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EMT
Human Anatomy
and Physiology
Objectives
• Identify and locate on the body the following
topographic terms: anterior, posterior, midline,
right and left, bilateral, proximal and distal.
• Describe anatomy and functions of the following
major body systems: respiratory, circulatory,
musculoskeletal, nervous, and endocrine.
Anatomical Position
• Body erect, feet
slightly apart, palms
facing forward,
thumbs point away
from body
Figure 1.7a
Topography
• Anterior/Posterior
• Proximal/Distal
• Medial/Lateral
• Midaxillary
• Midline
• Midclavicular line
• Right/Left
Anatomic Positions
• Prone
• Supine
Anatomic Positions
•Trendelenburg’s
position
•Fowler’s position
Organ Systems
Organ Systems
Organ Systems
Organ Systems
The Skin
• Protects the body
from the
environment
• Regulates body
temperature
• Transmits
information from
environment to the
brain
The Skeletal System
•
•
•
•
Gives form to the body
Protects vital organs
Consists of 206 bones
Acts as a framework for
attachment of muscles
• Designed to permit
motion of the body
The Skull
The Spinal Column
The Thorax
The Pelvis
Lower Extremity
• Hip
• Thigh
• Knee
• Leg
• Ankle
• Foot
The Upper Extremity
• Shoulder girdle
• Arm
• Elbow
• Forearm
• Wrist
• Hand
Musculoskeletal System
– Gives the body
shape
– Protects internal
organs
– Provides for
movement
– Consists of more
than 600 muscles
Types of Muscle
• Skeletal (voluntary) muscle
– Attached to the bones of the body
• Cardiac muscle (involuntary)
– Own blood supply and electrical system
– Can tolerate blood supply interruptions for only a
short time
• Smooth (involuntary) muscle
– Carry out the automatic muscular functions of the
body
The Central Nervous System
• The nervous system
controls the body’s
voluntary and
involuntary actions.
• Somatic nervous
system regulates
voluntary actions
• Autonomic nervous
system controls
involuntary body
functions
Peripheral Nervous System
• Links the organs of the
body to the central
nervous system.
• Sensory nerves carry
information from the
body to the CNS.
• Motor nerves carry
information from the
CNS to the muscles of
the body.
Endocrine System
• Complex message and
control system
• Made up of 7 glands:
adrenal, pituitary,
testes, ovaries, thyroid,
pancreas, parathyroid
• Glands produce and
release hormones.
The Circulatory System
• Functions to supply
•
•
oxygen and nutrients
to tissues, organs,
and cells
Removes CO2 and
waste products
Comprised of heart,
arteries, veins,
arterioles, venules,
and caprillaries
The Heart
• Four chambered,
•
muscular organ that
functions as a pump
Involuntary muscle
under it’s own blood
supply and electrical
system
Blood Flow Through the Heart
Electrical Conduction System
• SA node
• AV node
• Purkinje
fibers
Normal Heart Rates
Adults
60 to 100 bpm
Children 80 to 100 bpm
Toddlers 100 to 120 bpm
Newborns 120 to 140 bpm
Major Arteries
• Carotid
• Brachial
• Radial
• Femoral
• Popliteal
Components of Blood
• Plasma
• Red blood cells
• White blood cells
• Platelets
Circulatory System Physiology
• Pulse
– The wave of blood through the arteries formed
when the left ventricle contracts
• Blood pressure
– Amount of force exerted against walls of
arteries
• Systole: Left ventricle contracts
• Diastole: Left ventricle relaxes
• Perfusion
– Circulation of blood within an organ or tissue
– If inadequate, the patient goes into shock
The Respiratory System
Diaphragm
• Has characteristics of both voluntary and
involuntary muscles
• Dome-shaped muscle
• Divides thorax from abdomen
• Contracts during inhalation
• Relaxes during exhalation
Respiratory Physiology
Inspiration
Active process
Chest cavity expands
Intrathoracic pressure falls
Air flows in until pressure
equalizes
Expiration
Passive process
Chest cavity size decreases
Intrathoracic pressure rises
Air flows out until pressure
equalizes
Respiratory Process
– O2 & CO2 Exchange
– Oxygen-rich air is delivered to alveoli
with inspiration.
– Oxygen diffuses into the blood.
– The body does not use all the inhaled
oxygen.
Control of Breathing
• Brain stem controls breathing.
– Increases breathing rate if the carbon
dioxide level in blood becomes too high
• Hypoxic drive is a “backup system.”
– Activates when oxygen levels fall to
stimulate breathing
Normal Breathing Characteristics
• Normal rate and depth
• Regular rhythm
• Good breath sounds in both
lungs
• Regular rise and fall movements
in the chest
• Easy, not labored
Normal Breathing Rates
• Adults
• Child
• Infant
• Neonates
12-20
15-30
25-50
40-70
Breaths
Breaths
Breaths
Breaths
per
per
per
per
minute
minute
minute
minute
Inadequate Breathing
• Irregular rhythm
• Labored breathing
• Muscle retractions
• Pale or cyanotic skin
• Cool, clammy skin
• Fast or slow rate
Infant and Child Anatomy
• Structures less rigid
• Airway smaller
• Tongue proportionally
•
larger
Dependent on
diaphragm for
breathing
The Abdomen
• The abdomen is
the second major
body cavity.
• It contains the
major organs of
digestion and
excretion.
Abdominal Quadrants
Digestive System
• Processes food to
•
provide nutrition to
the cells
Comprised of mouth,
saliva glands,
pharynx, esophagus,
liver, gallbladder,
pancreas, stomach,
intestines, rectum,
anus
Urinary System
• Filters and controls
•
•
discharge of waste
materials from body
Blood pressure
control (kidneys)
Comprised of kidneys,
ureters, bladder, and
urethra
Male Reproductive System
Female Reproductive System
QUESTIONS?