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Transcript
SEMI MOIST DIET FOR THE POLICE
DOGS IN THE SUDAN
By
Eatzaz Muzamel Abakar Muzmel
B.Sc. (Honours) Agricultural Science
Department of Animal Production
University of Gezira, 2002
A thesis submitted to the University of Khartoum in partial fulfillment for the
requirement of the Degree of Master of Science in Nutritional Science
Supervisor
Dr. Ahmed Gofoon Mahala
Department of Animal Nutrition
Faculty of Animal Production
University of Khartoum
April - 2006
DEDICATION
To my parents, and father
To my sister and brothers
All my family and friends
With love and respect
Xtàété
Acknowledgements
I would like very mach to thank my supervisor Dr. Ahmed
Gefoon for his interest and unlimited consultation.
More thanks due to my second father Awad Altayib Awad.
Much gratitude to Mr. Ammar Elbagir for un fainting help
rendered during this work and his valuable advice.
Sincere thanks to Dr. Ali Ahmed Hassan Manager of Police
Dogs Administration.
Thanks are also due to staff of the Laboratory Animal
Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum.
More thanks due to all my friends who helped me during this
work.
ABSTRACT
This study was carried out to evaluate semi moist diet as police dog
feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio and nutrient digestibility (dry
matter DM, organic matter OM, crude protein CP, Ether extract EE ). were
carried out.
Ten dogs of eight years old were used as experimental animals. They
were divided into two groups and fed two types of diet the control (moist)
one which consisted of meat, milk and bread, this diet contained about
1146.07 kcal/kg and test (semi moist) one which is composed from fresh
meat, rice, wheat, raw animal fat, vegetable, salt and eggs, having 3888.7
kcal/kg.
The results showed that feedintake in control group was higher
significantly (P<0.05) than test group because the carbohydrate level was
high in control diet and the dog tended to enjoy sugar taste.
The weight gain and feed conversion ratio were best in test diet
because the fat in the test diet significantly increased the food’s caloric
density. Also all essential nutrients required by animal were available.
Nutrient digestibility (dry matter DM, organic matter OM, crude
protein CP, Ether extract EE) in the group fed the test diet were significantly
higher (P < 0.01) than that obtained by the control diet.
The digestibility value were 73% and 52% DM, 73.06% and 55.06%
OM, 95.7% and 80.4% CP and 93.8% and 23.3% CF for test and control diet
respectively, The high fat in the test diet improved digestibility and the time
of food resides in the intestinal tract and exposed to enzyme activity.
‫ﺑﺴﻢ اﷲ اﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ اﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺨﻼﺼﺔ ﺍﻷﻁﺭﻭﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺠﺭﻴﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﻴـﺎﺩﺓ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻭﻫﻀﻤﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟـﺩﻫﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻭﻟﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺕ ﻋﺸﺭﺓ ﻜﻼﺏ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻋﻭﺍﻡ ﻜﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻗﺴﻤﺕ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﻤﺠﻤـﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻭﻏﺫﻴﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻋﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺒﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ( ﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﻀﺎﺒﻁﻪ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻠـﺒﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺒﺯ ﺇﺤﺘﻭﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 1146.07‬ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻜﺎﻟﻭﺭﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺒﺔ ﻭﺠﺒﻪ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻟﺤﻡ ﻁﺎﺯﺝ ﻭﺃﺭﺯ ﻭﻗﻤﺢ ﻭﺩﻫﻥ ﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﻲ ﻭﻤﻠﺢ ﻭﺒﻴﺽ ﻭﺇﺤﺘﻭﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 3888.7‬ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻜﺎﻟﻭﺭﻱ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻤﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ )‪ (P < 0.05‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒـﺔ ﺸـﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺒـﺔ ﻭﺫﻟـﻙ ﻟﻜﻤﻴـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﺒﻭﻫﻴﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﻴل ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺏ ﻹﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻁﻌﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺃﻓﻀل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺒﺔ ﻭﻴﺭﺠﻊ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻜل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻴﻭﺍﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻀﺤﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻤﻴﺔ )ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ ‪ ، DM‬ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ‪ ، OM‬ﺍﻟﺒـﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺨـﺎﻡ‬
‫‪ ، CP‬ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ‪ .(CF‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺒﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴـﺔ ) < ‪P‬‬
‫‪ (0.01‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻐﺫﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻤﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ‪ %52 ، %73‬ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ ‪ %73.06 .‬ﻭ ‪ %55.06‬ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ %80.4 , %95.7.‬ﻟﻠﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ‪ .‬ﻭ‪ %23.3 ، %93.8‬ﻟﻠﺩﻫﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻭﺠﺒـﺔ ﺸـﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺴﻥ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻷﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻫﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺒﺔ ﹸﺘﺤـ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻤﻴﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻜل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻌﺭﻀﻪ ﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﺯﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻀﻤﺔ ‪‬ﻴﺤـ ‪‬‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
LIST OF CONTENTS
Page
Dedication……………………………………………………………………………………………...
i
Acknowledgement …………………………………………….………………………………...
ii
Abstract ………………………………………………………..……………………………………...
iii
Arabic Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………...
iv
List of Contents ………………………………..………………………………………………...
v
List of Tables……………………………………..………………………………………………...
x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION……………………………………………...
