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ISSN (ONLINE):
2455-524X
V
I
J
E
M
VOLUME 1 ISSUE 3
APR-JUNE 2016
VISHLESHAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF
ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT
(VIJEM)
(AN OPEN ACCESS QUARTLY JOURNAL)
EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
SUNITA RAMCHANDANI
ASSOCIATE EDITOR
DEEPAK MOTWANI
PROMOTED BY
VISHLESHAN EDUCATIONAL & SOCIAL WELFARE SOCIETY
(VESWS) BHOPAL
CALL – 0755-4273272 (O)
E-mail: [email protected], [email protected]
Website: www.vijem.com
Vishleshan International Journal of Engineering and Management
(VIJEM) Volume 1, Issue 3 (Apr.-June, 2016)
ISSN (Online): 2455 – 524X
Website: www.vijem.com
Ph. (0755) 4273272
E-mail: [email protected]
Patron
Prof. (Dr.) Anoop Swarup
Chairman, Global Knowledge Alliance, Melbourne, Australia
Vice Chancellor, Jagran Lakecity University, Bhopal
Advisors
Dr. Ashish Dongre
Director Technical Education, Government of M.P.
Chairman, Indian Society of Technical Education, M.P. & C.G.
Formerly Vice Chancellor, RKDF University, Bhopal
Dr. Justin Paul
Associate Professor, University of Puerto Rico
Ex. Prof. Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Indore
Editor-in-Chief
Ms. Sunita Ramchandani
Associate Editor
Mr. Deepak Motwani
Vishleshan International Journal of Engineering and Management
(VIJEM) Volume 1, Issue 3 (Apr.-June, 2016)
ISSN (Online): 2455 – 524X
Website: www.vijem.com
Ph. (0755) 4273272
E-mail: [email protected]
Editorial Board Members
Prof. (Dr.) C. M. Sadiwala
Prof. (Dr.) Atul Mehrotra
Principal,
RKDF CTR, Bhopal
Ex. Prof. Maulana Azad National
Institute of Technology (MANIT),
Bhopal
Director,
School of Management (SoM)
Jagran Lakecity University, Bhopal
Prof. (Dr.) K. B. L. Shrivastava
Prof. (Dr.) Y. M. Dubey
Principal
Vedica Institute of Technology,
Bhopal
Principal
Vindhya Institute of Technology &
Science, Jabalpur
Dr. Tarun Kushwaha
Associate Professor
Prestige Institute of Management &
Research (PIMR), Indore
Ex. Associate Professor, Symbiosis
Institute of Business & Management
(SIBM), Pune
Assistant Professor
Maulana Azad National Institute of
Technology (MANIT), Bhopal
Dr. Pooja Gupta
Dr. Geetanjali Nilesh Bendale
Assistant Professor
School of Management (SoM)
Jagran Lakecity University, Bhopal
Ex. Research Analyst, Nielsen India
Pvt. Ltd., Vikroli
Ex. Lectrurer Yadavrao Tasgaonkar
Institute of Management Studies &
Research, Mumbai
Dr. Shikha Bhargava
Head of the Department - MBA
Oriental College of Management,
Bhopal
Dr. Shilpa Jain
Dr. Priyanka Nema
Assistant Professor
School of Management (SoM)
Jagran Lakecity University, Bhopal
Ex. Samsung C&T, Seoul South
Korea
Vishleshan International Journal of Engineering and Management
(VIJEM) Volume 1, Issue 3 (Apr.-June, 2016)
ISSN (Online): 2455 – 524X
Website: www.vijem.com
Ph. (0755) 4273272
E-mail: [email protected]
Reviewer Committee Members
Dr. Ravindra Tiwari
Head of Department – MBA
Patel Group of Institutions
Bhopal
Ms. Charu Modi
Lecturer, Bangalore International
College
Bangalore
Mr. Lokesh Payasi
Assistant Professor
Lakshmi Narain College of
Technology – MBA
Bhopal
Mr. Bhuvanesh K. Sharma
Assistant Professor
Balaji Institute of Modern
Management
Sri Balaji Society, Pune
Mrs. Sakshi Kamdar
Lecturer, School of Management
(SoM)
Jagran Lakecity University,
Bhopal
Ms. Komal Taneja
Assistant Professor,
Jeev Sewa Sansthan Group of
Institutions for WomenFaculty of Management, Bhopal
Mr. Amitesh Paul
Assistant Professor,
RKDF University, Bhopal
Mr. Aditya Gupta
Assistant Professor,
Vedica Institute of Technology,
Bhopal
Mr. S. K. Tiwari
Assistant Professor,
RKDF University, Bhopal
Mr. Ranjit Nikose
Assistant Professor,
Bhabha College of Engineering,
Bhopal
Vishleshan International Journal of Engineering and Management
(VIJEM) Volume 1, Issue 3 (Apr.-June, 2016)
ISSN (Online): 2455 – 524X
Website: www.vijem.com
Ph. (0755) 4273272
E-mail: [email protected]
Message from Chief Editor’s Desk
Today, with emerging advancements in research & technology, entire world has
got connected through boundary-less networks of knowledge and information.
Vishleshan International Journal of Engineering and Management is an attempt
to document relevant and practical research work in wide range of areas from
various parts of the world in which any specific domain of these areas can be
taken into consideration for research paper. Practical applicability of research
and empirical findings are required to be the most important feature of each
article/research paper to be published in the journal. The basic intent of this
journal is to bring about revolutionary change in achieving professional and
academic excellence through action and applied research approach.
We have tried to carefully put together range of research areas for the first issue
and categorized specific articles/research papers in separate sections. I
acknowledge the involvement of number of people whose contribution made
this publication possible-Author who submitted articles/research papers,
Distinguished Promoters, Managing Editor, Patrons, Advisors, and Members of
Editorial Board, Members of Reviewer Committee.
We hope to be the first choice of top rated research work with high quality
submissions, strategic review and the most invigorated Advisory Board.
Sunita Ramchandani
Vishleshan International Journal of Engineering and Management
(VIJEM) Volume 1, Issue 3 (Apr.-June, 2016)
ISSN (Online): 2455 – 524X
Website: www.vijem.com
Ph. (0755) 4273272
E-mail: [email protected]
CONTENTS
S. No.
Title
Page No.
1
Tax Incentives And Growth of Cement Industry in India
Punam Sachdeva, Dr. Hem Chand Jain
1-12
2
A Study on Affordable Construction (By Pet Bottles)
Kratika Kumawat, Shraddha Sethiya, Parul Soni
13-17
3
A Brief Study on Data Mining
Aayush Mehta, Akriti Saxena, Aishwarya Thanna
4
5
6
7
A Study on Working Capital Management in Public Enterprise Special
Reference to GAIL (India) Ltd. Through Working Capital Leverage and Net
Operating Cycle
Dr. Purnima Joshi
Hydrogen: As A Future Fuel
Rohit Satidasani, Shubham Shrivastava, Sameer Hussain Pathan
Influence of Out of Stock Condition on Baby Diapers on Stores’ Loyalty,
Brand Loyalty and Product Category Loyalty
Dr. Geetanjali Nilesh Bendale, Deepak Motwani
Impact of Information Technology and Management Education on Today’s
Generation
Prof. Pooja Vaidya, Dr. G. Y. Pathrikar
18-26
27-42
43-49
50-58
59-66
Vishleshan-International Journal of Engineering and Management
(VIJEM) Volume 1, Issue 3 (Apr.-June, 2016)
ISSN (Online): 2455 - 524X
Website: www.vijem.com
Ph. (0755) 4273272
E-mail: [email protected]
TAX INCENTIVES AND GROWTH OF CEMENT INDUSTRY IN INDIA
Punam Sachdeva*, Dr. Hem Chand Jain**
Associate Professor, Commerce, University of Delhi
Kalindi College*, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College**
[email protected]*, [email protected]**
Abstract
Fiscal policy plays an important role by introducing suitable corporate tax incentives and
motivating industries to grow, to accord higher priority to certain industrial sectors in India.
Any tax incentive scheme of Government influences tax liability of companies, its financial
performance and amount of reserves and stimulates investment in companies. The present work
analysis attempts to know how corporate tax incentives influence growth of cement industry and
also to highlight their relationship. But in this study the industrial growth is measured in terms
of the growth of five financial variables only. These variables selected are profit after tax, gross
fixed assets, capital employed, reserves and surplus and shareholder’s equity which signify
industrial growth. During the period from the financial year 2005-2006 to 2014-2015 the data of
these variables is collected and compiled on average basis for selected companies. The results
of the data reveal that the values of the variables are increasing throughout the decade. This
trend is indicative of growth of cement companies during the period under review. A linear
regression analysis technique is also used in the study. This analysis explains the relationship
between tax incentives and the increase in values of selected financial variables annually. The
data analysis through ‘b’ co-efficient, standard error, ‘T’ value and R2 value is shown in the
tables. The results witness that these variables are significant contributors to the growth of the
industry. A size wise analysis of the companies also confirms favorable growth with varying
values. Corporate tax incentives have been an important element of fiscal system leading to a
positive impact on the growth of cement industry.
Keywords: Fiscal policy, Tax incentives, Tax burden, Linear regression analysis, Industrial
growth.
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Vishleshan-International Journal of Engineering and Management
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ISSN (Online): 2455 - 524X
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Introduction
India ranks second in global cement industry. The demand of cement is growing at 8 per cent and
is expected to grow higher. Domestic consumption of cement in 2011 was 165.63 MT and likely
to reach 324 MT in 2015. The cement production is expected to reach 550 MT by 2020. The
demand of cement is growing in India and likely to reach 421 MT by the year 2017 due to
infrastructure investments in Government‟s XII Plan 2012-2017 amounting to US $ 1 trillion.
Further about 100 smart cities and infrastructure opportunities particularly in eastern states of
India will further boost its demand. Cement industry in India includes cement and its products,
cement sheets. There are approximately 81 actively listed public limited companies in cement
industry on Bombay Stock Exchange. This industry has generated numerous employment
opportunities for rural as well as urban workforce. There are many tax incentives available to
industries depending upon the nature of manufacturing activity and the eligibility norms. These
incentives are based either on the investment made or expenditure incurred. Sometimes
incentives are available as deduction from income from business or profession. But the nature
and quantum of incentives available at a particular time, nature of industry, period of benefit will
determine the effect on industrial growth. The various tax incentives available to industries are
depreciation allowance under Sec.32, and Sec.32AC provides for Investment allowance,
investment allowance in notified backward area in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Telangana and West
Bengal under Sec.32AD, deduction under Sec.35 for expenditure on scientific research,
amortization of preliminary expenses under Sec.35 D, the family planning expenditure under
Sec.36 (1)(ix) and many more.
Objective
Corporate tax incentives benefit the taxpayer companies in many ways. There may be a
reduction in the amount of tax payable, increase in the volume of fixed assets, capital
composition etc. Therefore every year corporate tax incentives are reviewed to give benefits to
industries for accelerating their growth. The objective of this article is to test empirically the
impact of corporate tax incentives on the growth of cement Industry. As corporate tax incidence
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reflects the benefits of tax incentives available to the industry, there is a need to study the
relationship between tax incentives and growth of cement industry in India.
Review of literature
The following researchers have made contributions on this subject:
In 1961 Ambirajan analyzed the evolution, structure and future prospects of corporate tax in
India. In 1971 Singh studied the provisions of depreciation of Income tax act with special
emphasis on corporate financial decisions. In 1980 Rao made some studies on the corporate tax
system and opined that corporate tax rate was the highest in India. In 1983 Vinay D. Lall made
some contributions on the subject of tax savings due to fiscal incentives granted to companies
and observed those companies large in size and some new companies availed significant
quantum of tax relief. In 1985 Dr. Devender Singh tested the hypothesis that corporate income
tax does not adversely affect the growth of industry. Some of the other researchers have also
reviewed the corporate tax structure in India. In 2004 Sarkar studied some issues related to tax
incentives in India and compared them with that of U.K., USA etc. and opined that the tax
