or disposal of final residues during the production stage are included in the system boundaries.
End of Life stage
160
Metal sheets are intermediate products and can be used for the manufacture of end-use products for
various applications. The end-of-life stage of a metal sheet is determined from the conditions of the
application and becomes a “module” to be used when developing PEFCRs for products further down
that supply chain. This is equally applicable if the intermediate product can be used in different supply
chains (e.g. metal sheets). Therefore the End of Life stage is considered as a mandatory additional
environmental information that shall provide the environmental footprint for the EoL stage of the
intermediate product based on a realistic and justified scenario (see chapter 4.6.).
Examples of end-of-life processes that shall, if applicable, be included are:
-
The production of the secondary material, i.e. metal scrap, which usually includes
o Collection and transport of end-of-life products and packages;
o Dismantling of components; Shredding and sorting;
- The conversion of metal scrap into a recycled metal ingot, i.e. slab/billet/ingot/cathode. This
usually includes melting/remelting, refining and casting and if needed metallurgical
treatment.
This stage also includes transportation operations and provision of all materials, products and related
energy and water use.
The scenarios for the End of Life stage of metal sheets (downstream scenarios) are described further
in chapter 5.8.
Examples of individual commodities can be found in the Annex.
2. Rationale for considering the Toxicity and Resource depletion categories not sufficiently robust
Toxicity indicators
Toxicity indicators are highly uncertain and potentially misleading for metals for the following main
reasons:
The application of general toxicity criteria within the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of
metals, i.e. related to emissions of metal and metal compounds, currently poses significant
methodological and scientific problems as stated in the specific ILCD handbook. For metals, the USEtox
method does not consider some metal specificities (e.g. essentiality) or is highly uncertain regarding
the model parameters related to the long term behaviour, i.e. ageing, due to the permanent character
of metals. Therefore, the USEtox characterization factors for metals are rated as interim in the USEtox
website and should then only be used with caution and not for product comparison purposes.
For toxicity assessment, several thousands of substances are contributing to the LCIA
indicators. Therefore, the toxicity indicators are highly sensitive to the degree of completeness of the
LCI datasets not only for the foreground processes but also for all the background processes. Today,
the level of completeness of the various LCI datasets is not sufficiently homogeneous to secure robust
and non-discriminatory results.
PEF normalisation factors are currently based on domestic European production. It is
acknowledged that these normalisation factor are largely underestimated compared to normalisation
factors which should be based on the European consumption market. Such underestimation is
particularly significant for toxicity and resource depletion which highly result from imports. As a
consequence, the contribution of the normalised USEtox indicators is largely overestimated due to
this inadequate choice of PEF normalisation factors.
161
The above limitations demonstrate the lack of robustness of the toxicity indicators which are then
considered as non-robust.
Resource depletion
There is a significant lack of agreement around what is the right method to use to measure depletion
of natural resources. The CML 2002 method uses the term “reserves” for what are defined as
“resources” by the USGS and industry. Whereas the total stock of elements is assumed to be fixed,
mineral resource and reserve data are constantly changing due to market prices and production costs.
The role of exploration is neglected in ADP, yet it continually over-compensates for depletion of
reserves and therefore has a dramatic influence on CML 2002 results (see also Tilton & Lagos, 2007).
For example, in the early 1970’s Copper resources were estimated at 1.6 billion tonnes by the USGS.
This data was then updated to 3.7 billion tonnes in 2006 (Edelstein, 2006) and is now estimated at 5.6
billion tonnes (Johnson et al., 2014). As a result, short-term socio-economic aspects are clearly
dominating the CML 2002 evaluation in comparison to environmental aspects and the results are
therefore unstable. Additionally, reserve data of some materials are disproportionately low because
there is currently little incentive for exploration (e.g., lead, mercury, vanadium, which are frequently
highlighted by CML 2002 in LCA). In developing these PEFCR, a Screening Study also determined that
CML 2002 exacerbates metal depletion potential in comparison to fossil based depletion - potentially
leading to unjustified material preference. Finally, USGS estimates of the Reserve Base were
discontinued in 2009, meaning that all current ADP characterization factors recommended in the PEF
Guidance remain fixed to 2009 or earlier and are therefore unusable (UNEP, 2011).
Thus Reserve estimates are poor candidates for understanding the potential impact of a product
system on the natural resource and their use produces results that cannot be comparable. Van Oers
et al. pointed this out themselves in their 2002 paper, “The disadvantage of the ‘reserve base’ and
‘economic reserve’ is that the estimate of the size of the reserve involves a variety of respectively
technical and economic considerations not directly related to the environmental problem of resource
depletion.”
As a result, the ADP indicator specified in the PEF Guidance is not built upon an ISO-compliant
“environmental mechanism”, is highly uncertain and lacks robustness and reproducibility. There is
international consensus that the resource depletion Area of Protection needs to be redefined. Using
out-of-date estimates of highly unstable indicators to estimate impacts to an Area of Protection that
experts agree is not correct would contravene the PEF Guidance’s own overriding principles. The ADP
indicator is therefore deemed inappropriate and not robust for PEF.
For ADP, the TS strongly recommends the user of this PEFCR to not only apply the “Reserve Base”
baseline approach (as required in the PEF guidance), but to also test the “ultimate reserve” baseline
as an alternative. The “Reserve Base” refers to the method/baseline “Resource Depletion, fossil and
mineral, reserve base CML 2002” and the “Ultimate Reserve” refers to the method/baseline “CML
2001 – Dec. 07, Abiotic Depletion (ADP)”.
3. Additional environmental information
As described in section 5.8 and below, the metal industry recommends the use of the integrated
equation for “cradle to grave” environmental footprinting and its modular version (i.e. also referred
to as the module D equation) for other cases where the results need to be decomposed into various
life cycle stages (e.g. construction applications). Whilst both equations provide the same overall result
from a “cradle to grave” perspective, the modular version reflects the contribution of the various life
stages to such overall result in a more appropriate manner. The results of the PEF pilot project on
162
metal sheet are decomposed into two life cycle stages: the production stage of the intermediate
product and the mandatory additional information resulting from the end of life stage. Therefore, the
modular version of the integrated equation is the recommended equation in this PEF pilot project.
As a result, the end of life stage of the metal sheet is addressed through mandatory additional
environmental information on end-of-life recycling which constitutes an essential element of its PEF
profile. This complementary information is essential and mandatory for creating any PEF on a final
metal product.
4. The integrated equation (IE)
The integrated equation (IE)
The metals industry has explored a range of methods for modelling recycling. The metals industry
believe that the most appropriate method is the one proposed by Marc-Andree Wolf et al (maki
Consulting, see /MAKI 1/ & /MAKI 2/), called the “Integrated approach”. This is considered as the most
appropriate method as it allows the proper reflection of the end of life stage whilst also allowing
reflection of complex recycling situations. This approach and formula is a development of the original
International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook and is fully in line with the ISO
requirements for LCA (ISO 14044). It reflects physical reality, considers down-cycling effects on the
quantity and quality of recycled material, in addition to taking into account energy recovery
appropriately. This integrated equation is expressed as follows:
IE = (1 - R1) 𝗑 EV + R1 𝗑 QSin/QPin 𝗑 E§V + R2 𝗑 (ErecyclingEoL – E*V 𝗑 QS/QP) + R3 𝗑 (EER - LHV 𝗑 XER,elec 𝗑
ESE,elec – LHV 𝗑 XER, heat 𝗑 ESE,heat) + (1 – R2 – R3 ) 𝗑 ED)
Compared to the default Annex V equation (see Annex V in /PEF Guide 2013/179/EU/), the following
terms have been added:
Term
Unit,
restrictions
Definition
E§V
Various, per kg
primary material
Resources consumed/emissions for the acquisition of the virgin
material substituted by the recycled material that is used as recycled
content for the analysed product
Qs/QP
[Dimensionless],
(0 ≤ Qs/QP ≤ 1)
Crediting (EoL stage) and debiting (production stage) correction
factor: Ratio reflecting the possible differences between the recycled
material and the primary material.
QSin/QPin
The correction factor is hence either a quantitative substitution
factor, qualitative technical usability factor (technical downcycling) or
market-supply-and-demand driven factor. The choice of the factor is
outside the Integrated formula, while it needs to be defined
coherently across all materials and must be identical for crediting
(Qs/QP) and debiting (QSin/QPin) of the same material.
163
A detailed analysis of the integrated equation is provided in the White Paper available via the Maki
Consulting website11. When several recycling routes are used at the end of life stage (see section 5.9),
the term “R2 𝗑 (ErecyclingEoL – E*V 𝗑 QS/QP)” shall be decomposed accordingly.
Integrated equation in its modular form (MIE)
The metal industry recommends using the modular version of the integrated equation when the
results are decomposed into various life cycle stages. The modular version of the integrated equation
better reflects the environmental aspects associated respectively to the production stage and end of
life stage. Indeed, the modular form of the integrated equation allows assessing at production stage
the environmental impact of material acquisition on basis of the metal sourcing while at the end of
life stage, the additional environmental aspects resulting from that stage are calculated. This modular
version is easily derived from the integrated equation by adding and removing simultaneously the
term “R1 𝗑 Erecycled”. Hence, the modular version is expressed as follows:
MIE = (1 - R1) 𝗑 EV + R1 𝗑 Erecycled + [R2 𝗑 (ErecyclingEoL – E*V 𝗑 QS/QP) - R1 (Erecycled - QSin/QPin 𝗑 E§V )]
+ R3 𝗑 (EER - LHV 𝗑 XER,elec 𝗑 ESE,elec – LHV 𝗑 XER, heat 𝗑 ESE,heat) + (1 – R2 – R3 ) 𝗑 ED)
Within this integrated equation in its modular form,
-
the term “(1 - R1) 𝗑 EV + R1 𝗑 Erecycled “ represents the burdens for the material acquisition
at the production stage
the term “[R2 𝗑 (ErecyclingEoL – E*V 𝗑 QS/QP) - R1 (Erecycled - QSin/QPin 𝗑 E§V )]” represents
the additional burdens and benefits resulting from the end of life recycling (first part)
considering the recycling burdens and benefits already considered at the production level
(second part).
While both equations provide the same overall result from a “cradle to grave” perspective, the
modular version more appropriately reflects the contribution of the various life stages to such overall
result. For the PEF pilot project on metal sheet, results are decomposed into two life cycle stages: the
production stage of the intermediate product and the mandatory additional information (i.e. the end
of life stage). Hence, the modular version of the integrated equation is then the most adequate
equation in this PEF pilot project.
-
When several recycling routes are used at the production stage or end of life stage, the terms related
to R1 and R2 shall be decomposed accordingly (see further below for details about the calculation of
the different parameters).
Integrated Equation in its modular form and “module D” equation
In the building sector, EN15804 is used to communicate environmental information on building
products through environmental product declarations (EPDs). EN15804 has a number of modules that
shall be used to model the life cycle. Similarly to the modular integrated equation, the module D in EN
15804 is used to reflect the additional environmental aspects resulting from recycling and energy
recovery at the end of life stage. The overall approach of EN15804 including module D is similar to the
modular integrated equation. A “module D” equation has been developed in the PEF context in order
to reflect the EN15804 approach in term of material acquisition and end of life treatment. This module
11
http://maki-consulting.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/White-paper-Integratedapproach_Wolf&Chomkhamsri2014_Final.pdf
164
D equation has been provided to the EF construction platform and the pilot projects referring to
products used in the construction sectors have been invited to test it.
The module D equation is expressed as follows:
Production: Module A1-A3:
Module C3 :
1  R1  EV  R1  Erecycled
 1  R2  R3   ED
End of life
Module D :
Q
Q 



