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Grade 5 Science Learning Standards
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The Sharon Public Schools endorse a philosophy of science education that sustains the idea that the best science learning takes place as
students are actively engaged in the process of science. Process science encourages students to participate in learning activities in which they describe
objects and events, ask questions, make meaning, assemble content knowledge, test ideas, employ math skills, and communicate results through
verbal and written means. We expect students to refine and redefine their science process skills as thinking critically and creatively leads to a more
comprehensive and memorable science experience. Learning experiences in the four content strands of Life Science, Earth/Space Science, Physical
Science, and Technology/Engineering are spiraled so that students are provided with experiences in each of the strands in multiple years. These
foundations in science are provided for and enhanced by a strong science program, which contributes to a student’s conceptual and applied
understanding of science.
Life Science: Ecosystems
This unit focuses on the interdependency of organisms in their environment. Students create a simulated water ecosystem in which they are able to observe first-hand the interactions
of the organisms and the adaptations necessary for survival. Students are able to classify the organisms they work with according to the characteristics that they share. They also
have the chance to recognize that changes in the environment can affect all of its organisms.
Understanding
Essential Questions
Knowledge
Skills
Technology
Students will understand that
Students will know the/that
Students will be able to
Possible products or outcomes
In a healthy ecosystem,
organisms have the food, light,
water, air, and shelter necessary
to survive.
Food chains demonstrate the
interdependency of organisms in
an ecosystem. Changes that
happen to one link in the food
chain can affect all links.
• What roles do living and
non-living things play in a
healthy ecosystem?
• How do organisms in a
food chain need each
other?
• What happens if one link
of the food chain is
endangered in some way?
• What other examples of
interdependency can be
found in an ecosystem?
• Organisms need food, air, water,
light, and shelter to survive.
• Healthy ecosystems supply the
requirements for life, including
energy from the sun, air for
breathing, and clean water.
• Food sources are available in a
healthy ecosystem.
• Non-living things, such as rocks,
are important in ecosystems.
They often provide shelter.
• Producers (green plants) use
energy from the sun to make their
own food.
• Energy is transferred to the
consumers who eat the plants.
• Consumers include: herbivores
(plant eaters), carnivores (meat
eaters), and omnivores (plant and
meat eaters).
51
• Identify the characteristics of a
healthy ecosystem.
• Describe how non-living things
are useful in ecosystems.
• Use Tom Snyder’s,Decisions:
Environment as a whole class
presentation activity.
• Use Inspiration to web the
essential characteristics of a
healthy ecosystem, including
living and nonliving things.
• Use the following website to
enhance student learning:
http://www.geography4kids.com/files/l
and_ecosystem.html
• Draw and label a food chain.
• Explain the transfer of energy
from the sun to the link at the
top of the food chain.
• Explain how a disturbance in
one link of the food chain can
affect all links.
• Give two examples of the
interdependency of organisms.
• Use Inspiration to create a graphic
organizer displaying the food
chain.
• Use the following websites to
enhance student learning:
http://planetpals.com/foodchain
http://www.geography4kids.com/files/l
and_foodchain.html
Grade 5 Science Learning Standards
Understanding
Students will understand that
Plants and animals can be
classified according to their
physical characteristics. The
physical characteristics include
adaptations that allow organisms
to survive.
Some characteristics of
organisms are affected by
changes in the environment.
Biomes are large areas that are
determined by climate, soil type,
and the plants and animals that
live there.
Essential Questions
• How can we classify the
organisms that live in our
simulated water
ecosystems?
• What are some
adaptations that these
organisms have for
survival in their
ecosystem?
• What natural changes
occur in the environment?
• What do people and
animals do to change the
environment?
• How do these changes
affect other organisms?
• What causes organisms to
become endangered or
extinct?
• What are the defining
features of biomes?
• What are the six major
biomes?
Knowledge
Students will know the/that
• Decomposers (fungus, mold,
bacteria, some animals) are
important to the food chain
because they help decompose
organic matter.
• There are other ways that
organisms depend on each other
in an ecosystem. For example:
how and where organisms find
shelter and food.
• Plants need water and minerals.
They use energy from the sun to
produce their own food. Plants
have thick cell walls.
• Animals can move from place to
place independently, eat other
living things, and have thin
membranes instead of thick cell
walls.
• Insects and fish have unique
characteristics.
• Organisms have special
adaptations that allow them to
survive in their environment.
• Weather, sun, earthquakes,
volcanoes, etc. can cause natural
changes.
• The environment is frequently
changed by people and animals
• All change affects organisms in
some way.