1
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW………………..………………
3
2.1. Domestic dog…………………………………………………………………………………
3
2.2 Background………………………………………..……………………………………………
3
2.2.1 The hunting dogs…………………………………………………………………………
4
2.2.2 The shepherd dogs…………………….…………………………………………………
4
2.2.3 The working dogs…………………….…………………………………………………
4
2.2.4 The toy dogs………………………………………..………………………………………
4
2.3 German shepherd dog……………….……………………………………………………
5
2.3.1 Head………………………………………..……………………….……………………………
5
2.3.2 The neck………………………………………………….……………………………………
6
2.3.3 The body………………………………………………………………………………………
6
2.3.4 Fore quarters……………………………………..…………………………………………
6
2.3.5 Coat and colour……………………………………………………………………………
7
2.4 The nutrient requirement of dog……………………………………………………
7
2.4.1 Protein requirement…………….………………………………………………………
7
2.4.1 The necessary amino acid in dietary protein for dogs………………
8
2.4.2 Essential amino acids…………………………………………………………………
8
2.4.1.2 Protein deficiency in dogs…………………….…………………………………
10
2.4.1.3 Protein excess in the diet of dogs….…………………………………………
11
2.4.2 Carbohydrate requirement….………………………………………………………
11
2.4.2.1 The fiber……………………………………………………………………………………
12
2.4.3 The requirement of fat and fatty acid…………………………………………
13
2.4.3.1 Fat deficiency……………………………………………………………………………
14
2.4.3.2 The fat excess……………………………………………………………………………
14
2.4.4 Vitamins………………………………………….……………………………………………
15
2.4.4.1 The fat soluble vitamins………….………………………………………………
15
2.4.4.1.1 Vitamin A………………………………………………………………………………
15
2.4.4.1.2 Chole calciferol………………….…………………………………………………
16
2.4.4.1.3 Vitamin K………………………………………………………………………………
17
2.4.4.2 The water soluble vitamins………………………………………………………
17
2.4.4.2.1 Vitamin B complex………………………………………………………………
17
2.4.4.2.2 Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) ……………………………………………...……
18
2.4.5 The minerals…………………………………………..……………………………………
18
2.4.5.1. Ca and P…………………………………………………………………………………
18
2.4.5.2 Magnesium…………………………………..……………………………………………
20
2.4.5.3 Copper……………………………………………….………………………………………
20
2.4.5.4 Sodium………………………………………………………………………………………
20
2.4.5.5 Zinc……………………………………………………………………………………………
21
2.4.6 Water…………………………………………….………………………………………………
22
2.5 Type of dog foods……………...……………………………………………………………
23
2.5.1 Dry pet foods……………………….………………………………………………………
23
2.5.2 Semi-moist foods…………………………………………………………………………
23
2.5.3 The canned pet foods…………………………………………………………………
25
2.6 The feeding behaviour……………………………………………………………………
26
2.7 The type of dog feeding…………………………………………………………………
26
2.7.1 The free choice regime or self-feeding system…………………………
26
2.7.2 Time controlled feeding………………………………………………………………
27
2.7.3 The portion controlled feeding method………………...……………………
28
2.8. How much to feed…………………………………….……………………………………
28
2.8.1. Palatability………………………………...…………………………………………
30
2.9. The effect of the stresses………………………………………………………………
30
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS……..…………
32
3.1. Experimental site and duration………………………..……………………………
32
3.2. Experimental diets and feeding system…………………..……………………
32
3.2.1. The control diet………………………………...…………………………………………
32
3.2. The test diet……………………………………………………………………………………
32
3.3. The experimental animals……………………………………………………………
34
3.4. Housing……………………………………………………………..……………………………
34
3.5. Management……………………………………………..……………………………………
35
3.5.1. The veterinary Care……………………………………………………………………
35
3.5.1.1. The worming program…………….………………………………………………
35
3.5.1.2. The vaccination program……..…………………………………………………
35
3.5.1.3. The dipping program……………………………………….………………………
35
3.5.2. The clinic………………………………………………….…………………………………
36
3.5.3. The records……………………………………….…………………………………………
35
3.5.4. The animal’s daily routine of exercises……………………………………
36
3.6. Experiment ……………………………………….…………………………………………
36
3.6.1. The feed intake……………………………………………………………………………
37
3.6.2. The live body weight…………………………………………………………………
37
3.6.3. The feed conversion ratio………..…………………………………………………
37
3.6.4. The digestibility trials……………...…………………………………………………
37
3.7. The statistical analysis…………………………………………………………………
37
3.8. The Cost of the diet ………………………………………………………………………
38
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS ………………………………………………….……
42
4.1. Exercise………………………………………………………………………..…………………
42
4.2. The feed intake………………………………………………………………………………
42
4.3. The daily body weight gain…………………………………………………………
42
4.4. The feed conversion ratio……………………………………………………………
42
4.5. The digestibility trails……………………………………………………………………
42
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION ………………………………………………………..
45
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS…………………….……………
48
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………...
49
LIST OF TABLES
Table Title
No.
1.
The ingredient composition of the diets…………………………….
33
2.
The proximate chemical composition of experimental and
control diet material……………………………..………………………
39
3.
Worming program of experimental dogs…………………………
40
4.
Vaccination program of experimental dogs………………………
41
5.
Shows the daily dry matter intake, daily body weight gain and
feed conversion ratio……………………………………………
43
Digestibility Co. efficient of DM, OM, CP and CF……….…
44
6.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
The domestication of the dog probably occurred 14000 years ago and
perhaps long before that. There is archaeological evidence of dog remains,
but the molecular genetic data suggest that the domestic lineage separated
from modern wolves around 150000 years ago (Vila et al., 1997).
Dogs thrive in human society because their relationship with humans
mimic their natural social patterns. Today dogs are most often kept as pets, it
has lived and worked with humans in so many roles that it has earned the
sobriquet man’s best friend, it also accompanies the blind people during
movement from one place to another, on other hand dogs are raised on farms
and slaughtered as a source of meat in China (Chow Chow).
One of the most important usage of dogs is their substantial assistance
in the police operations and investigation either for preventing the crimes
through their round and patrols or for detecting the criminals after the crime
has happened through the smell of their bodies and excretions or every thing
related to them. The police dog are also used for detecting narcotic and
explosives.
Now in the Sudan dogs breeding is developing progressively as the
result of the need of dogs in police investigations and military operations. In
addition considerable number of dogs are raised by individuals for guarding
and toyment purposes.
On the other hand, in rural areas there is large number of dogs kept by
rurals and shepherds, without any systematic care program, their survival as
useful healthy animals became a matter of chance. These eventually results
in the spread of dangerous diseases like rabies and infectious hepatitis. Also
a wide range of internal parasites may spread among the animals and their
owners. Fortunately the police dogs are well kept and vaccinated but their
feeding is detracted from what it should be. The main reason standing
behind these short-comings is the perishable imbalance costly rations, which
are mainly made of animal products like meat, milk and eggs. This
compelled those who look after these dogs to provide these materials every
day in exact amounts. This is however inpossible under Sudan conditions
where seasonality of products is prevalent. To solve this problem the logical
alternative is the production of semi moist feed which is palatable and
medium in cost.
The objective of this study is to estimate the semi moist (test) feed in
term of feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio and nutrient
digestibility (dry matter DM, organic matter OM, crude protein CP, ether
extract (EE).
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Domestic dog:
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Animalia
Phylum:
Chordata
Subphylum:
Vertebrata
Class:
Mammalia
Order:
Carnivora
Family:
Canidae
Genus:
Canis
Species:
Familiaris
Victoria et al., (2004).
2.2 Background:
Dog (Canis familiaris) is a domestic animal found all over the world.
There are 400 international pure breeds of dogs. On basis of the role they
play in the mankind life they are grouped into the following categories (Vila
et al., 1997):
2.2.1 The hunting dogs:
The best examples of this group are saluki and grey hound, the sight
hunters in tropical and temperate regions. They have strong eye sight and
run fast, on which they depend in hunting. Also this group includes the scent
hunters like sherlin slow moving dogs which depend on their sense of smell
as a tool for hunting their preys (Vila et al., 1997).