 R2   Erecycling,EoL  E *V ,out  S ,out   R1   Erecycled  E *V ,in  S ,in 
QP 
QP 


 R3  EE R  LHV  X ER,heat  ESE,heat  LHV  X ER,elec  ESE,elec 
In practice, there is a full equivalence between the Integrated Equation in its modular form (MIE) and
the module D equation proposed to be used by the PEF pilot project in the construction sector. An
example of calculation with the modular integrated equation is given in section 6 at the end of such
Annex XIV.
It should be noted that the various modules in EN15804 shall not be added up in one figure. In
addition, the product system boundaries defined under EN15804 in some cases may require additional
information along the recycling value chain.
5. Guidance for determining equation parameters
Reflecting adequately the recycling situation of metal sheet is crucial to assess its PEF profile. Indeed,
when a metal product reaches the end of its life, it is sometimes reused but in most cases it is recycled.
Hence, most metal products at end-of-life are collected for recycling. For example, currently more
than 95% of the metal products used in buildings are collected and recycled.
- Scrap pool concept
Before being recycled at end of life, metal products are often pre-processed into sorted metal scrap.
This scrap metal enters the “scrap pool”-a concept for the metallic scrap that is available for recycling
into secondary metal (as defined in the terms and glossary). Depending on the origin of the scrap,
operations such as shredding, sorting and cleaning may be required before recycling can be
conducted. (scrap preparation) These processes generate scrap which satisfies specific composition
criteria which are typically classified in various scrap categories or codes 12. Hence, the scrap pool can
be composed of various categories of scrap. For the sake of simplicity figure 12-7 depicts the scrap
preparation operations taking place downstream of the scrap pool. However, this is just an illustrative
example and not indicative of all practices.
In addition to end of life scrap (post-consumer scrap), several production routes of metals products
can generates production scrap (also referred to as process scrap). For example, fabricating a metal
casing for a PC from a metal sheet generates some scrap from cutting and machining operations. This
fabrication scrap is considered as process scrap and will be recycled for producing new metal sheet or
12
Scrap Specifications Circular 2015 - Guidelines for Nonferrous Scrap, Ferrous Scrap, Glass Cullet, Paper Stock,
Plastic Scrap, Electronics Scrap, Tire Scrap; EFFECTIVE 15 Jan 2015, ISRI, http://www.isri.org/
165
other metal products. Both process scrap and post-consumer scrap are considered as secondary
material sources for producing metal sheets.
The quality of the scrap type can affect the values of R1 and Erecycled. For example, recycling of lower
grade scrap may have a lower recycling yield, and require additional recycling processes that the
recycling of higher grade scrap. Similarly, lower quality scrap may require smelting and refining stages
to produce a high quality ingot, whereas higher quality scrap may only require refining. This means
that in the case of lower grade recycling there may be some material losses along the recycling chain.
The result of this is that the recycling of low grade scrap may in some cases result in lower primary
metals savings. It is therefore important that the types of scrap used at production stage and
generated at end of life are properly considered as this will affect respectively R1 and Erecycled for the
production stage and R2 and ErecyclingEoL for the end of life stage.
It should also be noted that the quality factor of the recycled metal ingot should not be directly
correlated to or derived from the grade of the scrap category or code from which the recycled metal
originates. In most cases, recycling is undertaken to ensure that the recycled metal has the same
physical and chemical properties to that of the primary metal.
An example of calculation is given in section 6 at the end of such Annex XIV.
The integrated equation under its modular form (MIE)
The integrated equation in it modular form uses a range of terms and parameters as reported in the
following table:
Integrated equation in its modular form
Cradle to
acquisition)
gate
(1 - R1) 𝗑 EV + R1 𝗑 Erecycled
(material
Mandatory
additional
environmental
information
(end of life stage)
[R2 𝗑 (ErecyclingEoL – E*V 𝗑 QS/QP) - R1 (Erecycled - QSin/QPin 𝗑 E§V )]
+ R3 𝗑 (EER - LHV 𝗑 XER,elec 𝗑 ESE,elec – LHV 𝗑 XER, heat 𝗑 ESE,heat)
+ (1 – R2 – R3 ) 𝗑 ED)
These various terms can be explained on basis of the following metal flow diagram.
166
Figure 12-8: Illustration of the metal mass flow and system boundaries for the various terms used
in the modular version of the integrated recycling equation for 1kg of metal sheet
Defining the metal mass flow
In order to provide clarity on what is included or excluded from the terms described in the recycling
formula, Figure 12-7 provides an example of metal flows and helps define R1 and R2 and clarify the
connection with the scrap pool. For the purposes of illustration, the unit of analysis is 1kg, which can
be taken to be fulfilling the functional unit of 1m² of metal sheet. The diagram provides a generic and
conceptual overview for all metals, describing all possible levels of processing applicable to metal
scrap. In general, metal scrap does not require all levels of processing as illustrated in the diagram. In
practice melting & casting of clean scrap, secondary metal and primary metals, which are assigned to
different system boundaries can take place simultaneously, in the same technological unit.
The system boundaries for Erecycled and ErecyclingEoL may vary according to the metal and the recycling
processes used. The system boundary for Erecycled is defined by the point of substitution after melting
and casting of the slab (for steel and aluminium) and after refining of the cathode /ingot for copper
and lead.
The numbers presented, are purely theoretical and not to be used as default values. Sector average
figures are presented in Annex II. In the example presented, 0.33 kg of scrap is taken from the scrap
pool, as secondary material sourcing. This scrap is then processed and cast into a shape suitable for
further processing i.e. slab, ingot or billet or into a cathode in case of electrolytic refining. At this point
the metal comprises 30% recycled metal and 70% primary metal. On further processing into a sheet,
the metal may generate process scrap (e.g. 0.2 kg yield loss) that is returned to the melting and casting
167
process. This process scrap does not contribute to R1 because it is circulating within the product
system boundary and the scrap does not come from outside the system. This diagram can be
considered as a simplification of reality and in some cases, metal scrap may not require the same level
of processing as illustrated in the diagram.
In addition, some metal losses, e.g. 1-2%, may occur at the rolling process and the associated
remelting of process scrap. Hence, the metal flow at the materai lacquisition level may be slightly
higher than the metal in the unit of analysis, i.e. the metla sheet. These aspecs are considered in the
calculation reported at section 6 of such Annex XIV.
After use (end of life), metal sheet is collected and directed to recycling. After shredding and sorting,
a quantity of 95 kg of metal scrap is provided to the scrap pool from which 0.9 kg of recycled metal is
produced.
Figure 5.1 also illustrates the inclusion of potential yield losses when processing scrap, which can be
assumed to go to disposal.
“Cradle to gate” calculation
In the modular integrated equation, the material acquisition at production stage is calculated on basis
of the two respective material sourcing: the primary raw material fraction ( (1 - R1) 𝗑 EV) and the
recycled material (secondary) fraction ( R1 𝗑 Erecycled). As detailed in the previous section on “scrap
pool” it is important that R1 and Erecycled consider properly the category or the code of the scrap
which is used.
Material acquisition is part of the “cradle to gate” information.
Calculating the mandatory additional environmental information
All other terms of the equation correspond to the end of life stage and are part of the “Mandatory
additional environmental information”
The first part of the equation relates to the additional contribution of recycling at end of life.
The benefits resulting from end of life recycling are calculated from the quantity of material which
is recycled at end of life R2, which is multiplied by a combination of two terms:
- “ErecyclingEoL” which corresponds to the environmental burdens of the end of life recycling
up to the point of substitution, i.e. the point where the recycled material substitutes
primary material.
- “– E*V 𝗑 QS/QP” which corresponds to the environmental benefits, (reflected as a negative
number in the formula) resulting from the primary material which is substituted by
recycled material. The substitution of primary material by secondary material is modelled
using a quality factor that considers the possible loss of inherent properties between the
recycled material and the primary material. This is explained further in this section.
To ensure consistency, the above calculation also need to be been performed at the production stage
as well. This assesses the environmental debits associated with the production stage, in contrast to
the environmental credit at end of life. In this case, the recycled content (R 1) is multiplied by a
combination of two terms:
- “- Erecycled” which corresponds to the environmental credits of the recycling (which have
been already considered) up to the point of substitution, i.e. the point where recycled
material substitutes primary material.
- “+ E§V 𝗑 QSin/QPin” which corresponds to the environmental burdens of the primary
materials which are saved through the use of recycled material, using a quality factor for
168
considering the possible loss of inherent properties between the recycled material and
the primary material.
Calculating Erecycled and ErecyclingEoL
The environmental burdens of the recycling processes shall consider all recycling operations up to the
point of substitution. The point of substitution can be defined as the point at which recycled material
effectively substitutes primary material. In the case of metals, these recycling operations involve
transforming metallic scrap (of varying composition) into metallic ingot, slab or billet of specified
purity and composition with well-defined properties. These recycling operations can include smelting,
refining, melting and alloying processes. For metal sheet, the point of substitution can be defined at
different places of the production chain. For aluminium and steel sheet the point of substitution is at
slab or billet, which is usually the starting material for sheet production. The point of substitution for
copper and lead sheet is after refining the metal ( to copper cathode or lead ingot) and prior to melting
and casting of a shape (slab/billet). In the case of reuse of metallic sheet, the substitution can occur
downstream of the slab/billet level.
In the PEF communication, the point(s) of substitution shall be explicitly defined and justified. Erecycled
and ErecyclingEoL shall then consider accordingly all the burdens of the recycling processes up to their
respective point of substitution. In addition, the reference flow used in E recycled and ErecyclingEoL shall be
the recycled material which is effectively produced at the point of substitution, i.e. considering all the
losses taking place in the upstream recycling processes.
Calculating R1 and R2
The recycled content (R1) or the end of recycling rate (R2) shall be defined at their respective point of
substitution which has been defined.
The recycled content in the metal sheet, i.e. R1, represents the fraction of metal manufactured from
secondary metal at the point of substitution. R1 shall be calculated according to ISO14021 and shall
exclude any process scrap produced upstream (i.e. any scrap generated at the sheet production step).
Process scrap generated at sheet production step level shall be clearly excluded from R 1 calculation.
The LCA modelling shall take into account such internal scrap flow in an adequate manner.
For R1, preference shall be given to specific values provided by the metal sheet manufacturer. When
no specific values are available, semi-specific values (i.e. specific to a product type) shall be preferred
to a generic value. In all cases, the determination of the R1 value shall be justified and documented.
In Figure 12.7, R1 is 30% (i.e. 0,3 kg of a 1 kg of total metal comes from recycled metal).
Similarly, the end of life recycling rate, i.e. R2, shall be calculated at the point of substitution.
For R2, preference shall be given to specific values provided by the metal sheet manufacturer. Specific
values shall be assessed at the point of substitution. This specific value shall be based on a realistic
and justified end of life scenario using current end of life recycling practices. When no specific values
are available, semi-specific value, i.e. specific to a product type, shall be preferred to a generic value.
In all cases, the determination of R2 shall be justified and documented.
In Figure 12.7, R2 is 90% (i.e. at the point of substitution 0,9 kg total metal weight of 1 kg comes from
recycled material.
Calculating E*V and E§V
169
Similarly, E*V and E§V shall consider all the environmental burdens of primary metal production up to
the defined points of substitution. The choice of the LCI datasets representing E*V and E§V shall be
justified and documented.
Calculating QS/QP and QSin/QPin
The quality ratio QS/QP (or QSin/QPin) aims at considering the loss of inherent properties of the recycled
material compared to primary material. This ratio shall be assessed at the point of substitution.
The inherent properties of metals are usually fully restored through recycling, i.e. typically through
melting, refining and solidification. Metals remain metals, even after having passed through many
recycling loops, because metallic bonds are restored upon solidification. Recycled metals and alloys
from metal sheet then keep the same properties as the original metal sheet. Hence, in most cases, the
quality is fully maintained through recycling and the quality ratio stays equal to one at the point of
substitution, e.g. an ingot, slab or billet made from recycled metal has the same properties as an ingot
made from primary metal. Hence, the metal industry recommends using a quality ratio of one as
default value which is representative of most recycling cases.
In specific cases, e.g. when end of life treatment does not follow the optimal recycling route, the
quality factor may be affected and a value of less than one may be used. This may happen when some
inherent properties of the metal are irreversibly affected by an inadequate end of life treatment and
therefore cannot be fully restored through the recycling process.
For some highly alloyed metal products (e.g. some aluminium cast products may contain higher
percentages of other metals such as silicon) the recycling process may require addition or mixing of
pure primary metal or specific refining process in order to produce the required alloy specification of
the product.
This PEFCR covers only pure metals (i.e. lead and copper, typically >99%) or low alloyed metal sheet
(i.e. aluminium and steel) as defined in the section “4.1 Unit of Analysis”. The production of metals
that require any significant mixing or addition of primary material process during recycling is not
considered a significant issue for metal sheets and therefore not covered by this PEFCR.
In those specific cases, ISO14044 recommends using the most relevant physical or mechanical
property to assess the loss of quality between recycled material and primary material. If not possible,
the economic value may be used as a proxy. In any case, the calculation of the quality ratio shall be
always justified and explained.
Calculating R3 and the contribution of energy recovery
According to best practices, metal sheet should not be directed to incinerators but should be directed
to a recycling route. Except in the case of thin aluminium sheet, metals sheet do not contribute to
energy recovery at end of life. Hence, R3 should be equal to 0 in most cases. If a metal sheet is
incinerated at end of life, the end of life scenario should consider that metal may still be recovered
and recycled from bottom ashes of the incinerator. The determination of R2 shall adequately consider
such option.
Disposal
The fraction of the metal sheet which is not reused or recycled is then disposed and the corresponding
emissions shall be modelled.
170
6. Examples of calculation
The two following table reports an example of calculation with fictive values for the 3 relevant
equations, i.e. Annex V equation, the integrated equation and the modular integrated equation. In the
first case, no metla losses are supposed in the rolling process while in the second case 2% of losses
are assumed. It should be noted that the impact of the sheet production are not part of the equations.
Detailed formula
Annex V
Q
R
R 
 R1 
*
1    EV  1  Erecycled  2   ErecyclingEoL  E V  S
2
2
2 
QP