• Extreme changes by humans,
animals, or nature can cause
organisms to become endangered
or extinct.
• Biomes are determined by the
climate, soil type, and the plants
and animals that live in an
extended area.
52
Skills
Students will be able to
Technology
Possible products or outcomes
• Explain the difference between
plants and animals.
• Identify physical characteristics
of insects and fish.
• Describe how the adaptations
of organisms living in the
simulated water ecosystems
allow them to survive.
• Use Inspiration to compare and
contrast pillbugs and crickets.
• Use a paint program to draw a
detailed, labeled diagram of the
anatomy of one of the animals in
the eco-column.
• Use the following website to learn
about the anatomy of different
organisms:
http://www.enchantedlearning.com
• Use the following website to
enhance student learning:
http://www.hhmi.org/coolscience/critte
rs/index.html
• Identify natural causes of
environmental change.
• Describe examples of good
changes.
• Describe examples of harmful
changes.
• Identify some harmful changes
that have caused organisms to
become endangered or extinct.
• Identify the features that define
biomes.
• List the six major biomes.
• Give examples of adaptations
needed to survive in each type
of biome.
• Use a word processor to take the
point of view of a fisherman,
landowner, factory worker,
environmentalist or politician on
the construction of a new factory
along the Chesapeake Bay.
• Use a word processor to create a
science lab report or journal entry
describing the effects of pollution
on their individually created
ecosystems.
• Use the digital camera and
Timeliner to record changes in the
eco-column over time.
Grade 5 Science Learning Standards
Understanding
Students will understand that
Essential Questions
Knowledge
Students will know the/that
Skills
Students will be able to
• There are 6 major biomes:
deserts, grasslands, deciduous
forests, taigas (evergreen forests),
tropical rainforests and tundras.
• Living things in each biome are
well adapted for life in that
community.
Technology
Possible products or outcomes
• Use Inspiration to web the 6 major
biomes and give examples of
adaptations needed to survive in
each.
• Use the following websites to
enhance student learning:
www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/glo
ss5/biome
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/worl
dbiomes.htm
http://lsb.syr.edu/projects/cyberzoo/bi
ome.html
http://www.enchantedlearning.com
http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/mses
e/earthsysflr/biomes.html
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Labo
ratory/Biome/
http://mbgnet.mobot.org/sets
http://www.cet.edu/ete
http://pbskids.org/eekoworld/index_fla
sh.html
http://www.geography4kids.com/files/l
and_ecosystem.html
Physical Science: Energy
In this unit students continue their explorations of the physical world. Previously they learned about the properties of matter. Now they are ready to do activities to help them learn
about the more abstract concept of energy. They learn that there are different types of energy and that energy can be in two forms-potential and kinetic. They investigate how energy
travels and how it can be transferred from one form to another. Concrete experiments and investigations help forge the links to abstract knowledge.
Understanding
Essential Questions
Knowledge
Skills
Technology
Students will understand that
Students will know the/that
Students will be able to
Possible products or outcomes
Energy is the capacity to do
work. There are different kinds
of energy.
• What is energy?
• What are the basic types
of energy?
• Energy is the capacity to do
work, such as moving things or
giving heat or light.
• The basic types of energy are
light, heat, sound, chemical,
mechanical, and electrical.
53
• Define energy.
• List the basic types of energy.
• Use Inspiration to web the
different forms of energy with
examples of each form.
• Use the following websites to
enhance student learning:
http://www.eere.energy.gov/kids/
http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/i
ndex.html
http://www.miamisci.org/af/sln/
http://www.mansfieldct.org/schools/m
ms/staff/hand/heattemp1.htm
Grade 5 Science Learning Standards
Understanding
Students will understand that
Essential Questions
Knowledge
Students will know the/that
Skills
Students will be able to
Technology
Possible products or outcomes
There are two forms of energystored (potential) and moving
(kinetic).
• What are the two basic
forms of mechanical
energy?
• How can energy be
stored?
• Differentiate between kinetic and
potential energy.
• Describe at least two examples of
kinetic energy.
• Describe at least two examples of
potential energy.
• Use the following websites to
enhance student learning:
Energy can be transferred from
one form to another.
• How can energy be
transferred?
• Mechanical energy is the
energy of moving objects.
• There are two basic forms of
mechanical energy: kinetic
energy (energy of motion), and
potential energy (stored
energy).
• Kinetic energy is the energy in
a moving body, such as the
wind, a speeding train, or a
flying baseball.