2.2.2 The shepherd dogs:
This group includes the Australian and Belgian shepherd dogs but the
most famous breed is the German shepherd dogs, which are commonly used
in the police services in most of the countries (Vila et al., 1997).
2.2.3 The working dogs:
The famous breeds of this group of dogs are the Doberman, Boxer,
Rottwieler and the German shepherd in temperate regions in the north of
Europe, and the Ridgeback in tropical zones in the middle of Africa (Vila et
al., 1997).
2.2.4 The toy dogs:
Dogs in this group are characterized by small size and tendency to live
inside the house. This group includes the Matier and Backgens breeds in
temperate regions (Vila et al., 1997).
2.3 German shepherd dog:
Parker et al. (2004) reported that in 1899 the German Captain Max
Von Stephanitez found the verein fur Deutsche Schaferhunde (SV), the first
parent club of the breed new known as the German shepherd dog.
The German shepherd dog registered with the American Kennel Club
was Queen of Switzerland in (1908).
According to SV (1996) the German shepherd dog is described as
medium size dog. The ideal height are 62.5 and 56.5 cm for dog and bitch
respectively, whereas the ideal length ranges from to 53.5 to 73.5 cm and
63.5 to 67.5 cm for dog and bitch respectively.
2.3.1 Head:
The head is noble, clearly chiseled, strong without coarseness and in
proportion to the body. The head of male is distinctly masculine.
The eyes are of medium size, almost shaped set a little obliquely and
not protruding. The colour is as dark as possible.
Ears are moderately pointed, in proportion to the skull, open toward
the front and carried erect when at attention.
The nose is black, a dog with a nose that is not predominantly black
must be disqualified. The lips are firmly fitted, jaws are strongly developed.
Teeth 42 in number 20 upper and 22 lower are strongly developed
and meet in a scissors bite (Parker, 2004).
2.3.2 The neck:
The neck is strong and muscular, clear-cut and relatively long,
proportionate in size to the head and without loose folds of skin.
2.3.3 The body:
The whole structure of the body gives an impression of depth and
without bulkiness, chest is well filled and carried well down between the
legs. Tail bushy is set smoothly into the croup and low rather than high
(Parker, 2004).
2.3.4 Fore quarters:
The shoulder blades are long and obliquely angled, laid on flat and not
placed forward.
The upper arm joins the shoulder blade at about a right angle. Both the
upper arm and the shoulder bladder are well muscled the forelegs viewed
from all sides, are straight and the bone oval rather than round. The pasterns
are strong and springy and angulated at approximately is 25-degree angle
from the vertical. The feet are short compact with toes well arched, pads
thick and firm, nails short and dark (Parker, 2004).
2.3.5 Coat and colour:
The ideal dog has a double coat of medium length. Faults in coat
include soft, silky, too long out coat woolly, curly and open coat.
The German shepherd dog varies in colour and most colours are
permissible strong rich colours are preferred. Pale, washed out colour and
blues or livers are serious faults, a white dog must be disqualified (Parker,
2004).
2.4 The nutrient requirement of dog:
Dogs are omnivorous animals, they can satisfy their nutritional
requirements for both feeds of animals and plants origin. All breeds sexes
and ages require the same nutrient protein, energy, minerals and vitamins
(NRC, 2003).
2.4.1 Protein requirement:
There are many factors affecting the protein requirements of dog.
These factors include the protein quality and amino acid composition, the
protein digestibility, the energy density of the diet, animal activity level, the
physiological state and prior nutritional state of dog (AAFCO, 2003).
The protein in grain is not as balanced or available as the protein in
high quality animal sources. An animal protein requirements varies inversely
with the protein source’s digestability and with its ability to provide all of
the essential amino acids in their collective quantities and ratio.
Schaeffer et al., (1989) reported that protein digestibility and quality
increase, the level of protein an essential amino acids that must be increased.
For example adult dogs are fed diet containing very high quality protein
source, the protein requirement is as low as 4% to 7% of their metabolizable
energy (ME) calories. However, when lower– quality protein sources are
included in the diet, the requirement increases to more than 20% of the
metabolizable ME calories.
2.4.1 The necessary amino acid in dietary protein for dogs:
2.4.2 Essential amino acids:
Both dogs and cats have special dietary requirement for arginine,
lysine and sulpher containing: amino acids, (Case, et al., 2000).
a. Arginine:
Arginine seems to be indispensable for both dogs and cats throughout
the life (Burns and Milner, 1982). Also Hendriks et al (2002) concluded that
arginine is dietary essential for cat and dogs.
Morrise and Roger (1978) showed that the lack of arginine in the diet
cause an unmediated and severe deficiency response in the cat. Cats develop
severe hypetamonemia with several hours of consuming a single arginine
free meal. Symptoms include emeses (vomiting), muscular aparism, ataxia,
hyperathesia (sensitivity to touch) and titanic sparms. These symptoms can
eventually lead to coma and death but in dogs they are not as severe as in
cats. (Case, et al., 1995).
b- Lysine:
Milner (1981) reported that the growing dog's dietary requirement for
lysine appears to increase as the level of total protein in the diet increase.
This effect has been demonstrated in other species and may be the result of
amino acid imbalances and antagonisms with lysine at higher levels of
protein intake (Schaeffer et al., 1989). This effect may be especially
important because lysine is of the first limiting amino acid in cereal based
dog food (Brown, 1989). In addition the dietary lysine is susceptible to
certain types of processing damage that can occur in commercially prepared
pet foods. The exposure of protein to excessive heat induce cross linking
between the amino acids resulting in decreased digestibility of the rations
total protein, even mild heat treatment can result in a reaction between the
epsilon amino group of lysine and the amino group of free amino acids with
reducing sugars. The resultant complexes are resistant to digestion and result
in a reduction in the amount of available lysine that can be supplied by the
food. The limiting amino acids in cereal proteins are lysine and treptophan,
while meat product contains adequate amounts of these amino acids.
Therefore the inclusion of meat protein with cereal proteins in pet foods,
coupled with properly controlled processing methods will insure that the
ration has adequate level of lysine (Case, et al., 1995).
c. Methionine and cystine:
The sulphur amino acid methionine is essential for dogs and cats, but
cystine is dispensable because methionine is used to synthesize cysteine by
the body, approximately half of an animal's methionine requirement can be
met by adequate levels of cysteine (Burns and Milner, 1981).