R
 R

  R3  E ER  LHV  X ER,heat  E SE,heat  LHV  X ER,elec  E SE,elec   1  2  R3  E D  1  E D*
2
2



Integrated Formula
Modular integrated Formula
171
Calculation without metal losses at metal sheet production
Formula
Material
Acquisition
EoL
Total
Annex V
3,50
-1,8725
1,63
Integrated
equation
4,500
-3,795
0,705
Modular
Integraed
equation
2,500
-1,795
0,705
Parameters for calculation
Parameters
Values
Units
Comments
m virgin material, acquisition
m unit of analysis
1,00
1,00
kg
kg
Mass of total input including losses per unit of analysis
Unit of analysis, product weight
Environmental Profile of virgin
material ( per kg of material)
4,5
Unit
4,5
Unit
Fictive value for Environmental Profile of primary metal
specific emissions and resources consumed (per unit of analysis) arising from virgin
material (i.e. virgin material acquisition and pre-processing)
Ev
𝐸 =
Ev*
4,5
Unit
𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑟 𝑖𝑛
§
4,5
Unit
Parameter
formula
0,5
0,95
0
1
Erecycled
0,50
𝑜𝑛𝑠
𝑒𝑑
𝐸𝑛 𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑖𝑙𝑒
=
𝑎𝑠𝑠, 𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑖𝑠 𝐸𝑛 𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑖𝑙𝑒
Resources consumed/emissions for the acquisition of the virgin material substituted
by the recycled material that is used as recycled content for the analysed product
𝐸
R1
R2
R3
Qs/Qp
𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
specific emissions and resources consumed (per unit of analysis) arising from the
acquisition and pre-processing of virgin material assumed to be substituted by
recyclable materials
𝐸
Ev
𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙, 𝑎
=
𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑎
𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑟 𝑖𝑛
𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛 𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑎 𝑡
recycled (or reused) content of material
recycling (or reuse) fraction of material at the end-of life
Unit
ErecyclingEoL
0,50
Unit
Qsin/Qpin
ED
1
0,1
Unit
Correction factors/Quality indicators
specific emissions and resources consumed (per unit of analysis) arising from the
recycling processes of the secondary material (or reused) material, including
collection, sorting, transportation. For the copper sheet this is the emission profile of
the mix of secondary copper cathode and clean scrap direcly used for sheet production
( transformation of copper products at the end of life to copper scrap i.e collection,
sorting and mechanical pre-treatment )
specific emissions and resources consumed (per unit of analysis) arising from the
recycling processes at the end-of-life stage, including collection, sorting,
transportation . For the copper sheet this is the emission profile related to the clean
scrap ( transformation of copper products at the end of life to clen copper scrap i.e
collection, sorting and mechanical pre-treatment is currently considered as zero
impact)
Correction factors/Quality indicators
Disposal fraction
172
Calculation with 2% metal losses at metal sheet production
Formula
Material
Acquisition
EoL
Total
Annex V
3,57
-1,8725
1,70
Integrated
equation
4,590
-3,795
0,795
Modular
Integraed
equation
2,550
-1,755
0,795
Parameters for calculation
Parameters
Values
Units
Comments
m virgin material, acquisition
m unit of analysis
1,02
1,00
kg
kg
Mass of total input including losses per unit of analysis
Unit of analysis, product weight
Environmental Profile of virgin
material ( per kg of material)
4,50
Unit
4,59
Unit
Fictive value for Environmental Profile of primary metal
specific emissions and resources consumed (per unit of analysis) arising from virgin
material (i.e. virgin material acquisition and pre-processing)
Ev
𝐸 =
Ev*
4,50
Unit
𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑟 𝑖𝑛
§
4,59
Unit
Parameter
formula
0,5
0,95
0
1
Erecycled
0,51
𝑜𝑛𝑠
𝑒𝑑
𝐸𝑛 𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑖𝑙𝑒
=
𝑎𝑠𝑠, 𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑖𝑠 𝐸𝑛 𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑖𝑙𝑒
Resources consumed/emissions for the acquisition of the virgin material substituted
by the recycled material that is used as recycled content for the analysed product
𝐸
R1
R2
R3
Qs/Qp
𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛
specific emissions and resources consumed (per unit of analysis) arising from the
acquisition and pre-processing of virgin material assumed to be substituted by
recyclable materials
𝐸
Ev
𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙, 𝑎
=
𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑎
𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑟 𝑖𝑛
𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛 𝑖𝑟𝑜𝑛 𝑒𝑡𝑎𝑙
𝑎 𝑡
recycled (or reused) content of material
recycling (or reuse) fraction of material at the end-of life
Unit
ErecyclingEoL
0,50
Unit
Qsin/Qpin
ED
1
0,1
Unit
Correction factors/Quality indicators
specific emissions and resources consumed (per unit of analysis) arising from the
recycling processes of the secondary material (or reused) material, including
collection, sorting, transportation. For the copper sheet this is the emission profile of
the mix of secondary copper cathode and clean scrap direcly used for sheet production
( transformation of copper products at the end of life to copper scrap i.e collection,
sorting and mechanical pre-treatment )
specific emissions and resources consumed (per unit of analysis) arising from the
recycling processes at the end-of-life stage, including collection, sorting,
transportation . For the copper sheet this is the emission profile related to the clean
scrap ( transformation of copper products at the end of life to clen copper scrap i.e
collection, sorting and mechanical pre-treatment is currently considered as zero
impact)
Correction factors/Quality indicators
Disposal fraction
173
12.15
ANNEX XV – PCR REFERENCES
The following PCR documents were referenced while creating the PEFCR document
12.15.1 Building metals
PCR Ident.
PCR name
NPCR013rev1
Steel
as
material
V1.5
Program operator
construction
The
Norwegian
foundation
Additional information
EPD
Functional unit: kg
Basic Metals
Environdec
Functional
specified
unit:
Structural Steel
Institut Bauen und Umwelt
e.V.
Functional unit: t
not
(Other declared units are
allowed if the conversion to
t is shown transparently.)
V1.5
Building metals
Institut Bauen und Umwelt
e.V.
Functional unit: kg
Other declared units are
allowed if the conversion to
kg is shown transparently.)
V1.5
Products of aluminium and
aluminium alloys
Institut Bauen und Umwelt
e.V.
Functional unit: kg
Other declared units are
allowed if the conversion to
kg is shown transparently.)
174
12.15.2 Other applications
PCR Ident.
PCR name
Program operator
Additional information
PCR 2002:01
Fabricated steel products,
except construction
Environdec
Functional unit: t
Product Category Rules for
Type III environmental
product declaration of
construction products to
EN15804:2012
BRE Group
Functional unit: Mass (1t) /
Area (m²) / Length (m) /
Volume (m³) / Item (piece)
Thin walled profiles and
profiled panels of metal
Institut Bauen und Umwelt
e.V.
products and equipment
PN514 issue 0.0
V1.5
(conversion factors shall be
specified to calculate
between the functional
unit an the declared unit)
Functional unit: m²
(If more suitable for the
application of profiles the
declared unit meter of
profile may be used. The
mass reference must be
specified.)
PCR – 30/01/2013
Product Category Rules
(PCR)
for
Aluminium
Building Products
European
Aluminium
Association
(www.alueurope.eu/updatedepd-programme-2/)
Depending on the product
type: m2 for sheet products
175
12.16
ANNEX XVI – HOT-SPOTS
12.16.1 Aluminium
Table 12-34: Hotspots Acidification – Aluminium
Hotspots Acidification
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen oxides in Mining & Concentration
Sulphur dioxide in Smelting & Refining
176
Table 12-35: Hotspots Ecotoxicity for aquatic freshwater – Aluminium
Hotspots Ecotoxicity for aquatic freshwater
Life cycle stages