• Potential energy is the energy
that is available when an object
is raised, stretched, or
squeezed. It can be found in a
rock on top of a hill, a rubber
band, or a spring.
• Potential energy can be any
type of stored energy. (i.e.
Food has chemical potential
energy before it is digested.)
• Energy never disappears. It
simply changes from one form
to another.
• Waves are continuing up and
down or back and forth motions
that carry energy, but not
matter, from one place to
another.
• Energy can be transferred from
potential to kinetic and from
kinetic to potential.
• Energy can be passed from
one object to another.
• Explain that energy never
disappears; it just changes from
one form to another.
• Explain that some forms of energy
travel in waves.
• Explain an example of energy
transferring from potential to
kinetic.
• Explain an example of energy
transferring from kinetic to
potential.
• Use Inspiration to compare and
contrast kinetic and potential
energy. Include 2 examples of
each.
• Use the following website to
enhance student learning:
54
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/
phys/Class/energy/u5l1d.html
http://library.thinkquest.org/3042/ener
gy.html
http://www.harcourtschool.com/activit
y/science_up_close/403/deploy/interf
ace.html
Grade 5 Science Learning Standards
Understanding
Students will understand that
Essential Questions
Knowledge
Students will know the/that
Skills
Students will be able to
Technology
Possible products or outcomes
Heat is a form of energy that
comes from several sources.
Heat energy travels from hot
objects to cold ones.
• What is heat energy?
• Heat is the total energy of all
particles in an object.
• When heat energy is applied to
an object, its molecules begin
to vibrate more.
• Heat travels from one place to
another in waves.
• Heat travels from hot objects to
cold ones.
• Heat energy comes from many
sources: the sun, fire,
electricity, friction, chemical
reactions, and nuclear energy.
• Explain that heat is a form of
energy that causes molecules in
an object to vibrate and that heat
travels in waves from one place to
another.
• Describe how heat energy is
transferred.
• List at least four sources of heat
energy.
• Use Science Court, Particles in
Motion, to learn about heat
energy.
• Use the following websites to
enhance student learning:
• Light is a form of
electromagnetic energy that
can be seen by the eye.
• White light is made up of a full
spectrum of colors.
• Light energy can come from
natural and human made
sources.
• Light travels in waves that
move in a straight line until they
hit an object.
• When light waves bounce off a
surface, the direction of the
light waves changes and the
light is reflected.
• When light waves pass through
substances at an angle, they
are bent or refracted.
• When light waves are taken in
or soaked up by substances,
they are absorbed.
• Explain that light is a form of
energy that comes from natural or
human made sources.
• Use a prism to demonstrate that
white light is made up of a full
spectrum of colors.
• Explain that light travels in waves
that travel in a straight line until
they hit an object.
• Differentiate between reflection,
refraction, and absorption.
• Cite an example of reflected light.
• Cite an example of refracted light.
• Cite an example of light that is
absorbed by a substance.
• Use the following website to
enhance student learning:
Light is a form of energy that
travels in waves. The light
waves travel in a straight line
until they hit an object. Light
waves can be reflected,
refracted, and absorbed.
• What is light energy?
• How does light energy
travel?
55
http://www.powermasters.com/heat_e
nergy.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/educati
on/bitesize/standard/physics/energy/h
eat_energy_rev2.shtml
http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu//co
smic_classroom/light_lessons/thermal
/heat.html
http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfac
ts/sources/electricity.html
http://library.thinkquest.org/13405/ind
ex.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/science
clips/ages/10_11/see_things.shtml
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/GBSS
CI/PHYS/Class/light/u12l2c.html
Grade 5 Science Learning Standards
Understanding
Students will understand that
Essential Questions
Knowledge
Students will know the/that
Skills
Students will be able to
Technology
Possible products or outcomes
Sound is a form of energy that is
produced by vibrating objects.
Sound requires a medium
through which to travel. The
highness or lowness of a sound
(pitch) depends on the
frequency of the sound waves
producing it. The more waves
per second, the higher the pitch.
• What is sound energy?
• How does sound travel?
• How can sound be
altered?
• Explain that sound is a type of
energy that is caused by
vibrations that create sound
waves.
• Explain that sound waves cannot
travel in a vacuum.
• Describe how an echo is
produced.
• List ways that a room could be
made soundproof.
• Differentiate between volume and
pitch.
• Relate the rate of vibration to the
pitch of the sound.
• Use Science Court, Sound, to
learn about sound energy.
• Use the following websites to
enhance student learning:
Human technology allows us to
redirect energy for use on Earth.