Methionine usually the first limiting amino acid in most commercial
pet foods that contain animal tissue and plant protein sources (Roger and
Morris, 1983).
2.4.1.2 Protein deficiency in dogs:
Protein deficiency is uncommon in companion animals, it occurs with
energy deficiency when protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) occurs, the
animal exhibits lethargy, reduced digestive efficiency, and reduced
resistance to infectious disease. Maynard, et al. (1979).
Case, et al. (2000) reported the signs of protein deficiency in dogs are
retarded growth in young animals and weight loss, impaired reproductively
and work performance in adults.
2.4.1.3 Protein excess in the diet of dogs:
The additional protein may be used to provide protein reserves that
contribute to the body's ability to withstand stress and infactious disease
challenges (Case, et al., 2000).
2.4.2 Carbohydrate requirement:
The fact dogs and cat's do not require carbohydrate in their diets is
usually immaterial because the nutrient content of most commercial foods
includes at least a moderate level of the nutrient. In general commercial semi
moist foods may include between 40 and 60% carbohydrate and the dry
foods content between 41 and 70% (De Wild and Jansent, 1989). The largest
proportion of carbohydrate in pet foods is provided by starch. Cooked starch
is well digested by both dogs and cats, it provides an economical and
digestible energy source (Ramsos et al., 1978).
The digestibility of dietary starch by dogs and cats is affected by heat
treatment and size of the starch granules. Heating greatly increases
digestibility and finely ground starch more digestible than coarsely ground
granules (De Wild and Jansen, 1989).
Burger (1988) showed that although cooked starch provides an
excellent energy source, certain individual disaccharides, such as sucrose
and lactose, are not well tolerated by pets.
Physicochemical effect of fermentable carbohydrates, the short –
chain fatty acids (SCFA) resulting from the fermentation are weak anions
that can exert osmotic pressure in the colon and increase fecal water content,
this effect in the gastro intestinal tract by increased intestinal transit time,
and lower nutrient absorption.
Physiologically, digestible carbohydrates may affect food intake and
nutrient digestibility depending on the diet matrix in which they are
incorporated and the age of the animal studied (Peter, 2005).
2.4.2.1 The fiber:
Although dog does not directly digest dietary fiber, certain microbes
found in the large intestine are able to breakdown fiber to varying degrees.
This bacteria fermentation produced short chain fatty acid and other end
product. The fermentable fiber sources increase the microbial growth in the
colon and have the potential to trap and remove the nitrogen from the body
(Hallman J.E, 1995).
Insoluble fiber content of the diet does not effect protein digestibility
but soluble fiber often decreased in dogs (Muir et al., 1996).
Silvio (2000) showed that increase dietary fermentable fiber increased
the digestion of the dry matter and energy
2.4.3 The requirement of fat and fatty acid:
Case, et al. (2000) showed that the fat requirement of dogs and cats
depends on the animal's need for essential fatty acids and for a calorically
dense diet. The National Research Council (NRC) (1985) and the
Association
of
American
Feed
Control
Officials
(AAFCO)(2003)
recommended that the linoleic acid be provided at 9.5g/kg (DM) for adult
dogs at maintenance.
The fat necessary in dogs diet as a source of essential fatty acid
especially the linoliec and arachidonic acid, which are necessary for normal
metabolism. These fatty acids are long chain poly unsaturated fatty acid.
The AAFCO (1994) reported that the essential fatty acid requirement
of the dog physiological requirement for (EFA) can be met by sufficient
dietary linoliec acid. In addition it is of practical value of denote the
requirement in this way because the linoliec acid is the most prevalent EFA
in most foods.
Richard (2003) reported that fats are generally also are digestible than
most carbohydrates and protein. Because of the increasing the fat in pet food
significantly increases the food’s calories density and contributes to improve
digestibility. Case et al (2000), found that the digestability of fat range from
85% to 95 %
AAFCO (2003) showed that the hardworking dogs may benefit from a
diets with an increased proportion of calories supplied by fat.
2.4.3.1 Fat deficiency:
Low amount of fat in the diet can lead to deficiencies in both total
energy and EFAs. In the state of fat deficiency the skin becomes paratactic,
greasy and susceptible to infections and causes dry dull coat, hair loses and
eventual development of the skin lesions.
EFA deficiencies are not common in dogs except when they are fed
poorly formulated or improperly stored diet for a long period of time.
2.4.3.2 The fat excess:
Dogs are able to digest and assimilate diets containing high level of
fats (Romos et al., 1976). However, providing more fat than the
gastrointestinal tract can effectively digest and absorb, results in fatty stool
and diarrhea.
Vitamin E functions as antioxidant in the body and protects cellular
membrane, lipids from peroxidation. Since vitamin E is oxidized before the
unsaturated fatty acids, thus protecting them from rancidity. However
vitamin E is destroyed in this process. Therefore as the level of unsaturated
fatty acids in the diet increases, the require-ment of vitamin E increase (Scott
and Sheffy, 1987).
2.4.4 Vitamins:
Vitamins are organic dietary constituents which are necessary for
dogs as well as other animals for growth and maintenance.
2.4.4.1 The fat soluble vitamins:
2.4.4.1.1 Vitamin A:
The AAFCO (2003) recommends that dog food containing an energy
density of 3.5 Kcal/kg should include a minimum of 5000 IU/kg vitamin A
for growth, reproduction and maintenance.
Vitamin A deficiency is rarely observed in dogs because dogs are able
to convert the cartenoids found in the plant matter into active vitamin A.
Young growing animals suffering from vitamin A deficiency exhibit
abnormal bone growth and neurological disorders, while adult animals show
impaired reproductively deteriorated vision and disfunction of epithelium.
The clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency include anorexia, xerophthalamia
and conductivities, obesity and ulceration of skin, lesions and multiple
disorders of epithelial layers in body in general vitamin A toxicity is
uncommon in the animal kingdom because the precursor or for vitamin A,
Beta-carotine is not toxic to adult dogs (Cline et al., 1997).
2.4.4.1.2 Chole calciferol:
Vitamin D is essential for Ca and P metabolism, it is important for the
normal development and mineralization of bone. When diet is low in
vitamin D level more Ca and P is needed to be added to the diet Case, et al.
(2000).
Hazewinkel (1989) showed that dogs and cats do not synthesize
sufficient amount of vitamin D in the skin to meet their daily requirement of
this necessary vitamin. Vitamin D requirement was found to be affected by
animal age, Ca and P level in the diet. Vitamin D deficiency in growing
animals is characterized by bone malformation.
