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EMT Human Anatomy and Physiology Objectives • Identify and locate on the body the following topographic terms: anterior, posterior, midline, right and left, bilateral, proximal and distal. • Describe anatomy and functions of the following major body systems: respiratory, circulatory, musculoskeletal, nervous, and endocrine. Anatomical Position • Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body Figure 1.7a Topography • Anterior/Posterior • Proximal/Distal • Medial/Lateral • Midaxillary • Midline • Midclavicular line • Right/Left Anatomic Positions • Prone • Supine Anatomic Positions •Trendelenburg’s position •Fowler’s position Organ Systems Organ Systems Organ Systems Organ Systems The Skin • Protects the body from the environment • Regulates body temperature • Transmits information from environment to the brain The Skeletal System • • • • Gives form to the body Protects vital organs Consists of 206 bones Acts as a framework for attachment of muscles • Designed to permit motion of the body The Skull The Spinal Column The Thorax The Pelvis Lower Extremity • Hip • Thigh • Knee • Leg • Ankle • Foot The Upper Extremity • Shoulder girdle • Arm • Elbow • Forearm • Wrist • Hand Musculoskeletal System – Gives the body shape – Protects internal organs – Provides for movement – Consists of more than 600 muscles Types of Muscle • Skeletal (voluntary) muscle – Attached to the bones of the body • Cardiac muscle (involuntary) – Own blood supply and electrical system – Can tolerate blood supply interruptions for only a short time • Smooth (involuntary) muscle – Carry out the automatic muscular functions of the body The Central Nervous System • The nervous system controls the body’s voluntary and involuntary actions. • Somatic nervous system regulates voluntary actions • Autonomic nervous system controls involuntary body functions Peripheral Nervous System • Links the organs of the body to the central nervous system. • Sensory nerves carry information from the body to the CNS. • Motor nerves carry information from the CNS to the muscles of the body. Endocrine System • Complex message and control system • Made up of 7 glands: adrenal, pituitary, testes, ovaries, thyroid, pancreas, parathyroid • Glands produce and release hormones. The Circulatory System • Functions to supply • • oxygen and nutrients to tissues, organs, and cells Removes CO2 and waste products Comprised of heart, arteries, veins, arterioles, venules, and caprillaries The Heart • Four chambered, • muscular organ that functions as a pump Involuntary muscle under it’s own blood supply and electrical system Blood Flow Through the Heart Electrical Conduction System • SA node • AV node • Purkinje fibers Normal Heart Rates Adults 60 to 100 bpm Children 80 to 100 bpm Toddlers 100 to 120 bpm Newborns 120 to 140 bpm Major Arteries • Carotid • Brachial • Radial • Femoral • Popliteal Components of Blood • Plasma • Red blood cells • White blood cells • Platelets Circulatory System Physiology • Pulse – The wave of blood through the arteries formed when the left ventricle contracts • Blood pressure – Amount of force exerted against walls of arteries • Systole: Left ventricle contracts • Diastole: Left ventricle relaxes • Perfusion – Circulation of blood within an organ or tissue – If inadequate, the patient goes into shock The Respiratory System Diaphragm • Has characteristics of both voluntary and involuntary muscles • Dome-shaped muscle • Divides thorax from abdomen • Contracts during inhalation • Relaxes during exhalation Respiratory Physiology Inspiration Active process Chest cavity expands Intrathoracic pressure falls Air flows in until pressure equalizes Expiration Passive process Chest cavity size decreases Intrathoracic pressure rises Air flows out until pressure equalizes Respiratory Process – O2 & CO2 Exchange – Oxygen-rich air is delivered to alveoli with inspiration. – Oxygen diffuses into the blood. – The body does not use all the inhaled oxygen. Control of Breathing • Brain stem controls breathing. – Increases breathing rate if the carbon dioxide level in blood becomes too high • Hypoxic drive is a “backup system.” – Activates when oxygen levels fall to stimulate breathing Normal Breathing Characteristics • Normal rate and depth • Regular rhythm • Good breath sounds in both lungs • Regular rise and fall movements in the chest • Easy, not labored Normal Breathing Rates • Adults • Child • Infant • Neonates 12-20 15-30 25-50 40-70 Breaths Breaths Breaths Breaths per per per per minute minute minute minute Inadequate Breathing • Irregular rhythm • Labored breathing • Muscle retractions • Pale or cyanotic skin • Cool, clammy skin • Fast or slow rate Infant and Child Anatomy • Structures less rigid • Airway smaller • Tongue proportionally • larger Dependent on diaphragm for breathing The Abdomen • The abdomen is the second major body cavity. • It contains the major organs of digestion and excretion. Abdominal Quadrants Digestive System • Processes food to • provide nutrition to the cells Comprised of mouth, saliva glands, pharynx, esophagus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, stomach, intestines, rectum, anus Urinary System • Filters and controls • • discharge of waste materials from body Blood pressure control (kidneys) Comprised of kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra Male Reproductive System Female Reproductive System QUESTIONS?