• How does technology
redirect energy for use on
Earth?
• Sound is a type of energy that
can be heard.
• Vibrations that create sound
waves produce sound.
• Sound waves can travel
through the air and through
some solids and liquids.
• Sound waves cannot travel in a
vacuum.
• When sound waves are
reflected from a surface, an
echo is produced.
• When a substance absorbs
sound waves, they are less
easy to hear.
• Volume is the loudness of a
sound.
• The highness or lowness of a
sound is called the pitch.
• Pitch depends on the frequency
of the sound waves producing
the sound.
• The more waves per second,
the higher the pitch.
• Technology allows us to use
energy to make our lives better.
• Describe examples of how we use
energy.
• Use Inspiration to web natural
energy sources and how they are
used to improve the quality of our
lives.
• Use the following websites to
enhance student learning:
http://library.thinkquest.org/5116/soun
d.htm
http://library.thinkquest.org/5116/soun
d_wave_energy.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/science
clips/ages/9_10/changing_sounds.sht
ml
http://www.lhs.berkeley.edu/shockwav
e/jar.html
http://www.philtulga.com/Panpipes.ht
ml
http://library.thinkquest.org/19537/Mai
n.html
http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/c
hapter07.html
http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/c
hapter08.html
56
Grade 5 Science Learning Standards
Physical Science: Magnets and Motors
In this unit students explore the relationship between magnetism and electricity. They begin by investigating the properties of magnets and how magnets affect navigational
compasses. Students learn by experimentation that an electric current causes magnetism. They design their own experiments to test electromagnets. They also build a simple,
working motor. Students record the results of their experiments and communicate results. Throughout the unit, teachers stress the importance of using safety precautions when
working with electricity.
Understanding
Essential Questions
Knowledge
Skills
Technology
Students will understand that
Students will know the/that
Students will be able to
Possible products or outcomes
Magnetism is the attraction that
magnets have for magnetic
materials that include iron,
cobalt, and nickel. Magnetism is
also the force or repulsion
between magnetic poles.
Electricity can be dangerous.
Never experiment with electricity
from wall plugs or appliances
that are plugged in. Keep
electric appliances away from
water.
• What are the properties of
magnets?
• How can magnetic
strength be increased?
• How does a navigational
compass work?
• How is magnetism used by
people and migrating
animals?
• Magnets attract materials that
contain iron, cobalt, and nickel.
Steel, which contains iron, is
also magnetic.
• The strength of a magnet
changes when it is combined
with other magnets.
• Magnets have a north pole and
a south pole.
• Opposite poles attract. Same
poles repel.
• The earth acts as if it were one
big magnet.
• Compass needles point toward
the earth’s magnetic poles.
People have been using
magnetic compasses to find
their way for about 1,000 years.
• Scientists are experimenting to
find out if animals use
magnetism to navigate.
• Identify magnetic materials.
• Explain how magnetic strength
can be changed.
• Describe how magnetic poles
react to each other (attract or
repel).
• Explain how a navigational
compass works.
• Discuss why scientists are
investigating a connection
between Earth’s magnetism
and how animals find their way.
• Graph the results of the Magnets
and Washer experiment, then use a
word processor to create a lab report
to go with the results.
• Use the following websites to
enhance student learning:
• What safety precautions
should be used when
dealing with electricity?
• Household electricity is
powerful enough to be lethal.
• Never experiment with
electricity from wall plugs.
• Never experiment with
appliances that are plugged in.
• Never use electricity near
water.
• Explain the importance of using
safety precautions when
dealing with electricity.
• Use a word processor to create a
booklet on electrical safety.
• Create a multimedia slide show
about electrical safety to share with
a younger class.
• Use the following websites to
enhance student learning:
57
http://my.execpc.com/~rhoadley/magind
ex.htm
http://www.fossweb.com/modules36/MagnetismandElectricity/index.html
http://www.schools.utah.gov/curr/science
/core/5th/sciber5/magnet/html/intro.htm
http://www.cleco.com/esw_root/index.ht
ml
http://www.smud.org/safety/world/
Grade 5 Science Learning Standards
Understanding
Students will understand that
Essential Questions
Knowledge
Students will know the/that
Skills
Students will be able to
Technology
Possible products or outcomes
Electric currents can cause
magnetism.
• What are electrons?
• What is the effect of
electricity flowing through
a wire on a magnetic
compass?
• How can a magnet be
created with electricity?
• What materials are
necessary to make an
electromagnet stronger?
• How can an experiment be
designed to test the
strength of an
electromagnet?