incentive schemes had been successful in mobilizing savings and capital formation in India.
Methodology
The present study covers a period of ten years beginning from financial year 2005-2006 to 20142015 with a sample of 20 selected companies of the cement industry. Tax incentives available to
companies are taken as independent variable affecting the growth of industry. Further the
dependent variables selected as indicative of industrial growth are profit after tax (PAT), gross
fixed assets (GFA), capital employed (CE), reserves and surplus (RES.&SUR), and
shareholder‟s equity (SH.EQ). The data of these variables is collected over a period of ten years.
The values of each variable for this period are compiled to observe their respective trend.
Besides this a statistical tool applied for data analysis is linear regression model to know the
relationship between tax incentives and dependent variables leading to Industrial growth. This
relationship will further highlight how corporate tax incentives influence the values of variables
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every year during the decade. For further analysis all the companies of cement Industry are
classified on the basis of their size as Large, Medium and Small as under:
1. Large: Companies with an investment in Fixed Assets Rs.25001 Millions and above.
2. Medium: Companies with an investment in Fixed Assets Rs.10001- to Rs.25000 Millions.
3. Small: Companies with an investment in Fixed Assets Rs.1001- to Rs.10000 Millions.
The explanation of variables selected is as follows:
1. PAT: Represents profits before tax after deduction of provision for direct taxes.
2. CE: Refers to total capital with reserve fund and borrowings.
3. GFA: Represents net fixed assets including cumulative depreciation, arrears, provision
for impairments less lease reserve adjustment.
4. RES.& SUR.: Refers to appropriation of profits meant for future contingencies.
5. SH.EQ.: Refers to equity of ordinary shareholders only.
Source of data
In this article data of twenty actively traded cement companies on Stock exchanges has been
selected and compiled from CMIE PROWESS database, CMIE (Centre for Monitoring Indian
Economy Pvt. Ltd.) Mumbai. The figures for the five selected variables have been obtained from
the financial data as appearing in the financial statements published in CMIE PROWESS
database. The database includes data sourced from the Stock exchanges duly revised by the
PROWESS.
Results and Discussion
In this section the effect of tax incentives on the growth of cement Industry for 10 years period is
shown in following three parts:
PART -1: Data analysis of average growth of selected variables for period of 10 years.
PART-2: Data of all selected companies during the period under research.
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PART-3: Analysis on the basis of size of companies under review.
PART-1
In this part data compiled depicts the growth of variables selected under the study for cement
Industry. The data of variables for a period of 10 years for twenty selected companies is
presented below:
TABLE-1: GROWTH DATA OF VARIABLES (in millions)
FY
PAT
GFA
CE
RES. & SUR.
SH.EQ.
2005-6
1812.99
14828.78
14697.18
8466.91
8510.94
2006-7
2939.96
16148.77
18475.66
10835.01
11470.05
2007-8
4018.15
18233.85
22460.53
14333.19
14865.81
2008-9
3402.62
22354.54
27359.53
16696.46
17238.89
2009-10
3908.90
25592.93
30514.03
21254.16
21728.83
2010-11
3070.76
35712.70
37889.13
27087.79
27435.37
2011-12
4530.35
39761.55
43953.92
30358.05
30672.68
2012-13
4962.69
42943.03
48888.38
34076.63
34176.84
2013-14
3849.59
46413.12
53983.51
36940.67
37087.06
2014-15
4176.69
52848.41
58202.00
38677.10
39137.71
It is observed from values given in Table-1 that profit after tax (PAT) is increasing year after
year. The value of 1812.99 millions in 2005-2006 has increased to 4176.69 millions in 20142015. This increase is significant during the period under study. Thus a comparison of figures
during the decade witnesses growth in profits. Similarly there is an increasing trend in values of
Gross fixed assets, capital employed during this period. This rise in data can also be attributed to
growth of industry. The reserves and surplus were amounting to 38677.10 millions in 2014-2015
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as compared to 8466.91 millions in 2005-2006 indicate growth of industry. A similar trend is
observed in the variable shareholders equity which was 8510.94 millions in 2005-2006 and
touched 39137.71 millions in 2014-2015. Hence it can be derived that corporate tax incentives
positively affect the growth of cement Industry.
PART-2
Regression Analysis Results and Discussion
In this part the results of the impact of tax incentives on all the selected variables
mentioned above are shown in Table-2 with their detailed analysis.
TABLE-2
ANALYSIS FOR TEN YEARS
CEMENT INDUSTRY- TWENTY COMPANIES.
REGRESSION RESULTS OF IMPACT OF TAX INCENTIVES ON DIFFERRENT
VARIABLES
DEPENDENT
PAT
GFA
CE
RES.& SUR.
SH. EQ
INDEPENDENT
b
b
b
b
b
TAX
0.410
8.695
9.688
6.403
6.513
INCENTIVE
(0.651)
(1.873)
(1.293)
(1.309)
(1.242)
T
0.630
4.641*
7.489*
4.889*
5.243*
R2
0.04
0.72
0.87
0.74
0.77
Notes: 1. Figures in parenthesis below the 'b' coefficients represents the S.E. of 'b'
2. Regression coefficients with no asterisk mark are insignificant at 5 % level.
3. *indicates significant at 5%
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The data analysis of Table-2 indicates that the „b‟ coefficient value is positive. So during a
period of 10 years under consideration gross fixed assets (GFA), capital employed (CE),
reserves and surplus (R&S), shareholders equity (SE) are all favorably influenced by
independent variable i.e. tax incentives . The standard error value indicates the reliability of
results derived. The T values at five per cent level of significance (risk of being wrong) with
asterisk mark are significant except for profit after tax. Even R 2 values also depict that except
profit after tax a strong relationship exists between tax incentives and different variables
explaining industrial growth. These results are conclusive evidence of cement industry‟s growth.
As a consequence tax incentives have had a positive effect on the growth of cement industry at
five per cent level of significance. There is an important observation that the industrial growth is
influenced by non tax considerations also, but in this study the aspect of non tax considerations
has not been taken into account. Tax incentive is the sole variable considered to have an impact
on industrial growth.
PART 3
Size wise analysis
In this part the twenty selected companies of the cement Industry are classified on the basis of
their size as already mentioned in the Research Methodology above. Their data analysis results
are shown in part 3. The data analysis of the impact of tax incentives on growth of eleven large
sized, four medium sized and five small sized companies in cement Industry is presented through
Table-3, Table-4 and Table-5 respectively.
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TABLE-3
ANALYSIS FOR TEN YEARS
CEMENT INDUSTRY- LARGE SIZED ELEVEN COMPANIES.
REGRESSION RESULTS OF IMPACT OF TAX INCENTIVES ON DIFFERRENT
VARIABLES
DEPENDENT
PAT
GFA
CE
RES.& SUR.
SH. EQ
b
b
B
b
b
0.404
8.355
9.570
6.298
6.413
(0.632)
(1.889)
(1.246)
(1.270)
(1.196)
T
0.639
4.422*
7.678*
4.956*
5.361*
R2
0.04
0.70
0.88
0.75
0.78
INDEPENDENT
TAX
INCENTIVE
Notes: 1. Figures in parenthesis below the 'b' coefficients represents the S.E. of 'b'
2. Regression coefficients with no asterisk mark are insignificant at 5 % level.
3. *indicates significant at 5%
The data
analysis of large sized companies in Table-3 highlights that any change in tax
incentives (independent variable) results in favorable changes in the PAT, GFA, CE,
RES.&SUR., SH.EQ. i.e. (dependent variables) signifying the growth of industry. At five per
cent level of significance, except for profit after tax, a higher „b‟ co-efficient values, T values
and R2 values show that there is a strong relationship between tax incentives and the dependent
variables explaining growth of cement industry. Hence an overall impact is that tax incentives
positively affect industrial growth.
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TABLE-4
ANALYSIS FOR TEN YEARS
CEMENT INDUSTRY-MEDIUM SIZED FOUR COMPANIES
REGRESSION RESULTS OF IMPACT OF TAX INCENTIVES ON DIFFERRENT
VARIABLES
DEPENDENT
PAT
GFA
CE
RES.& SUR.
SH. EQ
INDEPENDENT
b
b
B
b
b
TAX
0.596
14.910
8.571
6.101
6.070
(1.324)
(3.863)
(3.134)
(2.208)
(2.228)
0.450
3.858*
2.734*
2.763*
2.723*
0.02
0.65
0.48
0.48
0.48
INCENTIVE
T
2
R
Notes: 1. Figures in parenthesis below the 'b' coefficients represents the S.E. of 'b'
2. Regression coefficients with no asterisk mark are insignificant at 5 % level.
3. *indicates significant at 5%
It is observed from the above table that when the results are analysed for a period of ten years for
the medium sized companies, the values indicate that tax incentives continue to remain
significant. At five per cent level of significance, although all the variables are positivetly
affected but gross fixed assets are strongly affected by the independent variable i.e. tax
incentives. R2 values indicate that tax incentives strongly affect the variable gross fixed assets as
compared to other dependent variables. Thus in case of medium sized companies of the cement
industry, tax incentives do positively affect industrial growth.
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TABLE-5
ANALYSIS FOR TEN YEARS
CEMENT INDUSTRY-SMALL SIZED FIVE COMPANIES.
REGRESSION RESULTS OF IMPACT OF TAX INCENTIVES ON DIFFERRENT
VARIABLES
DEPENDENT
PAT
GFA
CE
RES.& SUR.
SH. EQ
INDEPENDENT
b
B
b
B
b
TAX
0.674
7.877
10.033
10.223
10.383
(1.545)
(5.561)
(7.865)
(6.276)
(6.460)
T
0.436
1.416
1.275
1.628
1.607
R2
0.02
0.20
0.16
0.24
0.24
INCENTIVE
Notes: 1. Figures in parenthesis below the 'b' coefficients represents the S.E. of 'b'
2. Regression coefficients with no asterisk mark are insignificant at 5 % level.
3. *indicates significant at 5%
In Part-3 of the study, data analysis of small size companies in Table-5 depicts that during the
financial years 2005-06 to 2014-15, „b‟ values indicate that tax incentives positively influence
the dependent variables signifying growth. But the other values namely T values, R values are
not indicating a significant relationship. This indicates that there are other non tax factors
affecting the variables depicting industrial growth.
Conclusion
Tax incentives are significant tool of the industrial growth. The changing tax provisions in the
last decade are justifying industrial growth. The increasing values of variables namely profit after
tax, gross fixed assets, capital employed, reserves and surplus, shareholders equity of twenty
selected companies throughout the period of study is attributed to the growth of cement industry.
Hence overall the tax incentives positively affect the growth of cement Industry.
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Further linear regression analysis of the twenty cement companies indicates that tax incentives
significantly affect each of the variables except profit after tax. The values at five percent level
of significance confirm that tax incentives prove to be significant variable affecting industrial
growth except profit after tax. Hence the overall impact of tax incentives on industrial growth in
cement industry is favorable.
A size wise analysis concludes that in case of large and medium sized companies, the effect of
tax incentives on variables responsible for industrial growth is significant. However in case of
small sized companies, although taxes affect the variables indicative of growth but not
significantly. The overall impact is that corporate tax incentives do not adversely influence the
industrial growth.
Despite the fact that tax incentives significantly affect the growth of industry, it is not the only
variable leading to industrial growth. There are other predominant non tax considerations than
tax considerations affecting industrial growth. However, in the present study this aspect of non
tax considerations has not been taken into account. Tax incentive is the only variable considered
to examine its impact on industrial growth in cement industry.
Hence this research paper concludes that tax incentives positively affect the different variables
leading to industrial growth in cement industry.
References