Over supplementation of vitamin D found to cause toxicity in dogs
and cat (Livezey et al., 1991). The signs of excess vitamin D is the skeletal
abnormalities and deformation of teeth and jaws in growing companion
animals.
2.4.4.1.3 Vitamin K:
Strieker et al., (1996) found that vitamin K is necessary for the blood
co-agulation in the process of synthesis of prothrombin. The deficiency of
vitamin K is extremely rare in dogs and is associated with interference in
bacterial synthesis of vitamin K in the intestine. Vitamin K deficiency
causes hemorrhage and decrease the level of prothrombin in the blood.
2.4.4.2 The water soluble vitamins:
2.4.4.2.1 Vitamin B complex:
A simple deficiency of the B complex are extremely rare in the
companion animals (Case, et al., 2000). However, Shen et al. (1977) found
that biotin deficiency may appear on animals fed large amount of raw egg
whites. In addition (Bai et al., 1991) showed that increase in protein level in
the diet increases the dog's requirement for vitamin B6. The best sources of
vitamin B complex for dogs are the green leafy vegetables and organ meat
such as liver and kidney. Also vitamin B complex may be synthesized by the
bacteria of the large intestine in dogs and cats (Peter, 2005).
2.4.4.2.2 Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C):
Commonly ascorbic acid is known as vitamin C. It is synthesized from
glucose by plant and most animal species including dogs and cats. For this
reason supplementation of high amount of vitamin C in the diet in healthly
dogs and cats is not recommended. However no controlled research have
been published on the effect of supplemental ascorbic acid in dogs diets.
2.4.5 The minerals:
Minerals are inorganic elements that are essential for the body
metabolic process. They comprised only about 4% of an animal's total body
weight, however like vitamins, the presence of these elements is essential for
life. The problem of minerals in dog's nutrition is the excess and the
imbalance in relation to the other nutrients (AAFCO, 2003).
2.4.5.1.1 Ca and P:
Ca and P are necessary for the formation and the maintenance of the
skeleton. The availability of Ca and P that is present in the diet must be
taken into account (Case et al., 2000).
NRC (1985) recommended that a level of 0.59% Ca on a dry matter
basis to be included in growing dogs diets. Jenkins and Philips (1960)
showed that the requirement for available Ca and P are quite low. Levels of
0.37% available Ca or 0.5 to 0.6% totals Ca has been shown to be adequate
for growing puppies. Hazewinkle et al. (1991) indicated that 0.55% of total
Ca might be inadequate for normal growth of large breeds of dog.
Hintz and Schrgver (1987) state that when Ca is deficient in the diet
chronically elevated levels of parathyroid hormones occur and leads to bone
demineralization and a loss of bone mass. In dogs the bone of mandibles
(jaw bones) show the earliest signs of bone demineralization, which leads to
periodontal disease, and loss of teeth. Overtime severe bone loss leads to
compression of the spinal vertebrae and spontaneous fracture of the long
bones. Affected dogs exhibit join pain and swelling, lameness and reluctance
to move, splaging of the toes, excessive sloping of the metatarsal and
metacarpal bones and lateral deviation of the carpus are also observed. Case
et al. (2000) reported that the Ca requirements of the dog are 0.8% for
growth and 0.6%, 0.5% Ca: P for maintenance.
Hazewinkel et al. (1991) found that the Ca absorption is increased by
increasing the amount of vitamin D, also the ratio between Ca and P is a
problem due to the availability of Ca opposite P. Case et al. (2000)
mentioned that the low Ca and extremely high P pointed of an all meat diets
lead to inadequate absorption of Ca and hypocalcaemia.
2.4.5.2 Magnesium:
Mg is essential for normal muscle and nervous tissue functioning and
plays a key role in a number of enzymatic reactions. A deficiency of Mg in
the diet results in muscle weakness, ataxia and eventually convulsive
seizures. However, naturally occurring Mg deficiency is not normally seen
in dogs and cats.
Excess Mg has been implicated as risk factor in the development of
feline lower urinary tract disease (Case et al., 2000).
2.4.5.3 Copper:
The body needs in for iron absorption and transport hemoglobin
formation and normal function of the cytochrome oxidase enzyme system.
The excess Cu through the bile disorder that effect the excretion which often
results in accumulation of Cu in the liver sometimes, to toxic level which
develops as an effect of the primary liver disease (NRC, 2003).
2.4.5.4 Sodium:
An animal requirement for Na is primarily influenced by the daily loss
of this mineral from the body (Mitchell, 1989). Maintenance requirement of
adult is estimated to be between 0.03% to 0.04%. Na in dry matter with
slight increase required during pregnancy and lactation (AAFCO, 1994). In
all animals the immediate effect of increased salt intake is increased water
consumption. Na balance in dogs is maintained primarily through change in
urinary excretion of the mineral. An increase of intake above the body's
requirement is accompanied by increase in urinary water and Na excretion
(Smith et al., 1964).
Data from research studies that examined the effect of salt intake on
blood pressure in dog indicates that there is a resistance to salt retention and
hypertension (Spangler et al., 1977).
2.4.5.5 Zinc:
With the exception of iron, Zn is the most abundant micro-mineral
present in the body's tissue. It is important for the normal carbohydrate,
lipids, protein and nucleic acid metabolism and it is necessary for the normal
maintenance of normal epidermal integrity taste activity and immunological
functioning (Miller et al., 1989).
The clinical signs of Zn deficiency that are common in most species
include growth retardation, abnormalities in hair and skin condition,
gastrointestinal disturbance and impaired reproductive performance.
Branta (1989) reported that coat change occur with Zn deficiency.
Affected dogs develop a dry harsh hair coat with fading coat colour. When a
diet containing adequate Zn is provided these clinical signs rapidly resolve.
Also he found that there are several causes of naturally occurring Zn
deficiency in dogs and cats. A syndrome called "Generic dry dog feed
disease" has been described during the development of Zn deficiency in
dogs fed poorly formulated expensive dry dog foods (Sousa et al., 1988).
2.4.6 Water:
The daily drinking water requirement of dog or cat depends on several
factors such as physical activity, increased body or environmental
temperature, changes in the kidney's ability to concentrate urine or the onset
of lactation and the amount of water that is present in the pet's food can
significantly affect voluntary water intake but the best method of ensuring
adequate water intake in both dogs and cats is to provide fresh, clean water
all times, regardless of the animal's physiological state, caloric needs, or dry
matter intake (Case et al., 2000).
High intake of protein and carbohydrate also will result in an increase
in water intake by dogs (Golob et al., 1984).
2.5 Type of dog foods:
Dog foods are divided into three groups according to processing
method, methods of preservation and moisture content. These categories
were they dry canned and semi-moist foods.