• Electrons are tiny particles
within an atom that carry a
negative electric charge.
• When electrons flow through a
wire, they produce a magnetic
field around it.
• This magnetic field will cause
the needle in a nearby
compass to move.
• Electromagnets can be made
by passing electricity through a
coil of wire. Each coil of wire
becomes magnetic when
electricity passes through it.
• Coiling makes the
electromagnet stronger.
• A switch allows electricity to
flow at the right moment and to
coast when the switch is off.
• Motors move when
electromagnets alternately
attract and repel.
• Motors use electricity and
magnetism to turn a shaft so
that the motor can be used to
do work.
• Motors change electrical
energy into mechanical work.
• State a simple definition of what
electrons are.
• Explain why the needle of a
magnetic compass placed near
an electric circuit will move.
• Demonstrate how to make an
electromagnet stronger.
• Design an experiment to test
the strength of an
electromagnet.
• Use Inspiration to compare and
contrast permanent magnets and
electromagnets.
• Use the following website to
enhance student learning:
• Describe the importance of a
switch in a motor.
• Build a simple motor using an
electromagnetic coil and a
straw compass.
• Explain how a motor converts
energy.
• Create a minibook about how an
electric motor works.
A motor needs electricity,
magnetism, and a special switch
in order to function.
• Why is an on/off switch
important in an electric
motor?
• How do magnetic forces
(attraction and repulsion)
create movement in a
motor?
• How does a motor convert
energy?
58
http://csu.electricuniverse.com/html/eu/e
ducation/louie/index.html
Grade 5 Science Learning Standards
Earth and Space Science: Solar System Learning about Earth’s place in space is an important strand in elementary science. The purpose of this unit is to review and extend
previously learned concepts. The students review what causes day and night and extend their understanding of what causes the seasons. Math is integrated as the students compare
the relative sizes of the planets and create a scaled model of the distances between them. Inquiry based activities allow students the opportunity to investigate the effects of gravity.
They also learn about constellations and other features of the universe.
Understanding
Essential Questions
Knowledge
Skills
Technology
Students will understand that
Students will know the/that
Students will be able to
Possible products or outcomes
Earth and eight other planets
revolve around the sun, which is
the center of our solar system. It
takes Earth a full year to revolve
around the sun.
• What is the importance of the
sun in our solar system?
• How does Earth’s rotation
cause day and night?
• How does Earth’s tilt and
revolution around the sun
create seasons?
• What happens during the
equinox and solstice?
• The sun is a medium sized
star that is the center of our
solar system.
• The sun is a huge ball of
burning gases that supplies
the earth with light and heat
energy.
• Earth rotates on its invisible
axis every 24 hours.
• The rotation of the Earth
causes day and night. Day
occurs on the part of Earth
that faces the sun.
• It takes a full year for Earth to
revolve around the sun.
• Earth is tilted on its axis. The
tilt of the Earth and its
revolution around the sun
result in an uneven heating of
the Earth, which in turn
causes the seasons.
• During the vernal and
autumnal equinoxes, there are
equal amounts of sunlight and
darkness.
• The summer solstice has the
most hours of sunlight. The
winter solstice has the fewest
hours of sunlight.
59
• Describe the importance of the
sun.
• Using a flashlight and a globe,
show what causes day and
night.
• Explain that the Earth is tilted on
its axis as it revolves around the
sun and that the tilt of the Earth
as it orbits the sun results in the
different seasons.
• Use Tom Snyder’s Science Court,
Seasons as a whole class
presentation activity.
• Participate in Journey North,
Mystery Class Project, to learn
about day and night and the
seasons.
http://www.learner.org/jnorth/
• Use Sunburst, A Field Trip to the
Sky as a classroom center and
resource.
Participate in the Global Sun
Temperature Project:
http://k12science.ati.stevenstech.edu/curriculum/tempproj3/en/ind
ex.shtml
• Use the following websites to
enhance student learning:
http://kids.msfc.nasa.gov
http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/
http://seds.lpl.arizona.edu/billa/tnp
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/su
bjects/astronomy/
http://www.dustbunny.com/afk/
http://ology.amnh.org/astronomy/inde
x.htm
http://www.kidsastronomy.com/solar_
system.htm
http://amazingspace.stsci.edu/resources/exploration
s/trading/game.htm
http://kids.msfc.nasa.gov/Earth/Seaso
ns/Seasons.htm
Grade 5 Science Learning Standards
Understanding
Students will understand that
Essential Questions
Knowledge
Students will know the/that
Skills
Students will be able to
Technology
Possible products or outcomes
Gravity is an invisible force that
pulls things down. The larger the
heavenly body, the more
gravitational pull it has.
