Download 7/21/2011 Objectives Eating Healthy During Pregnancy

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Transcript
7/21/2011
Objectives
…
Eating Healthy During Pregnancy
† Identify
healthy food to eat during pregnancy
the amount of weight
g theyy should gain
g during
g
pregnancy
† Describe why they should take folic acid before and
during early pregnancy
† Identify foods to avoid and limit during pregnancy
† Know
Nicole D. Vick, MPH, CHES
Health Educator
LA County Department of Public Health
Background
…
Eating healthy foods can help a pregnant woman:
Weight Gain
…
† Gain
the right amount of weight during pregnancy
† Control gestational diabetes
† Prevent
v nutrition related complications
p
† Have a health baby of normal weight
† Prevent spina bifida and other neural tube defects
Pregnancy and Dieting
…
Dieting is dangerous for a pregnant woman
† Mom
By the end of the session, participants will be able
to:
Weight gain depends on a woman’s weight before
pregnancy
If mom is…
She should gain…
Average weight for height 25
25-35
35 pounds
Underweight
28-40 pounds
Overweight
15-25 pounds
Obese
11-20 pounds
Carrying twins
35-45 pounds
What should a pregnant women eat?
…
and baby do not receive the nutrients they need
…
Pregnant women need 100-300 extra calories a
day
Food should come from the 6 food groups
† Grains
† Vegetables
† Fruits
† Milk
Products
† Proteins
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7/21/2011
Grains
…
6 ounces a day – 1 ounce is equal to
Vegetables
…
†1
slice bread
† 1 cup or ready to eat cereal
† ½ cup
p cooked rice,, pasta,
p
, or cereal
† 1 small pancake
† 1 small tortilla
Fruit
…
1 ½ to 2 cups per day- ½ cup of fruit equals:
†1
cup raw or cooked vegetables
cup vegetable juice
† 2 cups
p raw,, leafy
y greens
g
† 1 medium baked potato
†1
Milk Products
…
†½
cup fresh frozen or canned fruit
† ½ a fruit (small orange, apple, or banana)
† ¼ cup
p dried fruit
† ½ cup 100-percent fruit juice 16 grapes
…
…
Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest lactose,
the sugar found in milk.
Symptoms include
† Cramping
† Gas
† Diarrhea
3 cups per day – 1 cup equals:
†1
cup milk
cup yogurt
† 1 ½ ounces natural cheese (cheddar,
(
, parmesan)
p
)
† 2 ounces processed cheese (American)
†1
…
What about Lactose Intolerance?
2 ½ cups per day – 1 cup equals:
Low-fat or skim is best
What about Lactose Intolerance?
…
People who are lactose intolerant can still receive
the calcium they need:
† Try
consuming small amounts of milk with meals.
cheese,, yyogurt,
g , and cottage
g cheese. Theyy contain
less sugar
† Eat non-dairy calcium sources including greens, broccoli,
sardines, and tofu.
† Use Lactaid Milk fortified with calcium.
† Try
y
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7/21/2011
Proteins
…
5 to 5 ½ ounces per day – 1 ounce equals:
Snacking
…
†1
tablespoon peanut butter
† ¼ cup cooked dry beans or tofu
† 1 ounce lean meat,, p
poultryy or fish
† 1 egg
† ½ ounce nuts (12 almonds, 24 pistachios)
Healthy snacks
…
…
…
…
…
…
…
Fresh fruit
Cheese and crackers
Dried fruits
P
Peanut
tb
butter
tt on carrots,
t celery,
l
or crackers
k
Cereal with milk
Pudding or flan
Low-fat cereal bars
What to Eat When Not Feeling Well
Morning Sickness: Eat crackers, cereal, or
pretzels before getting out of bed; eat small,
frequent meals throughout the day; avoid fatty,
fried, and greasy foods.
… Constipation: Eat more fresh fruit and
vegetables. Also drink 6 to 8 glasses of water a
day.
…
Snacking is okay
† Snacks
should stay within the 300 calories a day
guideline
† Healthy snacks are best
„ Container
„ Donut
of yogurt and an apple (300 calories)
(300 calories)
What to Eat When Not Feeling Well
…
…
During pregnancy many women experience
morning sickness, diarrhea, or constipation.
It might be hard to keep foods down, or may feel
too sick to eat at all.
What to Eat When Not Feeling Well
Diarrhea: Eat more foods that contain pectin
and gums (two types of dietary fiber) to help
absorb excess water. Examples of these foods
are applesauce, bananas, white rice, oatmeal,
and refined wheat bread.
… Heartburn: Eat small, frequent meals throughout
the day; try drinking milk before eating; and
limit caffeinated foods and beverages.