2.5.1 Dry pet foods:
Dry pet food contains between 6 and 10% moisture or more dry
matter (Burger I.H, 1988). The energy density of dry pet foods ranges
between 3000 and 4500 kilocalories of metabolizable energy per kilogram
and these products are more economical to feed than semi-moist or canned
food, and store well because of their low moisture content. The dry foods
have reasonably long shelf life when stored under proper condition.
The disadvantage of dry pet foods is the low palatability to some dogs
especially the foods which are low in fat or that contain poor ingredients
(Hirakawa and Baker, 1988).
2.5.2 Semi-moist foods:
Semi-moist pet foods contain 15 to 30% water and they include fresh
or frozen animal tissues, cereal grains, fat and simple sugars as their
principal ingredients. These products are softer in texture than dry pet food,
which contributes to their acceptability and palatability several methods of
preservation are used to prevent contamination and spoilage of semi-moist
food and to permit an extended shelf life. The inclusion of humectants such
as simple sugars glycerol, or corn syrup bind water molecule in the food and
make them unavailable for use by invading organisms. Further protection is
provided by preservatives such as potassium sorbant, which prevents the
growth of yeast and molds small amounts of organic acids may also be
included to decrease the pH of products and to inhibit bacterial growth (Case
et al., 2000).
Houpt and Smith (1981) reported that the high simple sugar content of
many semimoist pet foods contributes to the palatability and digestibility of
these products.
Semi-moist pet foods that contain a high proportion of simple
carbohydrates have digestibility coefficients that are similar to those of
canned food. The ME content of semi-moist foods ranges between 3000 and
4000 kcal/kg on a dry-weight basis, or about 1400 to 1800 kcal/lb. Semimoist foods contain between 20 and 28% protein and between 8 and 14% fat
on a dry weight basis, Peter (2005).
The proportion of carbohydrate in semi-moist pet foods is largely in
the form of simple starch.
Semi-moist pet foods appeal to some pet owners, because they
generally have less odor than canned foods and many come inconvenient
single serving packages. Also these foods are available in large variety of
shapes and textures when compared its cost with the dry food is usually
between the cost of dry and canned products.
2.5.3 The canned pet foods:
There are two types of canned pet foods that provide complete and
balanced nutrition and provide a dietary supplement in the form of canned
meat or meat byproduct. Complete and balance pet foods may contain blend
of ingredients such as muscle meat, fish byproduct or poultry, cereal grain or
textural vegetable, vitamins and minerals (Case et al., 1995). Bebiars et al.
(1959) found that canned pet food contained about 75% water but Sheffy
(1989) show that in USA moisture content of these foods can be as high as
78% or equal to the natural content of the ingredients that are used or
greater.
The caloric content of canned pet food generally ranges between 3500
and 5000 kilo calory per kilogram on dry matter basis. The disadvantage of
this type of food is that it contains small proportion of digestible
carbohydrate and are often more expensive than dry pet foods.
2.6 The feeding behaviour:
Domestic dogs tend to eat rapidly. This tendency can be a problem for
some dogs because it may predispose them to cooker and swallow large
amount of air. If the competitive eating behaviour is the cause of rapid
eating, feeding the dog separated from others is advisable. However, the
competitive concept of meal time often normalizes the rate of eating. In
other cases changing the diet to food that is less palatable or to one that is
difficult to consume rapidly solves the problem. The same author reported
that pet owners have a choice to feed one of the commercially pet food or
house made formula (Case et al., 2000).
2.7 The type of dog feeding:
There are three types of dog feeding. These types are the free choice,
the time controlled feeding system and the portion controlled feeding system
(Peter, 2005).
2.7.1 The free choice regime or self-feeding system:
The self feeding system involves having surplus amount of food as
desired at any time of the day. This type of feeding relies on the fact that
nutrient needs are met. Dry pet foods can be consumed at any time of the
day under this system of feeding because it will not spoil as quickly as
canned food or dry out as easily as semi-moist products.
However even if the dry food is used, the food bowl or dispenser
should be clean and refilled daily with fresh food. The main disadvantages
of this method is that in growing animals the free choice feeding may cause
over consumption which causes accelerated growth rate and increase
deposition of body fat and obesity (Case et al., 2000).
2.7.2 Time controlled feeding:
The time controlled feeding results somewhat in the pet ability to
regulate it's daily energy intake. At meal time surplus food is provided and
the pet is allowed to eat for a predetermined period of time. Most of adult
dogs that are not physiologically stressed are able to consume enough food
to meet their daily needs within 15 to 20 minutes.
Although one meal per day can be sufficient for feeding adult pet
during maintenance but during growing stage they need 2 to 4 meals per day
(Peter, 2005).
Vasselli et al. (1983) reported that providing two meals for adult per
day is healthier and more satisfying. There is some evidence that feeding
once a day can lead to gastric changes that are associated with gastric
dilatation in large breeds of dogs.
There are some dogs that will not adapt well to time controlled
feeding, i.e. pets that are not very fastidious may not consume enough food
with the controlled time period, also a time controlled feeding programme
may exacerbate gluttonous behaviour because pet quickly learn that have to
beat the cholck whenever a meal was offered (Peter, 2005).
2.7.3 The portion controlled feeding method:
It is to provide one or several meals per day, and they are premeasured to meet the pet daily caloric and nutrient needs. Pet growth and
weight can be strictly controlled with this method by adjusting either the
amount of food or the type of foods. The main disadvantages of portion
controlled feeding are that if demand the greatest time commitment and
knowledge (Case et al., 2000).
2.8. How much to feed:
In all animals food intake is governed principally by energy
requirement. There is a number of factors which found to affect the pets
energy condition, level of activity, breed temperature and environmental
condition when determining apet’s energy requirement, these factors that
which are determined (Case et al., 2000), also the dietary fiber content may
contribute to regulation of food intake in days. McDonald et al. (2002)
reported that an increase in the quantity of food eaten by animal generally
causes a faster rate of passage of digesta.
Jackson (2000) studied the effect of dietary fiber on satiety in days by
measuring voluntary feed intake using thirty dogs divided into two groups
and fed on commercial dry dog food (2% fiber content) and (9% fiber
content) twice a day. In the morning group 1 were fed a low fiber diet (2%
CF) and group 11 were fed on high fiber diet (9% CF), in the after noon all
dogs were allowed to consume the same commercial dry pet food. He found
that the morning feed was slightly less than after not feed intake during the
acclimation phase.