• What is gravity?
• How does the sun’s gravity
affect Earth and other
planets?
• What affect does Earth’s
gravity have on the moon?
• What affect does the moon’s
gravity have on Earth?
• Gravity is an invisible force
that pulls things down.
• The larger the heavenly body,
the more gravitational pull it
has.
• The sun’s gravity helps to
keep the planets from flying
off into space.
• Earth’s gravity helps to keep
the moon from flying away.
• The moon’s gravity causes the
tides on Earth.
• Explain why gravity is important
on Earth.
• Explain why gravity is important
in the solar system.
• Describe how the gravitational
pull of the moon affects Earth.
• Graph your weight on the sun and
the nine planets in the Solar
System using the following
websites to see your weight on
other planets.
• Use the following websites to
enhance student learning:
http://www.ology.amnh.org/astronomy
/gravity/index.htm
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/su
bjects/astronomy/moon/Tides.shtml
http://www.teachersdomain.org/K2/sci/phys/howmove/zweightlessness/
index.html
There are huge differences in
the sizes of the planets. The
solar system is enormous.
• What are the relative sizes of
the features of our solar
system?
• What are the relative
distances between the
features of our solar system?
• It is possible to use common
objects to make a scale model
that compares the sizes of the
planets.
• It is possible to use scaled
distances to compare the
distances between the
planets.
• Create a proportional model of
the solar system on the
playground using common
objects such as a pea and
different sized balls.
Other objects in the universe
include comets, stars,
constellations, asteroids,
meteors, and many moons.
• What are constellations and
other features of the
universe?
• Stars are huge balls of
glowing gas that appear as
points of light in the night sky.
• Groups of stars create
‘pictures’ in the sky called
constellations.
• Comets are small objects in
orbit around the sun. Comets
are made of ice, frozen gases
and dust.
• Asteroids are small rocky
objects around the sun.
• Explain that stars grouped
together create constellations in
the night sky.
• Differentiate between comets,
asteroids, and meteors.
• Explain that different planets
have different numbers of
moons, or natural satellites.
60
http://www.ZoomSchool.com/subjects
/astronomy/weight.shtml
http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/we
ight/
• Use Timeliner to display
diameters of the planets in our
Solar System.
• Use Timeliner to display the
relative distance of the planets to
the Sun.
• Use Sunburst, A Field Trip to the
Sky as a classroom center and
resource.
• Use Kid Pix to draw a
constellation, labeling the major
stars.
• Use the following websites to
enhance student learning.
http://www.enchantedlearning.com
http://www.dustbunny.com/afk/
http://ology.amnh.org/astronomy/inde
x.htm
http://www.kidsastronomy.com/solar_
system.htm
http://kids.msfc.nasa.gov
http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/
Grade 5 Science Learning Standards
Understanding
Students will understand that
Essential Questions
Knowledge
Students will know the/that
Skills
Students will be able to
Technology
Possible products or outcomes
• Meteors are streaks of light in
the sky caused by hunks of
rock or metal entering Earth’s
atmosphere from outer space.
• Moons are the natural
satellites of planets. Some
planets have many moons.
Engineering/Technology: Engineering Solutions Unit
In this unit students learn how the right tools, materials, and machines enable us to solve problems and invent new things. They begin by learning how to measure work and force.
They extend their understanding of simple machines by experimenting to see how machines help to make work easier. They investigate gears and they compare simple and complex
machines. Finally, they use their knowledge to design a solution to a problem.
Understanding
Essential Questions
Knowledge
Skills
Technology
Students will understand that
Students will know the/that
Students will be able to
Possible products or outcomes
Technology is using knowledge,
methods, and skills to solve
problems and get things done.
Work and force can be
measured by using the
equations:
Work = Force X Distance
The six simple machines
(inclined planes, wedges,
screws, levers, wheels and
axles, and pulleys) reduce the
amount of force needed to do
work.
• What is technology?
• How can force and work be
measured?
• Work is moving or changing
an object by applying force to
the object.
• The amount of work is the
force multiplied by the
distance moved.
• How can inclined planes,
wedges, and screws reduce
the amount of force needed
to do work?
• How can levers, wheels and
axles, and pulleys reduce the
amount of force needed to
do work?
• Simple machines can be
sorted into two groups by their
similarities.
• Inclined planes are ramps that
make it easier to raise heavy
loads.