Forbes N., (2002) „Doing Business in India‟ A. Krueger (ed.) Economic Policy Reforms
and the Indian Economy, pp 129-68 New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Balakrishnan.P, and M Parmeshwaran, (2007) „Understanding Economic growth in India:
A prerequisite” Economic and Political weekly 42(7):2915-22

C R Kothari, G Garg (2014) 3rd Ed. on “Research Methodology, Methods and
Techniques” New Delhi. New Age International Pvt. Ltd. Publishers
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Vishleshan-International Journal of Engineering and Management
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
Ph. (0755) 4273272
E-mail: [email protected]
David M. Levine, David F. Stephen, Kathryn A. Szabat,(2014) 7 th Ed. on “Statistics for
Managers”,-using Microsoft Excel PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

www.prowess.com CMIE PROWESS database, CMIE (Centre for Monitoring Indian
Economy Pvt. Ltd.) Mumbai.

www.ibef.org /industry/CEMENT-India.aspx
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A STUDY ON AFFORDABLE CONSTRUCTION (BY USING PET BOTTLES)
Kratika Kumawat*, Shraddha Sethiya** ,Parul Soni***
Civil Department, Mandsaur University, Mandsaur (M.P.)
[email protected]*, [email protected]**, [email protected]***
Abstract
PET stands for polyethylene terephthalate and PET bottles occupying an indispensable position
in the world are using PET bottles as effective containers for common man’s life. Food
processing industries across storing juice, beer, carbonated and non carbonated drinks. The
different parameters which determine the form of PET bottles during designing, manufacturing
and production phases are cost per unit, need, volume, color, intrinsic velocity, size, shape etc.
Irrespective of a wide range of applications, initiatives in recycling post consumer PET is
sporadic. The disposal of PET bottles in the environment, significantly contributes to ecological
imbalance. Interpreting the negative impacts and adopting the principles of Reuse in
construction nowadays. In construction industry, hybrid actors are using PET bottles as moulds
for developing alternative blocks. Technocrats are recycling PET products physically in to
fibers, pellets and flakes for partial replacement of fine and coarse aggregates in conventional
building materials. This paper intends to consolidate such initiatives addressing building
systems, materials and artifacts. It discusses an overview of such applications and other intuitive
trends which are emerging in Indian context.
Keywords
Plastic waste PETE bottle, sustainable material, urban wastage, construction material,
Innovative wall construction, SM-SW soil as filler material.
Introduction
Plastic bottles are increasingly becoming a menace to the environment due to the chemicals used
in the manufacture, improper use and disposal. As noted by Plastics Industry (2011) reusing
plastic bottles may seem safe, but a chemical found in reusable plastic bottles, known as
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Biphenyl A, is suspected of posing a health risk to human beings. As only regional products are
used the houses are cheap and can be afforded even by poor families. Additionally the method
has so far proven to be earthquake resistant and allows short construction periods. It also
mentions some ways for self-standing and insulating them in thermal and sound points of views
and some positive points which this material have versus others.
Pet bottle classroom: Kishangarh
Affordable Construction - New Delhi
A classroom was constructed at Kishangarh Primary School and Tuition Centre utilising PET
bottle bricks filled with waste mud.
Samarpan Foundation has applied for and is in the process of registering its patent for Nylon-6
Fish Net and PET Bottle Construction under the Patents Act, 1970, with the Controller of
Designs under the Design Act, 2000 and under the Copyrights Act, 1957.
Samarpan School after finishing work
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Reason of using PET Bottles

PET bottles have become the bane of modern civilization. Due to the poor quality of drinking
water, mineral water packaged in PET bottles abounds our cities & towns. In addition,
aerated drinks & sodas have added a profusion of discarded, unwanted PET bottles.

PET bottles are a menace because of their longetivity. They do not degrade and hence pose a
disposal problem. Plastic makes up much of street litter in urban and rural areas. It is rapidly
filling up landfills and chocking water bodies.

We have taken this negative aspect of the PET bottles i.e. its longevity and converted it into
positive. We found that when a pet bottle is filled with mud or sand and recapped, it can be
used as a solid, everlasting brick.

We have successfully replaced steel RCC slab but Nylon- 6 fish net at a mere 1% of the cost
of steel, utilising its high tensile strength.
Building wall constructed by using plastic bottle
Conclusion

One of the main disadvantages in constructing houses is high cost of the building. High
cost is primary requirement for constructing the house in places where people are below
poverty line, is becoming one of the most significant problem of peoples.
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
Ph. (0755) 4273272
E-mail: [email protected]
On the other hand, urbanization growth will increase rubbish especially non-renewable
ones. Eco friendly architectural principles are being incorporated into more buildings
every day in the world but they are still out of reach of many people due to lack of
knowledge and awareness.

In this paper we implemented strategies and systems based on Eco-friendly environment
that could still be built at very low costs, with waste materials that is plastic bottle,
providing adequate thermal comfort while being sustainable.

At the end, it was concluded that in different factors such as time of execution, load
capacity, flexibility, reducing waste, cost and energy efficiency, plastic bottles can be
more effective compared to some conventional building materials such as brick, concrete
and ceramic blocks.
References

Adams, E. A. and Agib, A. R. A. (2001), “Compressed Stabilised Earth Blocks
Manufacture
in
Sudan,
UNESCO”,
Paris:
522/RAB/11,
http://tscglobal.net/wpcontent/uploads/2010/12/CEB-in.

Andreas Froese (2001), “Plastic bottles in construction who is the founder of „ECOTEC‟, http://www.eco-tecnologia.com.

Andrew Kibuuka, “Capacity Building of JEEP Folke Center, Uganda”, The information
officer of Joint Energy and Environment Project (JEEP), Uganda.

ENSO
Bottles
(2009),
“Plastic
Bottles
Environmental
Impact”,
http://www.ensobottles.com/FAQ/FAQ Environmental-Impact.html.

Kalumirekusimwiragi (June 2011), “Investigating the compressive strength of plastic
bottles as masonary”, Uganda Martyrs University.
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ISSN (Online): 2455 - 524X
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
Ph. (0755) 4273272
E-mail: [email protected]
Mojtaba V. S., Masoud V. S., Azim S. B. (2013), “ Investigating the Application of
Plastic Bottle as a Sustainable Material in the Building Construction”, International
Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research, Vol.2, Issue I, pp. 28-34.

Samarpan foundation, “House construction with plastic bottles, New Delhi”,
www.samarpanfoundation.org.
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A BRIEF STUDY ON DATA MINING
Aayush Mehta*, Akriti Saxena**, Aishwarya Thanna***
CSE, Mandsaur Institute of Technology, Mandsaur (M.P.)
[email protected]*, [email protected]**, [email protected]***
Abstract
Data Mining is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into
useful information - information that can be used to increase revenue, cuts costs, or both. The
main aim of this paper is to expound about the knowledge discovery and data mining. Data
mining software is one of a number of analytical tools for analyzing data. It allows users to
analyze data from many different dimensions or angles, categorize it, and summarize the
relationships identified. Technically, data mining is the process of finding correlations or
patterns among dozens of fields in large relational databases. For processing the data now there
are many traditional and statistical methods of data analyses and spreadsheets are used to
obtained informative reports from data but they can’t give the knowledge from data.
Index Term: Data, Information, Knowledge, Data Mining, Data Warehouse
Introduction
Nowadays, automation of many financial, retail and government transactions related activities
and decisions generates huge amount of data to be stored in databases, data warehouses and other
information repositories by large and simple transaction i.e. tax returns, telephone calls, business
trips, performance tests and product warranty registration which are being handled through
computer. So, in order to maintain the large amount of information (knowledge) we need some
technique which could help humans to reduce their efforts so that they can accomplish their
requirements of keeping data safe and accessible with an ease. A data warehouse is a subjectoriented, integrated, time-variant, and nonvolatile collection of data in support of management’s
decision-making process.
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The warehouse usually resides on its own server and is separate from the transaction-processing
or “run-the-business” systems. We are drowning in data, but starving for knowledge! So, we
extract interesting knowledge from data in large databases which is known as data mining.
Before going deep into data mining and data warehouse we should firstly know about some
terminologies which are interrelated.
Data: Data is raw or unorganized form of facts and figures that refer to, or represent, conditions,
ideas, or objects. It is limitless and present everywhere in the universe.
Information: Data that is accurate and timely, specific and organized for a purpose, presented
within a context that gives it meaning and relevance, and can lead to an increase in
understanding and decrease in uncertainty.
Information= Data + Context + Meaning
Knowledge:
Awareness or
understanding
of
a
circumstance
or fact,
gained
through association or experience. Facts, information, and skills acquired through experience or
education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject:
Intelligence:
The ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one's environment or to think
abstractly as measured by objective criteria, also we can say to learn or understand or to deal
with new or trying situations. In order to understand data mining and warehouse in an efficient
manner we should take an overview of some following given topics.
Stages of Information System:

STAGE 0: Manual Information System
o Example: Records, Files, etc.

STAGE 1: Sequential Information System
o Example: Tapes, Files, etc.
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
Ph. (0755) 4273272
E-mail: [email protected]
STAGE 2: File based Information System
o Example: Disk, Application program, etc

STAGE 3: DBMS based Information System
o Example: Generalized data management software.
Among the above stages, DBMS based Information System is the most efficient stage among all.
But the approach which is followed by DBMS is as follows:

Integration

Efficient Storage/Access

Provides Simple view

Transaction Management
A DBMS (Database Management System) is a complete system used for managing digital
databases that allows storage of database content, creation/maintenance of data, search and other
functionalities.
Data Mining
Data Mining is a field in computer science, which deals with the extraction of previously
unknown and interesting information from raw data. Usually, the data used as the input for the
Data mining process is stored in databases. Users who are inclined toward statistics use Data
Mining. They utilize statistical models to look for hidden patterns in data. Data miners are
interested in finding useful relationships between different data elements, which is ultimately
profitable for businesses.
Data mining is also known as Knowledge Discovery in Data (KDD). Due to the exponential
growth of data, especially in areas such as business, data mining has become very important tool
to convert this large wealth of data in to business intelligence, as manual extraction of patterns
has become seemingly impossible in the past few decades.
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Why Data Mining?
Main reasons to use data mining are:

Amount of data is more and the information is less.