Morning feed intake was significantly less than the after noon intake
for both groups. However total feed intake in grams was not significantly
different between treatment groups. In addition he found that dogs fed on a
high fiber diet consume fewer total calories through the day than those fed
on the lower fiber diet (65.3 versus 79.4 k cal/kg body weight respectively
(P≤ 0.001), therefore the high fiber diets may provide satiety effect which
fed to dogs and can help reduce caloric intake.
2.8.1. The palatability:
The palatability and acceptability of a pet food are important
attributes because the food most be acceptable to the pet in order provide an
optimum nutrition. However a diet can be palatable but still does not contain
adequate levels of some nutrients. The most commonly used palatability test
in the pet food industry is two bowel free choice method.
Dogs have definite performance for certain flavor and types of pet
foods Kendall el at. (1982) mentioned that flavor preferences test for dog
showed that the majority of dogs preferred canned and semi moist foods to
dry food. Beef appear to be the most preferable type of meat and cooked
meat is overwhelmingly preferred to uncooked meat (Loveridage, 1987).
Hazewinkle, et al. (1989) reported that dogs also have strong preference for
sucrose, while cats do not seem to enjoy the test of sugar. In both species
warm food is preferred to cold food and palatability generally increases
along with fat content of the diet. In this respect fat contribute both to the
palatability and caloric density of the food (Rose and Bloomberg 1983).
2.9. The effect of the stresses:
Working animals were found to be exposed to variety of stresses.
Case et al. (2000) divided the stresses in to external and internal stresses.
External stresses include in fluencies such as training reamers, housing
condition, environmental temperature and humidity and the type of training
methods that are employed. Whereas internal stress include animals
temperature, physical capability and nutritional status repeated, low
tolerance stress are cleared believed to be a necessary component of training
and improved performance. Severe stress can result in breakdown in
performance .
Sings of severe stresses in dogs include obesity, depression, anorexia
and reluctance to work (Korn feld. et al 1989).
It has been suggested that some of the side effects of severe stress in
working dogs include diarrhea, dehydration, external rehabdomlsis lower
bowel bleeding anemia and metatarsal fracture (Raibrid, 1988).
Well balanced high quality diet that has been formulated for working
dogs will help to prevent the onset of severe stresses. The major nutritional
consideration for working dogs experiencing stresses are energy density and
diet digestibility. In addition to these dietary modification many breeds
exhibitors and trainers believe that stressed dogs must also receive
supplemental of certain vitamin and minerals. Supplemental vitamin C was
the first advocated as an agent in the relief of various stress conditions in
Human athletes because plasma ascorbate level were found to decline during
stress. In regard to this matter some controlled research investigation on the
specific effect supplemental vitamins and minerals on performance in
working and stressed dogs must be conducted before any valid.
CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1. Experimental site and duration:
The experiment was conducted in Police Dogs Administration in
Khartoum State in Burry city. It was extended for 56 days.
3.2. Experimental diets and feeding system:
3.2.1. The control diet:
Ingredient composition of the control diet is shown in table (1), the
diet was offered twice a day as separate meal. The morning meal was made
of bread milk, while the afternoon meal was made of bread, meat and meat
soup. This diet contains 1146.07 kcal/day. The chemical composition of this
diet shown in table (2)
3.2. The test diet:
The ingredient composition of test diet was mixture of meat, rice,
wheat, raw animal fat, salt, egg, vegetables, vitamins and gum arabic.
This ingredient was mixed together with 50% of total weight water.
The diet was soft in texture.
Wheat boiling in water after the hull was removed, rice was toasted
by raw animal fat, during that salt and meat and vegetable were added. It
gives 3888.7 kcal/Kg / day.
Table (1) The ingredient composition of the diets.
The control diet
Ingredient/kg
The test diet
Quantity
Milk
Ingredient (kg) DMB
Quantity
13.3%
Meat
25%
Cooked meat
30%
Wheat
20%
Bread
22%
Rice
30%
Salt
3%
Raw animal fat
15%
Soup
31.7%
Vegetables
5%
Vitamins & salt
5%
Metabolizable energy
1146.07
3888.7
Metabolizable energy density
density
kcal/kg
ƒ
DMB Dry matter basis.
kcal/kg
The ingredient composition of test diet is found in table (1). Test diet
was put in plastics bag and keep cold.
The control and test groups were fed received about 1 kg/dog/day.
Experimental diet were subjected to proximate analysis according to AOAC
(1985). The chemical composition of test diet appears in table (2). The
metabolizable energy density of the test diets has been calculated using the
following formula:
The metabolizable energy density = CP × 3.5 + C fat × 8.5 + CHO × 3.5
CHO = 100 – (%CP + % C fat + % Ash) (Case et al., 1995).
Where the Cp = 23.98%, C fat = 11.84,
CHO = 58.42%.
3.3. The experimental animals:
Ten German shepherd dogs 7– 8 years old average weight 30 – 32 kg.
They were divided into two groups each with 5 Animals fed were
individually and weighted every 7 days to calculate daily live body weigh
kg/day.
3.4. Housing:
Every animal has its own cage. The dimension of each cage 2×1 ×2.5
concrete, and the roof was mad of wood to reduce the heat stress. The room
was opened from the south and north. Each room was provided with a feeder
and a drinker.
The house has been cleaned daily by water and powder soap and the
lighting was provided during the night.
3.5. Management:
3.5.1. The veterinary Care:
The health care include three programs.
3.5.1.1. The deworming program:
All worming agents were given orally as tablets in early weeks as
shown in table (3).
3.5.1.2. The vaccination program:
All dogs were vaccinated against parvovirus, liptospiroses, Rabies,
infectious hepatitis and Canin distemper. The vaccines we given
subcutaneous injections. Found in table (4).
3.5.1.3. The dipping program:
The dipping program was carried out against the external parasite
especially from tick and mites every week useing Cypermetrien solution in
water diluted by the formula (1ml for 1 L water) .
3.5.2. The clinic:
There was a proper clinic for health care and treatment of endemic
diseases from which dogs suffer, is the Gardiasis. It has been induced as a
result of improper house cleaning
3.5.3. The records:
Every dog has an individual record for the birth date, parent,
vaccination, unit worms doses, times of enterning the clinic, age of the first
estrus age of the first pregnancy in females, age of first parturition and the
number of litters.
3.5.4. The animal’s daily routine of exercises:
Dogs were used to be taken out for walking and the training program
from 7:30 to 9:00 Am. Then they went back their houses for breakfast and
stay for the day.
Some times dogs have been taken out in the afternoon or evening for plying
and walking but this was not the regular routine.
3.6. Experiment:
The experimental animals were divided in two groups with five animals
per group. One group was fed the test diet and the other was fed the control
diet for eight weeks.