• Wedges are two inclined
planes joined together. They
are used to help lift and
separate.
• Screws are inclined planes
that twist around a single axis.
Screws help hold things
together.
61
• Define technology.
• List the six simple machines.
• Use the formula: Work = Force X
Distance to calculate the amount
of work done in a given situation.
• Measure force.
• Explain that work is done when a
force moves an object.
• Explain how the six simple
machines can be sorted into two
groups.
• List the six simple machines and
give an example of each.
• Describe how each kind of
simple machine can reduce the
force necessary to do work.
• Use Science Court, Work and
Simple Machines as a whole class
presentation activity.
• Use Inspiration to web the six
simple machines giving definition
and examples of each.
• Use the following websites to
enhance student learning:
www.mikids.com/Smachines.htm
http://www.mos.org/sln/Leonardo/Gad
getAnatomy.html
www.mos.org/sln/Leonardo/Inventors
Toolbox.html
http://edheads.org/activities/odd_mac
hine/index.htm
http://home.earthlink.net/%7ekandyhi
g/sm/index.htm
http://www.harcourtschool.com/activit
y/machines/simple_machines.htm
Grade 5 Science Learning Standards
Understanding
Students will understand that
Essential Questions
Gears are wheels with notches
or teeth. They can be used to
change force, speed, or
direction.
• What are gears and how do
they work?
Friction is the force that makes
two surfaces in contact with
each other resist moving past
each other.
• How does friction affect
work?
Complex machines are made up
of combinations of simple
machines and gears.
• How do complex machines
compare to simple
machines?
Knowledge
Students will know the/that
• Levers are bars that are used
to help lift loads.
• Wheels and axles are round
frames that turn on rods called
axles.
• Pulleys are wheels with a
rope, chain, or belt passed
over them. A single pulley can
change the direction of an
object. A set of pulleys makes
it possible to lift a heavy load
with less effort.
• Gears are wheels with
notches or teeth.
• Gears can be used to change
force, speed, or direction.
• When the teeth of two gears fit
together and one gear turns, it
causes the other gear to turn.
• Friction is a force that tends to
stop objects from sliding.
• Friction is helpful when it
keeps things from slipping.
• Friction is harmful when it
causes machine parts to rub
against each other.
• Oil helps reduce friction.
• Traction helps increase
friction.
• A complex machine is made
of two or more simple
machines.
• Complex machines are
sometimes called compound
machines.
• Each part of a complex
machine works to make the
machine function as a whole.
62
Skills
Students will be able to
Technology
Possible products or outcomes
• Explain how gears work.
• Explain how gears can be used.
• Use the following website to
enhance student learning:
http://www.mos.org/sln/Leonardo/Gad
getAnatomy.html
• Explain how friction affects work.
• Cite examples of helpful and
harmful friction.
• Demonstrate that oil reduces
friction and traction increases
friction.
• Use the following websites to
enhance student learning:
• Differentiate between complex
and simple machines.
• List examples of complex
machines.
• Examine a complex machine,
like a hand can opener, and
identify the simple machines that
make it up.
• Use Inspiration to list 3 compound
machines & then continue to web
the simple machines that make up
the compound machines.
• Use the following website to
enhance student learning:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/science
clips/ages/8_9/friction.shtml
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/revisewi
se/science/physical/12b_act.shtml
http://teacher.scholastic.com/dirtrep/fri
ction/index.htm
http://edheads.org/activities/odd_mac
hine/index.htm
Grade 5 Science Learning Standards
Understanding
Students will understand that
Essential Questions
Knowledge
Students will know the/that
Skills
Students will be able to
Technology
Possible products or outcomes
Human-made systems are often
based on the designs of natural
systems and serve similar
purposes.
• How do human-made tools
and designs compare to
natural designs?
• Describe at least two examples
of human technology that are
based on natural systems.
• Use Inspiration to compare and
contrast a design based on a
natural system with a human
made tool, such as a bird and an
airplane.
Solving problems involves
identifying the problem, creating
a plan, selecting the appropriate
materials and tools,
implementing the procedure,
and evaluating the results.
• What steps should be
followed to design a solution
to a problem?
• How do engineers use
redesign to improve the form
or function of a model?
• How can technology be used
to solve a problem?
• Humans often look to nature
for mechanical design ideas.
• Some examples include: birds
and airplane designs, levers
and human arms, animals’
teeth and the teeth on a saw
or gear, echolocation & sonar.
• Successful solutions to solving
problems depend on the
selection of the appropriate
materials and tools.