Processes



Elementary flows

Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Copper (+II), Arsenic (+V), Zinc (+II), Nickel (+II) in Mining &
Concentration
Copper (+II), Arsenic (+V), Zinc (+II), Nickel (+II) in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-36: Hotspots Freshwater eutrophication – Aluminium
Hotspots Freshwater eutrophication
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Phosphorus in Mining & Concentration
Phosphorus, Phosphate in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-37: Hotspots IPCC global warming, excl. biogenic carbon – Aluminium
Hotspots IPCC global warming, excl. biogenic carbon
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Carbon dioxide in Mining & Concentration
Carbon dioxide in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-38: Hotspots Human toxicity (cancer) – Aluminium
Hotspots Human toxicity (cancer)
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Smelting & Refining
Mining & Concentration
Mercury (+II) in Mining & Concentration
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V), Formaldehyde (methanal) in Smelting &
Refining
177
Table 12-39: Hotspots Human toxicity (non-cancer) – Aluminium
Hotspots Human toxicity (non-cancer)
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Mercury (+II) in Mining & Concentration
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V), Zinc (+II) in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-40: Hotspots Ionising radiation – Aluminium
Hotspots Ionising radiation
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Carbon (C14) in Mining & Concentration
Carbon (C14) in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-41: Hotspots Marine eutrophication potential – Aluminium
Hotspots Marine eutrophication potential
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Nitrogen oxides in Mining & Concentration
Nitrogen oxides in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-42: Hotspots Ozone depletion – Aluminium
Hotspots Ozone depletion
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows

Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)

Smelting & Refining

R 114 (dichlorotetrafluoroethane) in Smelting & Refining
178
Table 12-43: Hotspots Particulate Matter/Respiratory Inorganics – Aluminium
Hotspots Particulate Matter/Respiratory Inorganics
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Dust (PM2.5 - PM10), Sulphur dioxide in Mining & Concentration
Dust (PM2.5 - PM10), Sulphur dioxide, Dust (PM2.5) in Smelting &
Refining
Table 12-44: Hotspots Photochemical ozone formation – Aluminium
Hotspots Photochemical ozone formation
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Nitrogen oxides in Mining & Concentration
Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen oxides in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-45: Hotspots Resource Depletion – Aluminium
Hotspots Resource Depletion
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Bauxite in Mining & Concentration
Fluorspar (calcium fluoride; fluorite) in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-46: Hotspots Terrestrial eutrophication – Aluminium
Hotspots Terrestrial eutrophication
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing) Production of the main product
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Nitrogen oxides in Mining & Concentration
Nitrogen oxides in Smelting & Refining
179
Table 12-47: Resource depletion - water – Aluminium
Resource depletion - water
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows

Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)


Smelting & Refining
Water (river water from technosphere. turbined), Water (river water)
in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-48: Hotspots Land use, Soil Organic Matter (SOM) – Aluminium
Hotspots Land use, Soil Organic Matter (SOM)
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows

Rolling (Production of the main product)

Rolling

From industrial area, To industrial area in Rolling in Rolling
12.16.2 Copper
Table 12-49: Hotspots Acidification – Copper
Hotspots Acidification
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen oxides in Mining & Concentration
Sulphur dioxide in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-50: Hotspots Ecotoxicity for aquatic freshwater - Copper
Hotspots Ecotoxicity for aquatic freshwater
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Copper (+II), Arsenic (+V), Zinc (+II) in Mining & Concentration
Copper (+II), Arsenic (+V), Zinc (+II) in Smelting & Refining
180
Table 12-51: Hotspots Freshwater eutrophication – Copper
Hotspots Freshwater eutrophication
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows






Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Rolling (Production of the main product)
Mining & Concentration
Rolling
Phosphorus in Mining & Concentration
Phosphorus, Phosphate in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-52: Hotspots IPCC global warming, excl. biogenic carbon – Copper
Hotspots IPCC global warming, excl. biogenic carbon
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Carbon dioxide in Mining & Concentration
Carbon dioxide in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-53: Hotspots Human toxicity (cancer) – Copper
Hotspots Human toxicity (cancer)
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V), Chromium (+VI) in Mining & Concentration
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V) in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-54: Hotspots Human toxicity (non-cancer) – Copper
Hotspots Human toxicity (non-cancer)
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Mercury (+II), Zinc (+II), Lead (+II) in Mining & Concentration
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V), Zinc (+II) in Smelting & Refining
181
Table 12-55: Hotspots Ionising radiation – Copper
Hotspots Ionising radiation
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows








Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Rolling (Production of the main product)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Rolling
Carbon (C14) in Mining & Concentration
Carbon (C14) in Smelting & Refining
Carbon (C14) in Rolling
Table 12-56: Hotspots Marine eutrophication potential – Copper
Hotspots Marine eutrophication potential
Life cycle stages

Processes



Elementary flows

Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Nitrogen oxides, Nitrate, Ammonium/ammonia in Mining &
Concentration
Nitrogen oxides, Nitrate in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-57: Hotspots Ozone depletion – Copper
Hotspots Ozone depletion
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows






Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Rolling (Production of the main product)
Rolling
Secondary material production
R 114 (dichlorotetrafluoroethane) in Rolling
R 114 (dichlorotetrafluoroethane) in Secondary material production
182
Table 12-58: Hotspots Particulate Matter/Respiratory Inorganics – Copper
Hotspots Particulate Matter/Respiratory Inorganics
Life cycle stages


Processes
Elementary flows






Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Secondary material production
Sulphur dioxide, Dust (PM2.5), Dust (PM2.5 - PM10) in Mining &
Concentration
Dust (PM10), Dust (PM2.5) in Secondary material production
Sulphur dioxide, Dust (PM10) in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-59: Hotspots Photochemical ozone formation – Copper
Hotspots Photochemical ozone formation
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Nitrogen oxides in Mining & Concentration
Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen oxides in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-60: Hotspots Resource Depletion – Copper13
Hotspots Resource Depletion
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows

Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)