…
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7/21/2011
Prenatal Vitamins
…
Prenatal vitamins help mom get all of the vitamins
and minerals her baby needs for proper
development
† Make
sure it’s prescribed by a health care provider
† Taking too many can cause problems for the baby
Omega-3 fatty acids and DHA
…
…
Omega-3 fatty acids is an important kind of fat
DHA is a type of omega-3 fatty acid that can help
a baby’s brain and eyes develop
Folic Acid
…
B vitamin that helps prevent neural tube defects
(NTD)
† Birth
…
defects of the brain and spinal cord
March of Dimes recommendations:
† 400
micrograms of folic acid every day for women of
childbearing age
† 600 micrograms for pregnant women
Iron
…
Keeps blood healthy
† Pregnant
women produce more blood then nonpregnant women
…
Iron rich foods
† Red
meats
beans and cereals
† Dried beans
† Dried fruits
† Green leafy vegetables
† Enriched
Iron
…
Calcium
Vitamin C helps the body absorb iron, so pregnant women
also should eat vitamin C-rich foods:
†
†
†
†
Oranges
Mango
P
Papaya
Cantaloupe
†
†
†
†
Tomatoes
Cabbage
S i h
Spinach
Broccoli
…
…
Important for baby’s bone development
When pregnant women don’t get enough calcium, it
is taken from their bones to supply the baby’s needs
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7/21/2011
Calcium-Rich Foods
…
…
…
Milk
Cheese
Yogurt
…
…
…
Cottage cheese
Sardines with bones
Orange juice with calcium
Vegetarianism
…
Vegetarian diets are OK during pregnancy
† Must
be careful to include enough
„ Protein
„ Calcium
„ Vitamin
„ Vitamin
…
Foods That are NOT Safe
…
Foods that are not safe:
B12
D
Vegetarians can also breastfeed, but may need a
supplement containing Vitamin B12
Foods That are NOT Safe
…
Raw meat or fish
† Hot
† Have
chemicals that can affect a baby’s development
† Increase the chance of getting an infection that can hurt
the baby
dogs
† Uncooked
deli meat
† Sushi
† Ceviche
…
…
Raw eggs
Milk or juice that is not pasteurized
† Brie,
feta, camembert, Roquefort, blue-veined, “queso
blanco”, “queso fresco”, “panela”
Foods That are NOT Safe
…
Fish that are high in mercury
Foods That are NOT Safe
…
† Shark
† Linked
to premature delivery, mental
retardation, and low birth weight babies
† Swordfish
† King
g
† Tile
mackerel
fish
Alcohol
…
Caffeine
† Limit
to 300 mg per day
8-ounce cup of coffee has about 150
mg of caffeine
† Chocolate contains caffeine too!
†1
5
7/21/2011
Foods That are NOT Safe
…
…
Gestational Diabetes
Saccharine
…
† Can
…
cross the placenta and may remain in fetal tissues
Other sweeteners are okay
…
„ Aspartame
„
„
† 10-20
10 20
percent of calories from protein
percent from fat
† 50-60 percent from carbohydrates
Eaual
Nutrasweet
† 30
„ Acesulfame-K
„
Diabetes that develops during pregnancy
If not treated, the baby can grow too large
Can be controlled with diet and exercise
„ Sweets
Sunett
may be limited
„ Sucralose
„
Splenda
Cravings
…
Whether or not a woman indulges her cravings
should depend on the food.
Non-food Cravings (pica)
…
example, citrus fruit or milk are good choices
bars and hot dogs
g should be given
g
a second
thought
† For
† Clay
† Candy
y
† Clay
y
Non-food Cravings (pica)
…
…
Might be eaten because of tradition, custom, or
cultural beliefs
Might be eaten because mom is not getting nutrients
her body needs.
Can be very dangerous!
† Can
cause the intestines to be blocked
† Can cause constipation
† Can keep nutrients from being absorbed in the
intestines
† Can cause the woman to be less likely to eat healthy
food.
keeps the baby from being marked at birth
keeps
p the woman from feeling
g hungry
gy
† Starch makes the newborn lighter
† Starch helps the baby slide out easier during delivery
Eating on a Budget
…
Fresh fruits and vegetables help keep a pregnant
woman healthy, but can be expensive!
† Make
a budget and a menu for the week
at larger
g grocery
g
y stores,, farmers’ market or farm
stands
† Use a discount card
† Compare prices between store brands and name
brands
† Shop
p
6
7/21/2011
Eating on a Budget
† Buy
whole fruits and vegetables
more than you need and freeze the rest for later
† Have a meatless meal sometimes
† Keep staples on hand at home
† Make
Eating on a Budget
…
Food assistance programs can help
„ WIC
„
www.fns.usda.gov/wic
„ Supplemental
„ Beans
B
„
„ Rice
„
„ Pasta
and pasta sauce
„ Frozen vegetables
„ Peanut butter
QUESTIONS?
7
Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
CalFresh
C
lF h iin C
California
lif i
http://www.calfresh.ca.gov/