• Following sequential steps
enables more successful
problem solving.
• Using scientific technology
can help us to extend our
problem solving abilities and
to allow us to invent new
things.
• Explain why it is important to
select the proper materials and
tools to solve a problem or do a
project.
• List the sequential steps that
should be followed when solving
a problem.
• Identify and solve a problem
using sequential design stops
and scientific technology.
• Create an invention that would
help solve a problem, then create
a brochure: name of invention and
company on cover, explanation of
problem and small picture of
problem, how invention solves
problem, testimonials, catchy
advertising phrases, design logo.
• Use Timeliner to make a
timeline of simple machines
throughout history.
• Create a Rube Goldberg-type of
complex machine through the use
of the following webquest:
http://www.jsd.k12.ak.us/ab/el/si
mplemachines.html
63
Grade 5 Science Learning Standards
Use the following websites to enhance student learning:
Ecosystems Unit
http://planetpals.com/foodchain.html
http://www.geography4kids.com/files/land_foodchain.html
http://www.geography4kids.com/files/land_ecosystem.html
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/coloring/
www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss5/biome
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/world_biomes.htm
http://lsb.syr.edu/projects/cyberzoo/biome.html
www.enchantedlearning.com/biomes
http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/biomes.html
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Laboratory/Biome/
http://mbgnet.mobot.org/sets
http://www.cet.edu/ete
http://pbskids.org/eekoworld/index_flash.html
http://homepage.mac.com/cohora/pbl/b/biome.htm
http://www.geography4kids.com/files/land_ecosystem.html
http://www.hhmi.org/coolscience/critters/index.html
Magnets and Motor Unit
http://my.execpc.com/~rhoadley/magindex.htm
http://www.fossweb.com/modules3-6/MagnetismandElectricity/index.html
http://www.schools.utah.gov/curr/science/core/5th/sciber5/magnet/html/intro.htm
http://www.cleco.com/esw_root/index.html
http://ippex.pppl.gov/interactive/electricity/
http://csu.electricuniverse.com/html/eu/education/louie/index.html
Solar System Unit
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/
http://www.dustbunny.com/afk/
http://ology.amnh.org/astronomy/index.htm
http://www.kidsastronomy.com/solar_system.htm
http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/resources/explorations/trading/game.htm
http://kids.msfc.nasa.gov
http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/
http://k12science.ati.stevens-tech.edu/curriculum/tempproj3/en/index.shtml
http://www.learner.org/jnorth/
http://seds.lpl.arizona.edu/billa/tnp
http://kids.msfc.nasa.gov/Earth/Seasons/Seasons.htm
http://www.ZoomSchool.com/subjects/astronomy/weight.shtml
http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/weight/
http://www.ology.amnh.org/astronomy/gravity/index.htm
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/moon/Tides.shtml
http://www.teachersdomain.org/K-2/sci/phys/howmove/zweightlessness/index.html
Energy Unit
http://library.thinkquest.org/5116/
http://www.eere.energy.gov/kids/
http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/index.html
http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter07.html
http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.html
http://www.lhs.berkeley.edu/shockwave/jar.html
http://www.philtulga.com/Panpipes.html
http://library.thinkquest.org/5116/sound.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages/9_10/changing_sounds.shtml
http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/electricity.html
http://library.thinkquest.org/13405/index.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages/10_11/see_things.shtml
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/GBSSCI/PHYS/Class/light/u12l2c.html
http://www.powermasters.com/heat_energy.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/bitesize/standard/physics/energy/heat_energy
http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu//cosmic_classroom/light_lessons/thermal/heat.
http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/energy/u5l1d.html
http://library.thinkquest.org/3042/energy.html
http://library.thinkquest.org/3042/energy.html
http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/science_up_close/403/deploy/interface.html
http://library.thinkquest.org/19537/Main.html
Engineering Solutions Unit
http://edheads.org/activities/simple-machines/
http://edheads.org/activities/odd_machine/index.htm
www.mos.org/sln/Leonardo/InventorsToolbox.html
http://www.mos.org/sln/Leonardo/GadgetAnatomy.html
www.mikids.com/Smachines.htm
http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/machines/simple_machines.htm
http://www.jsd.k12.ak.us/ab/el/simplemachines.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages/8_9/friction.shtml
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/revisewise/science/physical/12b_act.shtml
http://teacher.scholastic.com/dirtrep/friction/index.htm
http://www.mansfieldct.org/schools/mms/staff/hand/heattemp1.htm
64
Grade 5 Science Learning Standards
65