Due to above there is a need to extract useful information from the data and to interpret it.
Data mining can automate the process of finding relationships and patterns in raw data and the
results can be either utilized in an automated decision support system or assessed by a human
analyst. This is why to use data mining, especially in science and business areas which need to
analyze large amounts of data to discover trends which they could not otherwise find.
If we know how to reveal valuable knowledge hidden in raw data, data might be one of our most
valuable assets. While data mining is the tool to extract diamonds of knowledge from your
historical data and predict outcomes of future situations.
Areas of data to be mined
Different kinds of data that data mining is usually applied on could be structured, unstructured or
mixed and some of them are:
Flat files: Flat files are simple text files that are in binary or text format and the structure of
these files would already be known so that data mining algorithm can be easily applied.
World Wide Web: Data could be saved in web in the form of text, video, audio, raw data or
applications. Data mining in World Wide Web consists of three different types; web content
mining, web structure mining and web usage mining.
Relational Databases: Relational database consists of different tables that are required to
contain data. These data are stored in tables in the form of attributes and their values.
Different query languages are used for relational databases and some of them are SQL, MS
Access, and Oracle etc. These languages are used to store, retrieve and manipulate data in form
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of tables. Data mining algorithms are applied on relational databases in order to analyze and
summarize data making the best use of the structure innate to relational databases.
Way data is extracted:
KNOWLEDGE
PATTERN
DATA MINING
TASK RELEVANT
DATA WAREHOUSE
DATA CLEANING
DATABASE
Difference between DBMS and Data mining
DBMS is a full-fledged system for housing and managing a set of digital databases. However
Data Mining is a technique or a concept in computer science, which deals with extracting useful
and previously unknown information from raw data. Most of the times, these raw data are stored
in very large databases. Therefore Data miners use the existing functionalities of DBMS to
handle manage and even preprocess raw data before and during the Data mining process.
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However, a DBMS system alone cannot be used to analyze data. But, some DBMS at present
have inbuilt data analyzing tools or capabilities.
Data Warehouse
Data warehousing can be said to be the process of centralizing or aggregating data from multiple
sources into one common repository.
It is simply a single, complete and consistent store of data obtained. It was needed in mining for
unified access data. Data Warehouse is:

Non-Volatile

Time Varying

Integrated

Subject Oriented

Large volume of data
It was introduced to overcome the problems of database which was unification of data.
Functions or Techniques of Data Mining:
Following are the techniques of data mining

Classification (Attribute)

Estimation (Regression)

Prediction (Time series)

Association (Cross selling)

Clustering (Segmentation)
Classification
The clustering techniques analyze a set of data and generate a set of grouping rules that can be
used to classify future data. The mining tool automatically identifies the clusters, by studying the
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pattern in the training data. Once the clusters are generated, classification can be used to identify,
to which particular cluster, an input belongs.
Association
An association rule is a rule that implies certain association relationships among a set of objects
in a database. In this process we discover a set of association rules at multiple levels of
abstraction from the relevant sets of data in a database. For example, one may discover a set of
symptoms often occurring together with certain kinds of diseases and further study the reasons
behind them.
Clustering
Clustering is a data mining technique that makes meaningful or useful cluster of objects which
have similar characteristics using automatic technique. The clustering technique defines the
classes and puts objects in each class, while in the classification techniques, objects are assigned
into predefined classes
Prediction
The prediction, as it name implied, is one of a data mining techniques that discovers relationship
between independent variables and relationship between dependent and independent
variables. For instance, the prediction analysis technique can be used in sale to predict profit for
the future if we consider sale is an independent variable, profit could be a dependent variable.
Then based on the historical sale and profit data, we can draw a fitted regression curve that is
used for profit prediction.
Data warehousing versus Data mining:
Data warehousing is a process that must occur before any data mining can take place. In other
words, data warehousing is the process of compiling and organizing data into one common
database, and data mining is the process of extracting meaningful data from that database. The
data mining process relies on the data compiled in the data warehousing phase in order to detect
meaningful patterns.
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Advantages of Data Mining

Marketing / Retail: Data mining helps marketing companies build models based on
historical data to predict who will respond to the new marketing campaigns such as direct
mail, online marketing campaign etc.

Finance / Banking: Data mining helps banks detect fraudulent credit card transactions
to protect credit card’s owner.

Manufacturing: By applying data mining in operational engineering data, manufacturers
can detect faulty equipments and determine optimal control parameters.

Governments: Data mining helps government agency by digging and analyzing records
of financial transaction to build patterns that can detect money laundering or criminal
activities.
Disadvantages of data mining

Privacy Issues: The concerns about the personal privacy have been increasing
enormously recently especially when internet is booming with social networks, ecommerce, forums, blogs. However businesses don’t last forever, some days they may be
acquired by other or gone. At this time the personal information they own probably is
sold to other or leak.

Security issues: Security is a big issue. Businesses own information about their
employees and customers including social security number, birthday, payroll and etc.
However how properly this information is taken care is still in questions.
Conclusion
Data mining is an iterative process of extracting interesting knowledge from data in large
databases. KDD is the overall process of finding and interpreting knowledge from data. It helps
the workers in their everyday business activity and improve their productivity and also helps for
knowledge workers like executives, managers, analysts to make faster and better decisions .So
knowledge should be valid and potentially useful and then the hidden information in the
database will be useful.
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Data mining brings a lot of benefits to businesses, society, governments as well as individual.
However privacy, security and misuse of information are the big problems if they are not
addressed and resolved properly.
References

Data Mining http://storm.cis.fordham.edu/~gweiss/papers/data-mining-chapter-2010.pdf.

Introduction
to
Data
mining.
http://www
users.cs.umn.edu/~kumar/dmbook/dmslides/chap1_intro.pdf.

A survey on Data mining Techniques. http://www.issrjournals.org/links/papers.php?journal=ijisr&application=pdf&article=IJISR-14-223-03.
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A STUDY OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT IN PUBLIC ENTERPRISE –
SPECIAL REFERENCE TO GAIL (INDIA) LTD. THROUGH WORKING CAPITAL
LEVERAGE AND NET OPERATING CYCLE
Dr. Purnima Joshi
Joint HOD Commerce, Sri Sathya Sai College for Women, Bhopal
[email protected]
Abstract
As we know that working capital is required to meet the day to day operating expenses and for
holding stocks of raw materials, spare parts, consumables, work in progress and finished goods
and book debts. Here, an attempt has been made to study the working capital leverage and net
operating cycle in Gail (India) Ltd. It was found that both leverage and net operating cycle the
Gail (India) Limited has maintained its position quite well.
Keywords: Working Capital, Leverage, Net Operating Cycle.
Introduction
Working Capital Management means planning, organizing, directing and controlling of working
capital. Basically, it is needed because of the existence of operating cycle. Operating cycle is the
duration of time between acquisition of supplies and the collection of cash from receivables.
Working Capital is required to finance operations during operating cycle for the business to run
smoothly. Whereas, Leverage analysis is a technique which is used to quantify risk return
relationship of different alternatives of capital structure.
Investors within the Oil and Gas Industry should keep an eye of the debt levels of the balance
sheet. It is such a Capital intensive industry that high levels of debt can put a strain on a
company’s credit ratings, weakening their ability to purchase new equipment or finance other
capital projects.
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About Gail (India) Limited
Presently Gail (India) Limited is a fully fledged global energy company listed in fortune 2000
companies. It has its presence in five countries namely, China, Egypt, Mynmar, Oman and
Singapore.
It is dealing in the business of Citi Gas Distribution (CGD) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
in different countries. Further, it is also participating in an onshore pipeline project for
transportation of gas from Mayanmar to China.
Gail (India) Limited started its business in natural gas areas in 1984. Later on it progressed as a
leading integrated energy Company having its presence in a number of energy areas.
Objectives of the Study

To know the performance of Gail (India) Limited by working capital leverages.

To know the operating cycle means to know the conversation of cash into inventory,
conversion of inventory into debtors and conversion of debtors into cash.
Research Methodology
Research is commonly known as search for knowledge. It is a movement from know to
unknown.
Data Collection
The search for answers to research questions is called collection of data. Data are facts, and other
relevant materials, past and present, serving as bases for study and analyses.
There are two methods of data collection they are:
Primary Data Collection.

Secondary Data Collection.
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This project is based on Primary as well as Secondary Data. The Primary Data collected through
interview of Head of Finance department and Head of Statistical department of Gail (India)
Limited.
The Secondary Data collected from the Annual Reports of Gail (India) Limited.
Limitations of the Study

The study is limited up to three years (2010-11 to 2012-13) performance of the company.

This study is conducted for a short period. Because of limited period of time, the study
may not be retained fully fledged and utilization in all aspects.
Tools for the Analysis

Working Capital Leverage.

Net Operating Cycle.
Working Capital Leverage
Leverage Analysis
Leverage Analysis is a technique, which is used to quantity risk return relationship of different
alternatives of capital structure. Risk exists because of lack of certainty.
Leverage means use of sources of funds bearing fixed financial payments like debt in the capital
structure.
Investors within the oil and gas industry should keep an eye on the debt levels on the balance
sheet. It is such a capital intensive industry that high levels of debt can put a strain on a
company’s credit ratings, weakening their ability to purchase new equipment or finance other
capital projects.
For analyzing the working capital leverage, we have taken the four measures:
Debt/EBITDA (Earnings before Interest, Tax, Depreciation and Amortization).

EBIT/Interest Expense.
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
Debt/Capital.

Debt/Equity.
Ph. (0755) 4273272
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Debt Ratios
This is where analysts, to give a better idea of how these companies face against the competition,
use specific leverage ratios in assessing the financial health of a company. With a basic
understanding of these ratios in oil and gas, investors can better understand the fundamentals of
oil and gas stocks.
It is important to note that debt is not inherently bad. Using leverage can increase shareholders
returns, as the cost of debt is lower than the cost of equity. Since it is important to know how
well a business is managing its dept, the following leverage ratios are used:
Debt/EBIDA (Earnings before Interest, Tax Depreciation and Amortization).

EBIT/Interest Expense.

Debt/Capital.