3.6.1. The feed intake:
The daily feed intake was calculated by subtracting the residues from
the offered feed in the previous day.
3.6.2. The live body weight
The live weight has been recorded weekly before the morning feed to
avoid variation between the dogs. The daily weight gain was calculated.
3.6.3. The feed conversion ratio:
The feed conversion ratio was calculated using the following formula:
FCR =
Feed intake Weight gain
3.6.4. The digestibility trials:
Feces from individual animals were quantitatively collected daily in
the morning for ten days, then stored in deep freezer, samples were dried and
weighed. The dry matter, organic matter, protein and fat digestability
coefficient were calculated, using the following formula:
Digestibility Co. efficient = Nutrient in DM consumed – Nutrient in dry feces
Nutrient in DM intake
×100
3.7. The statistical analyses:
Data were statistically analyzed by T-test according to (Steel and
Torrie, 1960).
3.8. The cost of the diet:
The cost of dog fed test diet was 325 Sudanese Dinar/day and the dog
fed control diet about 550 SD/day
Table (2) The proximate chemical composition of experimental diet
Experimental diets
Components
Control
Test
(%)
As fed
On DMB
As fed
On DMB
Dry matter
62.00
100
68.92
100
Crude protein
11.4
18.39
23.98
34.59
Ether extract
1.16
1.87
11.84
17.17
Crud fiber
0.25
0.4
0.4
0.58
Ash content
1.5
2.42
5.76
8.36
47.69
76.92
26.94
39.22
1146.07
3080.8
3888.7
4065.9
Nitrogen free extract
ME kcal/kg (calculate)
Table (3) Deworming program of experimental dogs (record)
Age. Weeks wks
Worm
3−
Round and tap worms
6−
Round worms
9−
Tape worms
33−
Round and tape worms
Table (4) Vaccination program of experimental dogs.
Age
Disease
week
4
Parvovirus
6
Canine distemper and parvovirus against
9
Parvovirus against
11
Parvovirus, liptospiroses infectious hepatitis, canine distemper
and Rabies
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS
4.1. Exercise:
During the exercise and work the performance of dogs on test diet was
best.
4.2. Feed intake:
The daily dry matter intake (kg/day) throughout the experimental
period was significantly (P < 0.05), lower in test group when compared with
the control group. Table (5).
4.3. Daily body weight gain:
The daily body weight gain throughout the experimental period was
best in test group but not significantly different. Table (5).
4.4. Feed conversion ratio:
The feed conversion ratio value was best in test group when compared
with the control group (table 5).
4.5. Digestibility trials:
The apparent digestibility co-efficient of the dry matter (DM), organic
matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and ether extract were significantly
(P<0.01) higher in the test group when compared with control group as
shown in Table (6).
Table (5). Shows the daily dry matter intake, daily body weight gain and
feed conversion ratio.
Feed conversion ratio (FCR)
The daily dry matter
Daily body weight
kg DM intake
(DM) intake kg/day
gain (BWG) kg/day
kg/kg body weight
Control
0.604b
0.13a
04.6a
Test
0.536a
0.16a
3.3a
SE
0.027
0.02
0.82
Level of
S
Ns
Ns
Significant
P≤0.05
S=
Significant
Ns=
Not significant
Column with different superscript significantly differ (P < 0.05).
Table (6) Digestibility Coefficient of dry matter, OM, CP and crude fat
Dry matter
Organic matter
Crude protein
Crude fat
(DM%)
(OM%)
(CP%)
(CF%)
Control
52a
55.06a
80.4a
23.3a
Test
73b
73.06b
95.7b
93.8b
SE
2.4
2.2
1.2
7.2
S
S
S
S
Digestibility
Level of
Significant
S = significant
Column have different superscript differ significantly (P < 0.01).
CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION
Generally, the present study revealed that the chemical composition of
the test diet is considerably higher than the control one but these higher
values were reported by Peter (2005).
Result obtained in this study showed that the feed intake in dogs fed
the control diet was large because it was lower in nutrient content, required
by the working dogs.
Similarly the high carbohydrate level in control diet may be attributed
to the high intake because dogs tended to enjoy the test of sugar. This agreed
with (Hazewik, 1989) and the high fat content in test diet negatively effected
the feed intake (Case et al., 2000).
The final body weight during the experimental period was not
affected. This may be due to the working and training, because dogs
consumed energy for working and training which agreed with (Case et al.,
2000) who found that the hard working dog requires sufficient protein and
fat to supply the need for muscle development.
The feed conversion ratio in test group was best, because the dog
consume sufficient nutrient required for working and maintenance.
This experiment showed that the apparent digestibility co-efficient
obtained for dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) by the dog fed test
diet 73% and 73.06% respectively higher than the control diet because the
fiber increase the digestibility of dry matter and excreted few amount of
feces. Silivo (2000) reported that the increase of fermentable fiber increases
the digestion of the dry matter and energy, similarly Richard (2003) showed
that the food that is highly digestible produces low stool volumes and well
formed and firm feces. And the dogs fed the control diet digested 52% and
55.06% of dry and organic matter, respectively, this is lower than test diet
because of higher level of carbohydrate and poor nutrient content and large
amount of feces was excreted. This may be due to large quantity of
consumed feed this was stated by P.Mcdonald et al. (2002) who found that
an increase in the quantity of food eaten by animal generally causes a faster
rate of passage of digest. Also Peter (2005) reported that fermentable
carbohydrates, reduced the digestibility of all nutrient because the short
chain fatty acids resulting from the fermentation are weak anion that can
exert osmotic pressure in the colon and increase fecal water content, this
effect in gastro intestinal tract by increased intestinal transit time and slower
nutrient absorption.
The digestibility of crude protein (CP) obtained by dogs fed test diet
was (95.7%) agreed with the NRC (2003) found that it was (85 – 98%) but
the digestibility of control diet was low 80.4% because it contained higher
levels of carbohydrate. Carbohydrates often decrease protein digestibility in
dogs (Muir et al., 1996).
The digestibility of ether extract recorded for dogs fed the test diet is
93.8% this agreed with Case et al., (2000) who found that it was 85 – 95%
for ether extract but the dogs fed the control diet it was lower 23.98%
because the fat in pet foods significantly increases the food’s caloric density
and contributes to improve digestibility (Richard, 2003).
The test diet was best because it was balanced in nutrient content and
easy to provide and medium in cost.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
™
The explain diet provides all the essential nutrients in their correct
quantities and proportions and it was medium in cost.
™
There was no differentce in the weight gain and feed conversion ratio
because the experimental animals were old in age (8 years old).
™
Concerning the preservation difficulties it needs more research work.
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