Smelting & Refining

Vanadium in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-61: Hotspots Terrestrial eutrophication – Copper
Hotspots Terrestrial eutrophication
13
Within the LCI of copper, copper ore is not characterised as a resource (meaning metal content in ore is not
specified). This limits the usability of the LCI data for the screening study. See also screening report [SCREENING
2015]. Vanadium is part of the catalyst of the acid sulphuric plant present at the smelter’s site. This dataset is
based on literature data and thereby represents only medium/low quality data based on expert judgement.
183
Life cycle stages

Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing) Production of the main product
Processes
 Mining & Concentration
 Smelting & Refining
Elementary flows
 Nitrogen oxides in Mining & Concentration
 Nitrogen oxides in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-62: Resource depletion - water – Copper
Resource depletion - water
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows

Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)


Mining & Concentration
Water (river water from technosphere. turbined), Water (river water)
in Mining & Concentration
Table 12-63: Hotspots Land use, Soil Organic Matter (SOM) – Copper
Hotspots Land use, Soil Organic Matter (SOM)
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows

Rolling (Production of the main product)

Rolling

From grassland, To industrial area in Rolling
184
12.16.3 Lead
Table 12-64: Hotspots Acidification – Lead
Hotspots Acidification
Life cycle stages


Processes
Elementary flows




Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Secondary Material Production
Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen oxides in Mining & Concentration
Sulphur dioxide in Secondary Material Production
Table 12-65: Hotspots Ecotoxicity for aquatic freshwater – Lead
Hotspots Ecotoxicity for aquatic freshwater
Life cycle stages


Processes
Elementary flows




Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Secondary Material Production
Copper (+II), Arsenic (+V), Zinc (+II) in Mining & Concentration
Copper (+II), Arsenic (+V), Zinc (+II) in Secondary Material Production
Table 12-66: Hotspots Freshwater eutrophication – Lead
Hotspots Freshwater eutrophication
Life cycle stages


Processes
Elementary flows




Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Secondary Material Production
Phosphate in Mining & Concentration
Phosphorus in Secondary Material Production
185
Table 12-67: Hotspots IPCC global warming, excl. biogenic carbon – Lead
Hotspots IPCC global warming, excl. biogenic carbon
Life cycle stages


Processes
Elementary flows






Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Secondary Material Production
Carbon dioxide in Mining & Concentration
Carbon dioxide in Secondary Material Production
Carbon dioxide in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-68: Hotspots Human toxicity (cancer) – Lead
Hotspots Human toxicity (cancer)
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V), Lead (+II) in Mining & Concentration
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V), Lead (+II) in Smelting & Refining
Table 12-69: Hotspots Human toxicity (non-cancer) – Lead
Hotspots Human toxicity (non-cancer)
Life cycle stages

Processes




Elementary flows
Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Mercury (+II), Zinc (+II), Lead (+II) in Mining & Concentration
Mercury (+II), Zinc (+II), Lead (+II) in Smelting & Refining
186
Table 12-70: Hotspots Ionising radiation – Lead
Hotspots Ionising radiation
Life cycle stages


Processes
Elementary flows






Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Carbon (C14) in Mining & Concentration
Carbon (C14) in Smelting & Refining
Carbon (C14)) in Secondary Material Production
Table 12-71: Hotspots Marine eutrophication potential – Lead
Hotspots Marine eutrophication potential
Life cycle stages


Processes
Elementary flows




Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production
Mining & Concentration
Nitrogen oxides, Nitrate in Mining & Concentration
Nitrogen oxides, Nitrate, Ammonium/ammonia in Secondary Material
Production
Table 12-72: Hotspots Ozone depletion – Lead
Hotspots Ozone depletion
Life cycle stages


Processes
Elementary flows




Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production
Smelting & Refining
R 114 (dichlorotetrafluoroethane) in Smelting & Refining
R 114 (dichlorotetrafluoroethane) in Secondary material production
187
Table 12-73: Hotspots Particulate Matter/Respiratory Inorganics – Lead
Hotspots Particulate Matter/Respiratory Inorganics
Life cycle stages


Processes
Elementary flows






Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production
Mining & Concentration
Smelting & Refining
Sulphur dioxide, Dust (PM2.5), Nitrogen oxides in Mining &
Concentration
Sulphur dioxide, Dust (PM2.5) in Smelting & Refining
Sulphur dioxide in Secondary Material Production
Table 12-74: Hotspots Photochemical ozone formation – Lead
Hotspots Photochemical ozone formation
Life cycle stages


Processes
Elementary flows




Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production
Mining & Concentration
Nitrogen oxides in Mining & Concentration
Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen oxides in Secondary Material Production
Table 12-75: Hotspots Resource Depletion – Lead
Hotspots Resource Depletion
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows

Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)

Smelting & Refining

Silver, Lead in Smelting & Refining
188
Table 12-76: Hotspots Terrestrial eutrophication – Lead
Hotspots Terrestrial eutrophication
Life cycle stages


Processes
Elementary flows




Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production
Mining & Concentration
Nitrogen oxides in Mining & Concentration
Nitrogen oxides in Secondary Material Production
Table 12-77: Resource depletion - water – Lead
Resource depletion – water
Life cycle stages

Processes



Elementary flows

Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production
Mining & Concentration
Water (river water from technosphere. turbined), Water (river water)
in Mining & Concentration
Water (river water from technosphere. turbined), Water (river water)
in Secondary Material Production
Table 12-78: Hotspots Land use, Soil Organic Matter (SOM) – Lead
Hotspots Land use, Soil Organic Matter (SOM)
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows

Rolling (Production of the main product)

Rolling

From industrial area and, To industrial area in Rolling
189
12.16.4 Steel
Table 12-79: Hotspots Acidification – Steel
Hotspots Acidification
Life cycle stages


Processes
Elementary flows




Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production
Slab production
Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen oxides in Slab production
Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen oxides in Secondary Material Production
Table 12-80: Hotspots Ecotoxicity for aquatic freshwater – Steel
Hotspots Ecotoxicity for aquatic freshwater
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows






Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Rolling (Production of the main product)
Rolling
Slab production
Zinc (+II), Sulphuric Acid in Rolling
Zinc (+II) in Slab production
Table 12-81: Hotspots Freshwater eutrophication – Steel
Hotspots Freshwater eutrophication
Life cycle stages


Processes
Elementary flows







Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Rolling (Production of the main product)
Rolling
Secondary Material Production
Slab production
Phosphorus in Rolling
Phosphorus in Secondary Material Production
Phosphorus in Slab production
190
Table 12-82: Hotspots IPCC global warming, excl. biogenic carbon – Steel
Hotspots IPCC global warming, excl. biogenic carbon
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows

Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)

Slab production

Carbon dioxide in Slab production
Table 12-83: Hotspots Human toxicity (cancer) – Steel
Hotspots Human toxicity (cancer)
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows






Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Rolling (Production of the main product)
Rolling
Slab production
Mercury (+II), Arsenic (+V) in Rolling
Mercury (+II), Lead (+II) in Slab production
Table 12-84: Hotspots Human toxicity (non-cancer) – Steel
Hotspots Human toxicity (non-cancer)
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows






Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Rolling (Production of the main product)
Rolling
Slab production
Mercury (+II), Zinc (+II), in Rolling
Mercury (+II), Zinc (+II), Lead (+II) in Slab production
Table 12-85: Hotspots Ionising radiation – Steel
Hotspots Ionising radiation
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows






Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Rolling (Production of the main product)
Rolling
Secondary Material Production
Carbon (C14) in Rolling
Carbon (C14)) in Secondary Material Production
191
Table 12-86: Hotspots Marine eutrophication potential – Steel
Hotspots Marine eutrophication potential
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows






Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Rolling (Production of the main product)
Rolling
Slab production
Nitrogen oxides, Nitrogen in Rolling
Nitrogen oxides, Nitrate in Slab production
Table 12-87: Hotspots Ozone depletion – Steel
Hotspots Ozone depletion
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows

Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)


Slab production
R 114 (dichlorotetrafluoroethane), R 11 (trichlorofluoromethane) in
Slab production
Table 12-88: Hotspots Particulate Matter/Respiratory Inorganics – Steel
Hotspots Particulate Matter/Respiratory Inorganics
Life cycle stages



Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Secondary Material Production
Slab production


Sulphur dioxide, Dust (PM2.5)in Secondary Material Production
Sulphur dioxide, Dust (PM2.5) in Slab production

Processes
Elementary flows
Table 12-89: Hotspots Photochemical ozone formation – Steel
Hotspots Photochemical ozone formation
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows

Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)

Slab production

Nitrogen oxides and Carbon Monoxide in Slab production
192
Table 12-90: Hotspots Resource Depletion – Steel
Hotspots Resource Depletion
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows






Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Rolling (Production of the main product)
Rolling
Slab production
Tantalum in Rolling
Tantalum, Vanadium, iron ore, copper in Slab production
Table 12-91: Hotspots Terrestrial eutrophication – Steel
Hotspots Terrestrial eutrophication
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows






Virgin Material production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Rolling (Production of the main product)
Rolling
Slab production
Nitrogen oxides in Rolling
Nitrogen oxides in Slab production
Table 12-92: Resource depletion - water – Steel
Resource depletion – water
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows






Secondary Material Production (Raw material acquisition and preprocessing)
Rolling (Production of the main product)
Rolling
Secondary Material Production
Water (river water from technosphere. turbined), Water (river water)
in Rolling
Water (river water from technosphere. turbined), Water (river water)
in Secondary Material Production
Table 12-93: Hotspots Land use, Soil Organic Matter (SOM) – Steel
Hotspots Land use, Soil Organic Matter (SOM)
Life cycle stages
Processes
Elementary flows

Rolling (Production of the main product)

Rolling

From agricultural, To industrial area in Rolling
193
12.17
ANNEX XVII – DATA QUALITY REQUIREMENTS
Important information for the following calculation principle: Table 12-94 is based on the original table
from [PEF pilot Guidance V5.2, Annex F] and adapted for metal sheets. This table shall be used for new
data collection and existing datasets.
[PEF pilot Guidance V5.2, Annex F]: ”The dataset quality shall be calculated based on the six quality
criteria described below. A semi-quantitative assessment of the overall data quality of the dataset
shall be calculated summing up the achieved quality rating for each of the quality criteria, divided by
the total number of criteria. The Data Quality Rating (DQR) result is used to identify the corresponding
quality level. The semi-quantitative assessment of the overall data quality of the dataset requires the
evaluation (and provision as metadata) of each single quality indicator. This evaluation shall be done
according to Table 12.94 and formula [1]:
DQR 
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
TiR  TeR  GR  C  P  EoL
6
[1]
DQR : Data Quality Rating of the dataset
TeR: Technological Representativeness
GR: Geographical Representativeness
TiR: Time-related Representativeness
C: Completeness;
P: Precision/uncertainty;
EoL: Implementation of the End-of-Life baseline formula.
NOTE: Until the EF-compliant datasets are available, the above formula shall be applied without the
Eol parameter (and hence divided by five) for secondary datasets. For newly created datasets, the
formula with six parameters shall be applied. This is a temporary solution only – after the pilot
phase, the 6 parameters will be applied for all datasets.
194
Table 12-94: Quality level and rating for the data quality criteria; adapted from [PEF pilot Guidance V5.2]
Quality
level
Quality
rating
C14
TiR
P
TeR
GR
EoL
Very
good15
1
All 15 PEF Impact
Categories
Data16 are not
older than 5 years
with respect to
the release date
≤ 10%
The
technologies/raw
materials covered in the
dataset are exactly the
one(s) modelled
The processes included in
the dataset are fully
representative for the
geography stated in the title
and metadata
The EoL formula [2] is
implemented in the entire
dataset (foreground and all
background processes)
Good
2
12-14 PEF Impact
Categories (and all 10
categories classified I
or II in ILCD are
included17)
Data are not older
than 7 years with
respect to the
release date
10% to
20%
The
technologies/raw
materials modelled are
included in the mix of
technologies covered by
the dataset
The processes included in
the dataset are well
representative for the
geography stated in the title
and metadata
The EoL formula [2] is
implemented in foreground
level-1
+
level-2
disaggregated
processes
(see Figures E.2 and E.3)
Fair
3
10-11 PEF Impact
Categories (and all 10
categories classified I
Data are not older
than 9 years with
respect to the
release date
20% to
30%
The
technologies/raw
materials modelled are
representative of the
The processes included in
the dataset are sufficiently
representative for the
The EoL formula [2] is
implemented in foreground
at
level-1disaggregated
processes (see Figure E.2)
14
The authors of this PEFCR would associate the completeness criteria to the data collection, e.g. how much of the typical activity data and elementary flows from ANNEX
XI are covered by the user of this PEFCR during its application. If this criteria is indeed referring to impact categories, the name of the parameter should reflect this (e.g.
indicator completeness).
15
In some cases referred to as “excellent”
16
The reference time is the one when data have been originally collected and not the publication/calculation date. In case there are multiple data, the oldest is the one against
which the calculation should be made.
17
The 10 impact categories classified in ILCD Handbook as category I or II are : Climate change, Ozone depletion, particulate matter, ionizing radiation human health,
photochemical ozone formation, acidification, eutrophication terrestrial, eutrophication freshwater, eutrophication marine water, resource depletion mineral fossil and
renewable.
195
or II in ILCD are
included)
average technology used
for similar processes
geography stated in the title
and metadata
Poor
4
8-9
PEF
Impact
Categories (and all
those covered are
classified I or II in
ILCD)
Data are not older
than 11 years
with respect to
the release date
30% to
50%
Technology/raw material
aspects are different from
what described in the title
and metadata
The processes included in
the dataset are only partly
representative for the
geography stated in the title
and metadata
The EoL formula [2] is not
implemented,
but
all
information
and
data
needed to calculate all
parameters in the EoL
formula are available and
transparently documented
Very
poor
5
Less than 8 PEF
Impact
Categories
(and all those covered
are classified I or II in
ILCD)
Data are older
than 11 years
with respect to
the release date
> 50%
Technology/raw material
aspects are completely
different
from
what
described in the title and
metadata
The processes included in
the dataset are not
representative for the
geography stated in the title
and metadata
The EoL formula [2] is not
implemented
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To illustrate the geographical representativeness the following graph gives an overview of location
and nature of the main sources of iron-ore on global scale. Without the collection of specific inventory
data and thus the need to rely on datasets representing an average supply can have an effect on
environmental impacts e.g. resulting from type of mining, transport and/or quality of ore. Especially
if the composition of this average LCI is not readily available and no correction can be made to match
it better with the specific company mix of the PEFCR user.
The former quality indicator “methodological appropriateness” has been transformed into a minimum
entry level, meaning compliance to the methodological aspects is pre-requisite for a dataset to serve
as PEFCR conform and applicable dataset.
[PEF pilot Guidance V5.2, Annex F]:”The following methodological requirements shall be fulfilled in
order to classify a life cycle inventory dataset as PEF-compliant:



Cut off: a cut-off rule of 95%, based on material or energy flow or the level of environmental
significance, is allowed but has to be clearly documented and confirmed by the reviewer, in
particular with reference to the environmental significance of the cut-off applied. A cut-off
rule lower than 95% is not allowed and the dataset is considered as not-compliant with PEF
requirements.
Handling multi-functional processes: the following PEF multi- functionality decision hierarchy
shall be applied for resolving all multi- functionality problems: (1) subdivision or system
expansion; (2) allocation based on a relevant underlying physical relationship (substitution
may apply here); (3) allocation based on some other relationship.
Direct land use change: GHG emissions from direct LUC allocated to good/service for 20 years
after the LUC occurs, with IPCC default values.
197