Debt/Equity.
Debt to EBITDA
The Debt to EBITDA leverage ratio measures a company’s ability to pay off its incurred debt.
Since oil and gas companies typically have a lot of debt on their balance sheets, this ratio is
useful in determining how many years of EBITDA would be necessary in order to pay back all
the debt. Typically, it can be alarming if the ratio is over three, but this can vary depending on
the industry.
A low ratio indicates that the company will be able to pay back its debts faster. Along with that,
Debt/EBITDA multiples can vary depending on the industry. This is why it is important to only
compare companies within the same industry such as oil and gas.
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Table 1: Debt/EBITDA
(Rs. in Crores)
Year
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
Debt
6904.10
9697.48
13918.20
EBITDA
5798.95
6354.84
6557.85
Ratio
1.19
1.53
2.12
Source: Compiled from Annual Report of Gail (India) Ltd.
Observation
It was observed that debt during the study period is in increasing way. In the year 2010-11, it was
Rs. 6904.10 crores while in the subsequent years it was increased by 40.46% and 101.59% in
2011-12 and 2012-13 financial year respectively
Whereas earning before. Interest, Tax, Depreciation and amortization also in an increasing way
but the percentage of increment as compared to 2010-11 is not that much in case of Debt. In the
year 2010-11, the EBITDA was Rs. 5798.95 crores. This amount was increased by 9.59% in the
year 2011-12 and 13.09% in 2012-13. The ratio between the two also in an increasing way. In all
the three years, the ratio is below 3.
(ii)
Interest Coverage Ratio
EBIT
Interest Coverage Ratio = ––––––––––––––––
Interest Expense
The interest coverage ratio is used by oil and gas analysts to determine a firm’s ability to pay
interest on outstanding debt. The greater the multiple, the less risk to the lender and typically, if
the company has a multiple higher than one, they are considered to have enough capital to pay
off its interest expense an oil and gas company should cover their interest and fixed charges by at
least a factor of two, or even more ideally, 3:1.
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An interest – coverage ratio below 1 is an immediate indication that the company, regardless of
its industry, is not generating sufficient cash to cover its interest payments.
Table 2: EBIT/Interest Expense
(Rs. in Crores)
Year
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
EBIT
5798.95
6354.84
6557.85
Interest Expense
463.00
680.45
993.62
Ratio
12.52:1
9.34:1
6.60:1
Source: Compiled Annual Report of Gail (India) Ltd.
Observation
It has been seen that EBIT and Interest Expense, both as compared to 2010-11, increased. The
interest expense is increased by 46.97% and 114.60% in 2011-12 and 2012-13 respectively.
In all the three years, the ratio between EBIT and Interest Expense are in descending order. In
2010-11 it is 12.52, in 2011-12 it is 9.34 and in 2012-13 it is 6.60. During the study period the
interest coverage is above 1. It means the Gail (India) Ltd. generating the sufficient cash to cover
the interest.
(iii) Debt to Capital = Debt /Capital
Debt
Debt to Capital = –––––––––––––
Capital
The debt to capital ratio is a measurement of a company’s financial leverage. It is one of the
more meaningful debt ratios because it focuses on the relationship of debt liabilities as a
component of a company’s total capital base. Debt includes all short term and long term
obligations. Capital includes the company’s debt and shareholder’s equity.
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The ratio is used to evaluate a firm’s financial structure and how it’s financing operations.
Typically, if a company has a high debt to capital ratio amongst its peers, then it may have an
increased default risk due to the effect the debt has on its operations.
Table 3: Debt to Capital
(Rs. in Crores)
Year
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
Total Debt
6904.10
9697.48
13918.13
Total Capital
1268.48
1268.48
1268.48
Ratio
5.44:1
7.64
10.97
Source: Compiled from Annual Report of Gail (India) Ltd.
(iv) Debt to Equity = Debt/Equity
Debt
Debt to Equity = ––––––––––
Equity
The debt/equity ratio, probably one of the most common financial leverage ratios, is calculated
by dividing total liabilities by shareholders equity. Typically, only interest bearing long term
debt & short term debt is used as the liabilities in this calculation. However, analyst may make
adjustments to include or exclude certain items. The ratio indicates what proportion of equity and
debt a company uses of finance its assets. It is important to note, however, that this ratio can
widely vary between oil and gas firms, depending on their size.
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Table 3: Debt/ Equity
(Rs. in Crores)
Year
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
Debt.
6904.10
9697.48
13918.13
Equity (Shareholder’s Fund)
21213.87
24913.18
28794.66
Ratio
0.33
0.39
0.48
Source: Compiled from Annual Report of Gail (India) Ltd.
Observation
It has been seen that the debt equity ratio is just under one during the study period. In the year
2010-11, the debt was Rs. 6904.10 crores and it was raised by 40.46% in the year 2011-12 and
101.59% in the year 2012-13. While the equity was raised by 17.44% in the year 2011-12 and
35.74% in the year 2012-13 as compared to 2010-11.
In finance, leverage (also known as gearing) refers to the use of debt capital to supplement equity
capital. Companies usually, use leverage to attempt to increase returns on equity capital, as it can
increase the scope for gains or losses. The term working capital leverage refers to the impact to
level of working capital management should improve the productivity of investment in current
assets and ultimately it will increase the return on capital employed. Working capital leverage
measures the responsibilities of ROCE (Return on Capital Employed) for changes in current
assets. We can apply the following formula for calculating working capital leverage.
Working Capital Leverage = % Changes in ROCE % Changes in Current Assets.
EBIT x 100
Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) = ––––––––––––
Total Assets
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Table 4: Calculation of Working Capital Leverages.
Years
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
ROCE
19.08%
12.45%
10.97%
WC Leverage
1%
38%
31%
Source: Compiled from Annual Report of Gail (India) Ltd.
Observation
It was observed that the return on capital employed declining in a study period. In the first year
of the study period it was 19.08%, in 2011-12 it comes down to 12.45% and in 2012-13, it is
10.97%. While working capital leverage, it was just 1% in 2010-11 and increased in a rapid way
in 2011-12 by 38% and in 2012-13 by 31%.
Operating Cycle Analysis or Working Capital Cycle
Working Capital is also known as revolving capital. Every business, regardless of what they do
operates this cycle. To start any business cash is required. This cash is then used to purchase
stock in order to generate a sale. When the stock is sold it is either by way of cash or is charged
to an amount, creating a debtor. The operating cycle is the length of time between the company’s
outlay on raw materials, wages and other expenses and inflow of cash from sale of goods.
Thus, a revolution or cycle from cash to raw materials, to work in progress, to finished goods, to
debtors and back to cash takes place. This revolution is called as operating cycle.
Further, following formula can be used to determine the conversion periods. Each of the
components of the operating cycle can be calculated as follows:-
Average Stock of Raw Material
RMCP=
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Raw Material Consumption per day
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Average Stock of Finished Goods
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
FGCP=
Total Cost of Goods Sold per day
Average Accounts Receivables
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
RCP=
Net Credit Sales per day
Average Trade Creditors
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
CPP=
Average Credit Purchase per day
After computing the period of one operating cycle, the total number of operating cycles that can
be computed by dividing 365 days with number of operating days in a cycle. The total
expenditure in the year when divided by the number of operating cycles in a year will give the
average amount of the working capital requirement.
In other words, operating cycle refers to the number of days taken for the conversion of cash to
inventory through the conversion of accounts receivable to cash. It indicates towards the time
period for which cash is engaged in inventory and accounts receivable. If an operating cycle is
long, then there is lower accessibility to cash for satisfying liabilities for the short term.
Table 5: Operating Cycle (No. of Days)
Year
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
Days Debtors
23.07
18.74
19.76
Days Inventory
11.62
14.25
13.55
Days Payable
34.06
22.14
24.42
Source: Compiled from the annual report of Gail (India) Ltd.
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Observation
It has been seen that receivables collection period are in descending order. It was 23.07 in 201011, 18.74 in 2011-12 and 19.76 in 2012-13 while Inventory conversion period are in increasing
order. 11.62 in 2010-11 14.25 in 2011-12 and 13.55 in 2012-13. As far as creditors payment
period is concerned it was 34.06 days, 22.14 days and 24.42 days in 2010-11, 2011-12 and 201213 respectively.
Table 6: Impact of the components of the operating cycle
Year
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
RMCP
4.57
7.82
13.20
FGCP
5.39
5.91
6.57
RCP
19.83
18.06
17.9
PCP
45.50
36.02
31.78
Source: Compiled from the annual report of Gail (India) Ltd.
Net Operating Cycle
The difference between gross operating cycle and payables deferral period is called net operating
cycle. Generally, a company may resources (raw materials) on credit and temporarily postpones
payment of certain expenses. If net operating cycle of a firm increases it means further need for
negotiated working capital.
The calculation of Net Operating Cycle helps to know the exact period of working capital
turnover i.e. how long it takes to convert cash again into cash? Through this calculation we can
ascertain the working capital period.
Net Operating Cycle = TOCP – Accounts Payable Period.
Here, TOCP means Total Operating covers in period i.e. Raw Material Conversion Period +
Finished Goods Conversion Period + Receivables Collection Period.
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Table 7: Net Operating Cycle (NOC)
Year
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
TOCP
35.03
32.47
37.76
PCP
34.06
22.14
24.42
NOC
0.97
10.33
13.34
Source: Compiled from the Annual Report of Gail (India) Ltd.
Observation
From the above table, it was observed that the total operating covers in period in 2011-12 is little
bit earlier as compared to 2010-11 and 2012-13. Same in the year 2011-12 the payment made
earlier as compared to 2010-11 and 2012-13. In 2011-12, the company made the payment within
22 days, in 2012-13 the time taken for payment is 24 days while 34 days time taken for payment
to creditors in 2010-11.
As far as Net operating cycle is concerned. It is increasing way throughout the study period. In
2010-11, 2011-12 and 2012-13 the NOC is 0.97 days, 10.33 days and 13.34 days respectively. It
means the company gets its cash back in the year 2010-11 0.97 days, 10.33 days in 2011-12 and
13.34 days in 2012-13.
Conclusion and Suggestion
Working capital management is given higher priorities by the corporate world. Companies which
are effectively using their working capital components are likely to have competitive advantages
over their competitors. It is a lifeline of every industry, irrespective of whether it’s a
manufacturing industry or service industry. It is the prime and most important requirement for
carrying out the day to day operations of the business.
The company is performing not so well during the study period. Though the prices of oil & gas
rising in the global market as well as in domestic market. Not all the areas but in some areas, the
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company’s operations were quite good. The company is using some innovative schemes for
improving its operations.

After the calculation of Debt to EBITDA leverage, the researcher is able to know that in
all the three years of the study period, though the ratio is in increasing way but it is lower
ratio. And the lower ratio indicates that the company will be able to pay back its debts
faster. During the study period the ratio is below 3. This indicates that this is not the
alarming situation for the company.

It has been seen that the leverage ratio between EBIT/Interest expense is above one, so
the company is able to pay off its interest expenses as it has enough capital to pay off its
interest expenses. Though the ratio is declining during the study period but the company
has maintained its position as compare to ideal ratio i.e. 3:1.

While evaluating the financial leverage it has been seen that the ratio is moving towards
higher trend that indicates that company may have a risk to pay off its debts.

The debt equity ratio shows to which debt financing has been used the extent in the
business. It was found that during the study period though the ratio shows the increasing
trend but it is kept under one. It means company is using its debts in the business very
soundly. This represents that the outsiders or creditors will be in satisfactory condition as
their money is utilizing in a proper way.

The working capital leverage refers to this statement that how the funds are invested in
current assets and ultimately it will increase the return on capital employed. Here, the
return on capital employed is little bit declining way as the total assets of the company is
in growing stage. While working capital leverage suddenly boom in 2011-12 and 201213 as compared to 2010-11. The reason behind that is there is change in current assets
during the three years of the study. Hence, return on capital employed in fallen way as the
current assets fall.

The net operating cycle helps to know how fast a company converts its finished goods
into cash. Here, in very first year of the study i.e., 2010-11, the Net operating cycle is just
0.97 but later of the years it shows the growth tendency. It means the conversion of cash
of raw materials consumed and finished goods in later period takes much time. One of the
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reasons for late conversion of cash is that the payable deferral period is down as
compared to total operating covers in period.

For analyzing the movement of funds from different uses or sources of funds during a
particular accounting period, the researcher have made the statement of changes in
working capital. Here, in Gail (India) Limited, we have seen that during the study period
i.e., 2010-11 and 2011-12, and 2011-12 & 2012-13, there is decrease in working capital.

The Gail (India) Ltd. should little bit think to increase its working capital from par level.
This can be possible when company invest their funds more in working capital.

The net operating cycle also indicates company has an ability to convert their finished
products into cash. Here, Gail (India) Ltd. have a sound position because between 10 to
13 days company easily able to convert the raw material, finished goods, receivables
collections into cash after paying the payables. The company has to maintain this in along
period also.

The Debt equity ratio also highlighted that company has enough equity to meet its debt.
The company should maintain it with ideal ratio. Overall, the liquidity position of the
company demands more attention towards it. The Gail (India) Ltd. had par level of
working capital during the study period. Company became little bit unconservable as
concerned the financial policy and thus maintaining less current assets balance. But sales
volume of the company increases during 2010-11 to 2012-13 financial year.
References

Annual reports of Gail (India) Ltd.

Financial management, Khan and Jain – 2011 Edition

Bond, S. (2002). Dynamic Panel data models: a guide to micro data methods and
practice.

Peterson, B (1993). Working capital and fixed investment: New evidence on financing
constraints. The Rand Journal of Economics, volume-24 (3) 328

Lukman, Susanto. (2003). Change Management and ERP Implementation: side by side.
40 | P a g e
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ISSN (Online): 2455 - 524X
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
Ph. (0755) 4273272
E-mail: [email protected]
Chowdhury, A. and Amin, M.M. (2007). “Working capital Management Practiced in
Pharmaceutical Companies Listed in Dhaka Stock Exchange”. Brac University Journal,
Vol. iv, No. 2, PP. 75-86.

Deloof, M. (2003). “Does Working Capital Management Affect Profitability of Belgian
Firms”? Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Vol. 30, No. 3 & 4 PP. 573-587.

Salauddin, D.A. (2001). “Profitability of Pharmaceutical companies of Bangladesh”. The
Chittagong University Journal of Commerce, Vol. 16, PP. 54

Smith, K. (1980). “Profitability Versus Liquidity Tradeoffs in Working Capital
Management”, in readings on the Management of working capital. West Publishing
Company, PP. 549-562.
Books

Advanced Management Accounting, Prop. Jawahar lal – 2014 Edition, Published by – S.
Chand & Company Pvt. Ltd., Ram Nagar, New Delhi.

Working Capital Management, V.K. Bhalla, 2014 - Edition, Published by – S. Chand &
Company Pvt. Ltd., Ram Nagar, New Delhi.

Financial Management, Dr. P.C. Tulsian, 2014 – Edition, Published by – S. Chand &
Company Pvt. Ltd., Ram Nagar, New Delhi.

International Financial Management, V.K. Bhalla 2014 – Edition, Published by – S.
Chand & Company Pvt. Ltd., Ram Nagar, New Delhi.

Management Statistics, P.N. Arora, Sumeet Arora, Amit Arora, 2009 – Edition,
Published by – S. Chand & Company Pvt. Ltd., Ram Nagar, New Delhi.

Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility, Dr. S.S. Khanka, 2014 – Edition,
Published by – S. Chand & Company Pvt. Ltd., Ram Nagar, New Delhi.

Investment Management, V.K. Bhalla, 2014 – Edition Published by – S. Chand &
Company Pvt. Ltd., Ram Nagar, New Delhi.

Working Capital Management – A conceptual Approach, Dhiraj Sharma, 2014 – Edition,
Published by Himalaya Publication House, Mumbai.
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
Ph. (0755) 4273272
Business research methodology, J.K. Sachdeva, 2014 – Edition, Published by Himalaya
Publication House, Mumbai.

E-mail: [email protected]
Internet sites:- www.google.com
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HYDROGEN: AS A FUTURE FUEL
Rohit Satidasani*, Shubham Shrivastava**, Sameer Hussain Pathan***
Mechanical Engineering, Mandsaur University, Mandsaur (M.P.)
[email protected]*, [email protected]**, [email protected]***
Abstract
Hydrogen is a fuel of future which is transforming today fossil fuel dependent economy into a
hydrogen economy by providing a emission free transportation fuel .Hydrogen is available in
abundant quantity in nature &the production of hydrogen from water which could lead to a new
era of cheap, clean and renewable energy. The use of the pure hydrogen as the fuel significantly
simplifies the vehicle design & provides greater fuel economy & environmental benefits.
Although hydrogen storage & transport are issues of intense research due to hydrogen’s
characteristic “low density”. Hydrogen is easily produced by electrolysis, a process which uses
electricity to break the bonds between water’s constituent elements hydrogen & oxygen.
Introduction
Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic
weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form
(H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe. At standard temperature and
pressure, hydrogen is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, non-toxic, non-metallic, highly
combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent
compounds with most non-metallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular
forms such as water or organic compounds.
Hydrogen can be used as a transportation fuel; whereas neither nuclear nor solar energy can be
used directly. It has good properties as a fuel for internal combustion engines in automobiles.
Hydrogen can be used as a fuel directly in an internal combustion engine not much different
from the engines used with gasoline.
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Hydrogen is easily produced from water by electrolysis, a process which uses electricity to break
the bonds between water’s constituent elements, hydrogen and oxygen, and releases them as gas.
Hydrogen gas can be burned to produce power with no negative impact on the environment,
unlike power produced by burning fossil fuels .One of the problems of generating electricity via
renewable power is that the output either needs to be used immediately or stored. Using
renewable power to produce hydrogen allows the capture of electricity in an environmentallyfriendly state which is easily stored and distributed.
Currently, industrial production of hydrogen relies overwhelmingly on fossil fuels to power the
electrolysis process.
Hydrogen production and storage is currently undergoing extensive research. A solar-hydrogen
system can provide the means of a totally emissions-free method of producing hydrogen.
Although steam reformation of methane is currently the major route to hydrogen production, the
emissions involved can also be controlled much more efficiently than our current system of
transportation fuel. Climate change is a serious issue becoming increasingly evident to much of
the population. Rising CO2 levels have directly contributed to the global warming phenomenon.
As shown in Figures 1 and 2, the CO2 levels have rising dramatically in the past 200 years, along
with the global average temperature.
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Materials and Methods
This research is based on independent research and literature reviews. The various sources of
research include recent journal articles from opposing sides of the hydrogen economy. The
United States Department of Energy website was referenced for current statistics relating to the
transportation sector and the various alternative energy sources being researched.
Table 1 - Use of Hydrogen as a Transportation Fuel
Advantages
Disadvantages

High energy yield (122 kJ/g)

Low density (large storage areas)

Most abundant element

Not found free in nature

Produced from many primary energy

Low ignition energy (similar to
sources

Wide flammability range (hydrogen
engines operated on lean mixtures)

High diffusivity

Water vapour is major oxidation product

Most versatile fuel
45 | P a g e
gasoline)

Currently expensive
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Materials used are as follows –

Aluminium wire

Stainless steel plates

Water (H2O)

Baking soda ( NaHCO3)

Solar plates

One container for production

One container for storage

Pipes for connection & as a carriers

Nozzle for outlet of flame
Working & Research
Initially aluminium wire and stainless steel plates is taken, aluminium wire is wounded over the
stainless steel plates and then a cell is made out of it, then this arrangement is kept inside the
production container after that water is filled with few amount of baking soda (NaHCO 3) as a
catalyst to initiate the production rate of hydrogen from water & steel plates are connected with
anode & aluminium wire connected with cathode.
When we supply the electricity directly from the solar panel , then reaction take place by
supplying electricity –
2H2O H2 + 2OH
Then produced HOH is store in a storage container for future use & then from the outlet nozzle ,
the produced gas is ignited & flame is generated.
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Analysis

We observed that when we use the same material to make the cell of stainless steel then
production of hydrogen was at moderate rate and on the other hand, when we used
aluminium metal wire as a cathode and stainless steel plate as a anode then we observed
that the rate of production of hydrogen was comparatively faster .

When we did this experiment with the help of storage container and passing the gas
through the nozzle from the container, we observed that the pressure in the container
went down and came to equilibrium stage. The flame produce at nozzle blasts the storage
container within a few seconds.

Again we did the same experiment on the balloon as a storage container then we
observed that the flame was continuously ignited uniformly.
Results

A gas as a alternate fuel is produced by this apparatus but it is difficult to control and
handle

Research is under process
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Conclusion
On the technology front, hydrogen, a clean energy carrier that can be produced from any primary
energy source fuel cell which are very efficient energy conversion devices are attracting the
attention of public and private authority. HYDROGEN and fuel cells, by enabling the so called
hydrogen economy, hold great promise for meeting in a quite unique way our concerns over
security of supply and climate change
Hydrogen are seen by many as key solution for 21st century enabling clean efficient production
of power and heat from a range of primary energy source. The paper highlights the need for
strategic planning and increased effort on research, development and deployment of hydrogen
and fuel cell technologies. It also makes wide ranging recommendations for a more structured
approach to Indian energy policy and research, for education and training, and for developing
political and public awareness.
References

United
States
Department
of
Energy.
Annual
Energy
Review
2007.
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/contents.html (October 20, 2008).

Veziroglu TN, Sahin S. 21st Century’s energy: Hydrogen energy system. Energy
Conversion and Management. 2008, 49, 1820-1831.

Balat M. Potential importance of hydrogen as a future solution to environmental and
transportation problems. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2008, 33, 40134029.

Dougherty W, Kartha S, Rajan C, Lazarus M, Bailie A, Runkle B, Fencl A. Greenhouse
gas reduction benefits and costs of a large-scale transition to hydrogen in the USA.
Energy Policy (2008), doi:\10.1016/j.enpol.2008.06.039

Baschuk JJ, Li X. A comprehensive, consistent and systematic mathematical model of
PEM fuel cells. Applied Energy, 2009, 86, 181-193.

Gasification Technologies Council. http://www.gasification.org (October 20, 2008)
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
Ph. (0755) 4273272
E-mail: [email protected]
Committee on Alternatives and Strategies for Future Hydrogen Production and Use,
National Research Council. The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and
R&D Needs. Washington, D.C.: The National Academy Press. 2004.