Carbon storage and delayed emissions: credits associated with temporary (carbon) storage
or delayed emissions shall not be considered in the calculation of the EF for the default impact
categories.
Emissions off-setting: not to be included
Capital goods (including infrastructures) and their End of life: they shall be included unless
they can be excluded base on the 95% cut-off rule. The eventual exclusion has to be clearly
documented.
System boundaries: system boundaries shall include all processes linked to the product supply
chain (e.g. maintenance).
Fossil and biogenic carbon emissions and removals: removals and emissions shall be
modelled as follows:”
For the methodological requirement capital goods, a sensitivity analysis showed that capital goods
can be excluded based on the 95% cut-off rule for the level of environmental significance, see
[SCREENING 2015] and ANNEX XVIII.
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12.18
ANNEX XVIII – SCREENING STUDY
Executive Summary
The aim of this screening study was to test a harmonised approach leading to defined product
category rules for assessing the environmental impact of metal sheet products to encourage
improvements and possibly for benchmarking and comparison purposes. Specifically (see also section
2.1), the screening aimed to identify hotspots and better understand data quality requirements. The
screening is not intended to make statements about the product group impacts as such. Nor is it
intended to be used in the context of comparison or comparative assertions to be disclosed to the
public. The study has been conducted according to the requirements of the PEF Guide (Annex II to
Recommendation (2013/179/EU) and the Product Environmental Footprint Pilot Guidance (version
4.0). During this screening exercise, problems and approximations identified within some LCIA models
significantly affected the results of the less commonly used LCIA impact categories. Thus, there is a
higher degree of uncertainty in all results for models which were not considered as common LCA
practice at the time of this study.
For the purpose of this screening study, a “metal sheet” is defined as a product manufactured at an
industrial site with specific properties (e.g. mechanical properties, surface properties, conductivity,
etc …) designed for different end-use applications (e.g. building and construction applications,
electrical and electronic equipment, etc.). The metal sheet is an intermediate product. This means
that the use phase is outside the scope of the exercise and that all potential impacts related to the use
phase have not been taken into account in the screening study.
Metal sheets can be used in a very wide variety of applications. The draft PEFCR will define
six representative products: one for copper roofing, one for lead roofing, one for aluminium roofing,
one for steel flooring, one for aluminium appliance bodies and one for steel appliance bodies. For
other metal sheets, any PEF study will first require a screening of the existing PEFCR for metal sheets
and, according to the PEF Guide, an assessment of the applicability of this pilot’s PEFCR to the other
metal sheet will have to be made.
The studied functional unit includes a non-exhaustive list e.g. structural integrity, weather protection,
physical separation, shaping, sealing, aesthetics, etc. to the level required by the most relevant,
international, regional, national or technical standards to a reference extent of 1m².
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As shown above, the studied production route includes primary and secondary production. The
primary route covers mining, beneficiation, hydro- or pyro-metallurgical processing, casting, rolling
and finishing. End of life material enters at some parts of this flow-sheet. Secondary production can
be a stand-alone production line or can be fully integrated into primary production lines including
collection and sorting of scrap.
Exploration and identification of reserves of natural resources were not considered. Capital goods
are considered as not relevant for the main analysis following a sensitivity analysis. In the
foreground system (core process), no transport was considered at this stage. The use phase and
product life-time were not considered for the intermediate metal sheets, but will be required inthe
PEFCR developed for all final product PEFs. The environmental burdens arising from material
recycling at end-of-life and the associated credit have been calculated by means of six different
recycling formulae, resulting in a global impact in relation to the end-of-life scenario. Such
information will be required via the PEFCR as mandatory additional information for the metal sheet
PEF calculation.
It was assumed that no down-cycling applies to the Resource and Emissions profile of recycled
material input or to the virgin material that it replaces [PEF GUIDE].
It was judged that, for metal, material quality is determined and fixed where material substitution
takes place, i.e. at the point of casting the slab or ingot.
The overall data quality can be considered as good, based on expert judgement, considering precision,
complete coverage of the defined scope and representativeness of the data. For the background
metallurgical and transport processes, this study made use of databases provided by participating
commodity associations based on several previous LCA studies [EAA], [ECI], [ILZRO], [WORLDSTEEL].
For the manufacturing stage, the LCI and LCIA results are strongly impacted by the degree of
development of the LCI. The commodity associations’ LCIs were developed for impact assessment
200
categories commonly used by LCA practitioners. For other background processes (energy grid-mix,
process water etc.) the Gabi Database for the EU27 was used. The GaBi LCI database was reviewed by
ENEA as being ready to comply with the PEF Guide [ENEA].
Allocation based upon physical relationship was applied at ore & beneficiation level while in the case
of mixed ores (Cu and Pb) economic allocation has been applied during the complex processing steps
of the smelting & refining. For by-products such as sulphuric acid, allocation based on physical
relationship was applied using direct substitution.
To identify hotspots, the overall results were split into the manufacturing stage from cradle to gate
(Production); specific emissions associated with material recycling processes if appropriate/necessary
(Recycling); and the associated credits for assumed substitution of virgin material by recycled material
(Material credit). The latter two are the content of the additional environmental information needed
to describe the environmental footprint of the metal sheet at the intermediate status.
The screening suggests that the most relevant life cycle stage to be considered is the manufacturing
stage and, within that, the dominant process is the virgin (or primary) material production. In all
cases, recycling presents a much lower environmental impact for all impact categories with the
exception of ionizing radiation for steel recycling which is dominated by the recycling process because
only electric-arc furnaces are used for secondary steel making. The dominance of the impact of the
primary metal production compared to the impact of recycling shows as well the importance of
considering properly the recycling benefits resulting from the primary metal substituted by recycled
metal. Reflecting adequately such substitution effect is crucial for metals. Hence, for steel, copper and
aluminium sheets, the results show a high dependency on the recycling equation due to the high
discrepancy between the RC and the end of life recycling rate. As a result, it appears crucial to use the
integrated equation (or its equivalent the module D equation) to consider properly these recycling
aspects.
Within the virgin metal production chain, mining & beneficiation (concentration) and smelting and
refining are the dominant contributors to impact assessment categories. .
For two metals (copper and lead), beneficiation of the complex ores by means of complex processes
is required before smelting and refining can take place. For those metals, the mining & beneficiation
step contributes more to the most relevant impact categories than the smelting and refining step. For
the two other metals (aluminium and steel), the opposite is observed.
The impact categories preliminary identified as being recommended for communication are global
warming, acidification and photochemical ozone formation.
The screening suggests that potential freshwater & marine eutrophication and ozone depletion can
be considered as having no significant contribution.
201
Summary PEF impact categories for communication
Recommended default LCIA
Impact category
method
Climate
Change
(Global Baseline model of 100 years of
warming potential)
the IPCC
Acidification
Accumulated Exceedance
Photochemical
ozone LOTOS-EUROS
formation
Classification according to
ILCD
I (Overall robustness very high)
II (Overall robustness high)
II (Overall robustness medium)
The following problems related to data availability and methodology were identified:





For several of the default Environment Footprint Impact Categories, only single
characterisation factors are available for the whole of the EU, the use of which is not
considered best practice.
USEtox indicators for metals are still highly uncertain and not sufficiently robust for product
comparison or benchmarking.
The Abiotic Depletion Potential indicator specified in the PEF Guidance is not built upon an
ISO-compliant environmental mechanism, is highly uncertain and lacks robustness and
reproducibility. It also exaggerates metal depletion potential compared to fossil depletion,
which could lead to unjustified material preference.
While the LCIA method to assess potential impacts of particulate matter emissions seems
robust, the dust data shown as PM 2.5-10 probably refer in most cases only to PM 10 due to
difficulties to effectively measure PM2.5 emissions and lack of repeatability of the analytical
methods.
Eutrophication and Toxicity aspects appear overweighed compared e.g. to global warming.
This is due to the fact that three methodologies are used to assess Eutrophication and Toxicity
while only one impact assessment method is used to assess global warming potential.
The screening study has also shown that a sensible identification of the most relevant process steps
in the EF result can be highly influenced by the selected End-of-Life allocation approach. In all cases,
care should be taken to identify the most appropriate scenarios to describe the material flows
related to recycling and to identify the most accurate data for the calculation of the impact of the
recycling stage.
202