Kelly, N.A.; Gibson, T.L.; Ouwerkerk, D.B.; A solar-powered, high-efficiency hydrogen
fueling system using high-pressure electrolysis of water: Design and initial results. Int. J.
of Hydrogen Energy. 2008, 33, 2747-2764.

Kim J, Lee Y, Moon I. Optimization of a hydrogen supply chain under demand
uncertainty. Int. J. of Hydrogen Energy. 2008, 33, 4715-4729.
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INFLUENCE OF OUT OF STOCK CONDITION ON BABY DIAPERS ON STORES’
LOYALTY, BRAND LOYALTY AND PRODUCT CATEGORY LOYALTY
Dr. Geetanjali Nilesh Bendale*, Mr. Deepak Motwani**
Research Scholar, Jaipur National University, Jaipur**
[email protected]*, [email protected]**
Abstract
Today customer retention is a big challenge for firms, retail outlets and other products or service
providers. Market players have increased to a greater extent and so is the competition for them
to strive better and better. Researchers has made an attempt to study the customer loyalty of
Huggies wonder pants customers towards the medical store which they usually prefer
purchasing from, as well as their loyalty towards the brand and the product category in three
conditions. Study reveals that customer lay more stress on brand availability instead of being
loyal to the store.
Key Words: Customer, loyalty, brand, product, Business lost and business regained
Introduction
In this research paper author has tried to study the impact of out of stock situation on customers
store loyalty, brand loyalty and product category loyalty. The product selected for survey is
Huggies diapers - pant style. Reason behind selecting baby diapers is the researcher’s intention
to study a psychological approach of customers who in most cases are parents of babies in the
age group of 2 to 3 years.
Review of Literature
Customer loyalty is journey and not destination. Every consumer has a different way to look at
store images and to evaluate it. Department stores and supermarkets focus more on building store
image and attracting loyal customers. Retailers prefer giving more importance to customer
service than on focusing on price promotions. Customer’s loyalty is strongly associated with
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customer satisfaction. A satisfied customer will keep coming back for consistent and desired
service or value worth his hard earned money. Store loyalty is explained as the outcome of
several customer processes: as a 'time-saver' effect – a rational allocation of effort given
available time and money, control by the environment, attitude to the store and a propensity for
routine. The first was not well supported; there was evidence in favour of the last three.
Binninger in her research states that store loyalty is influenced by retail brand satisfaction.
Satisfaction and loyalty share a moderate effect relationship as attitude towards retail brand
products. This moderate relationship is greater for strongly established brands as compared to
that of weakly place brands.
Thus there’s a severe competition amongst similar kind of service providers, brands and products
to give their best so as to survive in their industry domains with excellence. Customer loyalty can
be classified towards brand, product or service category and the store or retail outlet. Customers
get influenced by number of factors in making their purchasing decisions. One amongst this is
the store loyalty. Customers look for convenience in shopping and their overall shopping
experience keeping mind that their most valued time is less consumed in the whole process.
Customers prefer shopping certain things from their fixed shops or retail outlets only, this may
be due to fair prices, quality of product or service or it may be due to the friendly and prompt
way of handling customers and their payments by the stores. This study considers store loyalty,
brand loyalty and product category loyalty as dimensions to be analyzed when the desired
product is out of stock at the store where customer usually shops, meaning he gives preference to
the shop store over others. In this research the brand is Huggies diapers and its categories are
pant style diapers and taped diapers. Only those customers are targeted who purchases Huggies
diapers pant style diapers as our sample for study.
Objectives of the Study

To study the impact of customers’ needs urgency levels on their store loyalty in out of
stock situation.
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
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To identify whether parents are ready to compromise on their baby’s sanitary wares and
hygiene and if so to what extent.
Research Methodology
Hypothesis
1. Brand loyalty is more with respect to product category loyalty in urgency states.
2. Brand loyalty is less than store loyalty in convenience state.
3. Store loyalty is high as compared to product category loyalty in convenience state backed
by emergency.
Sample Selection – Random sample of 100 is taken
Data Collection

Primary Source: Questionnaires filled in person with customers arriving at Medical
Store in residential locality in Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra.

Secondary Source: Internet and Published – Electronic / Printed
Period of Study
Actual survey was undertaken in the month of January - May, 2016.
Tools used

Survey Monkey is used foe data collection,

Microsoft Excel is used to generate graphs and other data entries.
Limitations of the study
Sample was taken on a random basis and was not stratified sampling which could have given
more precise results. There is a possibility of error in results based on this. Also the sample was
confined to Navi Mumbai only, thus it is location specific as well.
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Analysis and Interpretations
CASE I: EXTREME EMERGENCY
You do not have even a single diaper at home for your baby.
Out of Stock at Store 1
85% Huggies diapers customers will switch store for purchase of diapers if it is out of stock at
regular store, 4 % customers will switch the Huggies diapers product category from wonder
pants to taped diapers.11 % customers will switch the brand all together. None of the customers
from our sample size was ready to postpone their purchase from the same store even by a single
day.
Out of Stock at Store 2
Out of 85 % customers who switched to store 2, 60 % purchased from store 2 while remaining
25 % customers returned back to store 1, out of which 18 % customers switched to taped
Huggies diapers product category and 7 % switched the brand all together. (Refer figure 1)
EMERGENCY
Store Switching - HGD
customers will switch store
in case of OFS at store 1
11%
4%
85%
Switch of Product Category HGD pant style customers
will switch to HGD taped
diaper
Figure 1: Percentage distribution of Customers for Case I (HGD*- Huggies Diapers, OFS*- Out
of Stock situation)
Inference

In extreme urgency case, store loyalty does not weigh much as compared to the brand
loyalty backed up with the preference to desired product category.
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
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E-mail: [email protected]
If Huggies diapers are out of stock at store 2 then greater number of customers prefer
switching to brand category than to switch to other brand completely.

Almost 60 % of customer business is lost if Huggies diapers are out of stock at other
store as well which is a significantly high figure as compared to the customers who return
back to store 1 which is just 25 %.
(Brand Loyalty) > (Product Category Loyalty) > (Store Loyalty)
Since, brand loyalty is given greater preference as compared to product category loyalty we
accept the null hypothesis as Brand loyalty is more with respect to product category loyalty
in urgency states.
CASE II: CONVENIENCE
You have one to two diapers at home and can wait for another day to purchase.
In this case due to customer’s state of convenience, the percentage of people postponing their
Huggies diapers purchase from the same store is extremely high, i.e. 76 % while, 0 % of the
customers will switch to product category and 21 % customers will switch the store for purchase
although there is no urgency of the diapers. (Refer Figure 2)
CONVENIENCE
1% 21%
2%
76%
Store Switching - HGD
customers will switch store in
case of OFS at store 1
Switch of Product Category HGD pant style customers will
switch to HGD taped diaper
Postponing Purchase - HGD
customers will postpone their
purchase from the same store
Figure 2: Percentage distribution of Customers for Case II (HGD*- Huggies Diapers, OFS*Out of Stock situation)
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Inference

Store loyalty peaks up when a customer can wait for a day in case of out of stock
situation.

None of the Huggies diapers customers is ready to switch to other brand.
(Store Loyalty) > (Brand Loyalty) > (Product Category Loyalty)
Since, store loyalty is given greater preference as compared to brand loyalty we accept the null
hypothesis as Brand loyalty is less than store loyalty in convenience state.
CASE III: CONVENIENCE BACKED BY EXTREME EMERGENCY
You have one to two diapers at home but do not have time to make the purchase in coming 2-3
weeks due to some reasons.
Out of Stock at Store 1
93 % Huggies diapers customers will switch store for purchase of diapers if it is out of stock at
regular store. 5 % customers will switch the Huggies diapers product category from wonder
pants to taped diapers. 2 % customers will switch the brand all together. None of the customers
from our sample size was ready to postpone their purchase from the same store even by a single
day.
Out of Stock at Store 2
Out of 93 % customers who switched to store 2, 75 % purchased from store 2 while remaining
18 % customers returned back to store 1, out of which 10 % customers switched to taped
Huggies diapers product category and 8 % switched the brand all together. (Refer Figure 3)
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CONVENIENCE BACKED BY EXTREME
EMERGENCY
3%
2%
95%
Store Switching - HGD
customers will switch store in
case of OFS at store 1
Switch of Product Category HGD pant style customers
will switch to HGD taped
diaper
Figure 3: Percentage distribution of Customers for Case III (HGD*- Huggies Diapers, OFS*Out of Stock situation)
Inference

In convenience backed by extreme urgency case, store loyalty does not weigh much as
compared to the brand loyalty backed up with the preference to desired product category.

If out of stock situation is at store 2 then greater number of customers prefers switching
to brand category than to switch to other brand completely.

Almost 75 % of customer business is lost if Huggies diapers is out of stock at other store
as well which is a significantly high figure as compared to the customers who return back
to store 1 which is just 18 %.
(Brand Loyalty) > (Product Category Loyalty) > (Store Loyalty)
Since, store loyalty is given lower preference as compared to product category loyalty in
convenience state backed by emergency we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate
hypothesis as Store loyalty is low as compared to product category loyalty in convenience
state backed by emergency.
Interpretation of regained & lost business
Research figures (Refer Figure 4 and 5) show that in case of emergency the business lost by the
store is 60% while regained business is just 25 % out of which 18 % customers change their
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brand category i.e. from pant style to taped diaper and 7% switch to another brand. In case of
Convenience there is no lost business and store marks 100 % customer loyalty. In case of
convenience backed by emergency the business lost by the store is 75 % while regained business
is just 18 % out of which 10 % customers change their brand category i.e. from pant style to
taped diaper and 8 % switch to another brand.
Customers Returning to Previous Store
18
20
10
0
7
0 0
10 8
EMERGENCYCONVENIENCONVENIEN
CE
CE BACKED
BY…
Product Category Switch
18
0
10
Brand Switch
7
Product Category Switch
0
8
Brand Switch
Figure 4: Regained Business by initial store
BUSINESS LOST BY STORE
80
60
40
20
0
75
60
0
EMERGENCY
CONVENIENCE
CONVENIENCE
BACKED BY EXTREME
EMERGENCY
Figure 5: Lost Business by initial store
Conclusion
Generally, in out of stock circumstances customers tend to show loyalty towards brand first, then
product category and at last towards store. Customers show high store loyalty levels only when
their need is not influenced much by time constraint.
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Scope for further research
Further research can be carried out considering some brand of use to adults along with baby
diaper and a comparative analysis of baby diaper customer loyalty and adult product customer
loyalty with respect to store, brand and product category. This kind of research attempt will let
the researcher to study and differentiate key reasons behind the customer’s psychology of
purchase.
References

Anne S.B, 2008, Exploring Relationships between retail brands and consumer loyalty,
International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, pp. 94-110

Muhammad J., and Abdul R.K., 1999, Store Image and Store Choice Decision: An
Investigation of Consumer’s Shopping Behavior in Malasiya, AAM Journal, 4 (2), p. 70

Robert E., Kathy H., Patricia H., Wendy L., 2010, First Store Loyalty and Retention,
Journal of Marketing and Management, 16(4), p307.

Sara
G.,
and
Erica
L.,
2005,
Customer
Loyalty,
http://epubl.ltu.se/1404-
5508/2005/184/LTU-SHU-EX-05184-SE.pdf. Accessed 20 May 2016
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IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT EDUCATION
ON TODAY'S GENERATION
Prof. Pooja Vaidya*, Dr. G. Y. Pathrikar**
MGM Organization, Aurangabad
[email protected]*
Abstract
The field of information technology and management education has experienced many successes
over the years. Most schools have computers and Internet access for both students and faculty.
However, the faltering economy and a series of "no significant difference" research studies have
caused the public and educational policy makers to question the advisability of continued
investment in educational technology. The article suggests that one reason for less-thanencouraging to find too many ideas that have improved different level in different sectors.
The part of Information Technology and other part Management have played their individual
roles in the development of education of today’s generation.
Introduction
Education is related to learning which includes the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of
people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, or research, as
we say generation to generation it means from ages...!
As we are moving towards next generation both Information technology (IT) and Management
Education is keeping us on changing and updating our future to reach our goal easier.
Technology is usually referred as a study of making, modification, usage, and knowledge
of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, and methods of organization, in order to solve a
problem and also to improve a pre-existing solution to a problem so that, goals can be achieved
where as Information is message that is to be conveyed.
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So,
Information
Technology
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is
an
application
E-mail: [email protected]
of computers and telecommunications
equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a business or in
other enterprise.
There are several industries that are associated with information technology, such as computer
hardware, software, electronics,
semiconductors, internet, telecom
equipment, and
e-
commerce and computer services. They have also introduced two different streams or
components in Information technology i.e. IT services and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)
including Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO).
Management is mostly related to business and organizations that means to coordinate the efforts
of people to accomplish goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and
effectively. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources,
financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources Management comprises of
planning, organising, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization or initiative
to accomplish a goal.
During a very short span of time it has acquired an important place in almost all aspects of
human life and particularly in the field of education and management. At the same time
globalization has opened the doors wider to alien influence. This has intended to involve all
walks of life e.g. industry and commerce, banking and insurance, finance, revenue,
communication, media, human resource development, defence etc.
Here, we can say that both Management and Information Technology go hand in hand to achieve
the goals for the future through different ways by having knowledge of technology, skills of
using gadgets which are being introduced by scientists and inventors.
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Impact of Information Technology in Educational sector in today’s generation
During this time, proponents of information technology have experienced many successes.
Across the globe, computers are ubiquitous in nearly every walk of life. The Internet and the
World Wide Web have revolutionized communication and made it simple, also complex
information are instantly available to the millions of people. The efforts were seen only when the
technology was introduced in the educational field, which was began almost at the same time
when the small computers began to appear. It was also the time to explore the potential of
technology to redefine the terms of teaching and learning, which has been used by the tools of
technology to break the barriers to educational field.
They introduced technology to the people of different fields from education sector to service
sector like schools, institutes, colleges, companies, banking etc., which was started with basic
knowledge of computer and their related technologies that was started from country – country,
state –state, town –town and village –village to upgrade skills of professional to non-professional
people.
Now a day’s in educational sector we are using different ways to learn and teach ourselves new
things. In schools, colleges they are teaching about the latest technology and gadgets which
being used in day to day life like electricity, fan, refrigerator, washing machine, air conditioner,
microwave, heater, television, computer or laptop, mobile phones and iPods etc.
If we consider one by one of above gadgets which are been used regularly in our day to day life
like,
Electricity – it is a very important on which gadgets works and also the human requirement
works.
Fan – fan is a gadget which gets us air inside room or hall. The fans are fitted on roof or placed
on side wall. They are useful for people to live in very hot. Whenever you feel hot you just need
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to switch on the fan. Fans are even made portable. Portable means you can carry away fans with
you anywhere. Fans can even be fitted in cars.
Refrigerator – refrigerator is used to make the eating things cold. If vegetables and fruits are
stored in refrigerator then it keeps your fruit and vegetables healthy for some more few days.
You can keep water, juices, drinks etc in it to make it cold. There is deep freezer allocated with it
which makes eatery things or liquid things ice. Getting cold things or drinks in summer is
extremely necessary.
Washing machine – It is used to minimize the work of ladies. They need to wash clothes daily
of all family members. In today’s world it is quite a common thing that ladies or women are
working or doing job so they don’t get time to wash clothes or they get tired of lots of work.
Washing machine helps them wash their clothes. They just need to make some command
selection on it and then it washes the clothes. You need not to stand there, you order they
complete their work. You can get other works till then.
Air conditioner – air conditioner are also known as AC. It is used to make the place cold. You
just need to get it fitted properly. Once you get it fitted it makes that place cool or cold whenever
you start it.
Microwave – a gadget again for ladies use but, now a day’s it’s also been used by males. It is
used to make eatery things get hot. The improved or new microwaves even help making you the
food. You just need to make some command selection and then it starts working.
Heater – they are of two types one, it is normally getting fitted in bathrooms. It is used to make
cold water hot. Whenever it is winter season, it is impossible to get a bath with cold iced water.
So starting of heater leads you to get a bath with hot water. Heater converts cold water to hot
water and other which are used as room heaters where room temperature can be warm during
winter seasons automatically.
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Television – it was a box in early days which used to get people knows through the news of the
world. Now the television boxes had got slimmer and are known as LCD and LED. It works
same but got better. There are HD visions available now. HD means high definition. It gives you
the best clarity for seeing channels. The television includes watching news, serials, movies,
reality shows, cookery shows and lot more.
Computer or laptop – computer is a gadget used for many purposes. Initially it was the gadget
which was used for some specific works done at particular place only. But now it is something
which is expanded a lot. We can almost do anything in it. We can contact people sitting far away
from us by internet. Keep records of almost everything going in world? Computers are not
portable. Laptop an expanded version of computer having everything same but the difference is
laptops are portable. Laptops are even smaller in size then Computer does not have CPU
connected with it. CPU is just an inbuilt functionality in laptop.
Mobile phones – it is rapidly updating gadget. A mobile too is getting updating with all features
in it. You can make calls, send messages, listen to radio or downloaded songs, use internet, can
operate lots of different accounts, play games, watch videos etc. It’s a
mini computer. The
question is what cannot be done on mobile and the answer never ends.
IPod – IPod a gadget that is used to hear music. You just need to download your favourite songs
and music on it. It is a portable gadget and also very small in size. You can carry it away with
you in your pocket only. Ear phones are used to hear songs from it. A lot of different ranges are
available. The storage capacity depends on your purchasing instrument.
These are some gadgets which made many changes in our day to day life. As this only one part
of life and other if we speak it is none other than about education, its lots more because of
scientists and inventors who have invented the above gadgets they have told us go on learning
about new technology which made us easier to understand.
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With technology and the availability of Internet with 3 W’s in the educational sectors, an entire
world of information is opened for the students. There is No longer restricted to outdated
textbooks or the knowledge of the teacher, the students have access to the world's most up-todate and relevant information from diverse global sources. They also have access to sources with
a more exciting or interactive approach to the subject by using required gadgets which are
available on the cheaper rates. With experience, students learn to quickly distinguish between
reputable and non-reputable sources, enabling them to glean large amounts of information in a
short time. Having a mobile phone and other gadgets has eased the communication between the
teachers and the students. If the teacher is absent, the students can easily ask other teachers to
teach them during the free period or they can learn from e-book, the internet or educational
software. Thus we can say that students will make full use of their time instead of wasting it. The
constantly evolving nature of technology encourages students to work collaboratively to find
information and complete projects. It also facilitates peer tutoring, with the quicker and more
adept students taking over a teaching role to help the weaker students. The vast amount of
information and possibilities in technology invites students for discussion, who are quick to
comment on others’ work and ask for feedback on their own. Technology in the classroom
encourages the sharing of knowledge and skills among students with disparate backgrounds and
abilities, and thus has a unifying effect on classmates.
The Department of Education study on technology and education reform found that mastery of
technology is a significant source of increased self-esteem and self-confidence, particularly when
students use their knowledge to help other students. Students realize how important technology is
to future success; thus, technical aptitude can become a crucial motivator. It has also noted
among students a stronger tendency to stay on task and reduced behavioural problems when
students are engaged in an activity that utilizes technology. Technology has none of the barriers
of traditional teaching methods, such as lecturing, which is typically structured toward a specific
learning style. It caters to virtually every learning style. With technology, students have the
option of learning visually, textually, through auditory means or even with a hands-on approach,
manipulating physical objects instead of simply watching or reading about them. One student
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may extract understanding from a well-written article online, while another may get the same
information from a YouTube video. Teachers now have far more flexibility in their lesson plans
along with resources for reaching and engaging every student. With so many technological
options available to accommodate different learning styles, the chances for student success
increases significantly by managing them.
Impact of Management Education in today’s generation
As we say management, then in every walk of life management plays an important role. Where
management is needed every where whether its business or any goal to be achieved by any one.
If we talk about goal or an achievement it is to be achieved by some proper management. We
have learnt about management from the first step of our life and will be learning till the end of
our life.
Management is observed in studying any subject or any simple novel or project, to retrieve any
information of business, or any inventory of a factory. Management can be use in different
phases i.e., forecasting, planning, organising, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling.
Forecasting – it can be past and future of organisation or life.
Planning – It can be studying any project or having new firm in some location.
Organising – it can be resources required for the achieving the goal of organisation or life.
Staffing – people who support in organisation or life to achieve the goal.
Direction – the way to reach the destination.
Controlling – this can be ups and downs of organisation or life.
Management education is going through changes. It is been used in factory operations, quality
control, inventory control, looming planning, human resources, sales and orders. So, the
changing scenario of world, it has offered students more openings, greater self- confidence and
also out of the box ways to better hone their skills. The current trends include internationalisation
with increased focus on international partnerships, international internships, student exchange
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programs, joint degrees etc. Also, the use of new technologies in management teaching is a trend
that is catching up fast. Greater use of the social media to establish connection with students is
on the rise.
Here we can whether it is organisation or life, management is necessary to reach any goal.
So, that if we look back we also find some positive energy.
Conclusion
To conclude here I can say that both Information Technology and Management are moving to
high point in the educational sector and also making many changes in life to achieve the goal.
Both professional and non-professional people are learning and teaching themselves both
Information Technology and Management. This has made the graph to rise up so that people of
every corner is well known to latest technology.
Here in Educational Sector the students are moving faster to achieve the goal and most important
they do not stop for anyone to reach their goals. The students are placed at the highest position as
per their talents shown by them at each and every level of life.
Reference

DR. B. Rathan Reddy, Effective Human resource Training & Development strategy

Davis L Michael W. A Management Approach

Impact Of Information Technology On Management education Through Distance Mode
by Dr. Kapil Dev sharma

Information technology in day to day life by Kiran R.

Information Technology in Education: The Need for Skepticism Mr. Cleborne D.
Maddux.

Human Resource of Planning and Development by Dr. L.M Prasad, Human Resource
Management

Wikipedia of Education, Technology, and Management.
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VISHLESHAN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT
(VIJEM), ISSN (ONLINE): 2455-524X