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HTML - V22.0004
Introduction to Hypertext
 HTML: Hypertext Markup Language
 Hypertext …
links within and among Web documents
connect one document to another
Although this seems rather mundane today, this is
a radical departure from the structure of books
since the invention of the printing press
Origins of HTML
HTML is based on SGML (Standardized
General Markup Language)
“A philosophical rule was that HTML
should convey the structure of a hypertext
document, but not the details of its
Since then, HTML has evolved into a
presentation language.
What is HTML?
• HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
• HTML standards are developed under the authority of the World
Wide Web Consortium (W3C), headed by Tim Lee
• HTML is the set of "markup" symbols or codes inserted in a file
intended for display on a World Wide Web browser.
• The markup tells the Web browser how to display a Web page's text,
images, sound and video files for the user.
• The individual markup codes are referred to as elements (but many
people also refer to them as tags).
HTML is easy to pick up.
There are many good books as well as resources on-line
Our goal is to teach you the basics so that you can pick up the rest on
your own.
HTML Documents
• HTML documents are text documents
• We use simple ASCII text files
• Html file extensions: .html or .htm
• You can create html documents using:
• Notepad in Windows and TextEdit (MAC OS X)
• You can also use HTML Editors
HTML Editors
• HTML editors are called “WYSIWYG”
• What You See Is What You Get!
• Examples of HTML Editors:
• Dreamweaver
• Front Page
• Go Live
HTML Editors:
– Good for beginners
• You do not have to know
much HTML to use editors
• It is easy to create complex
tables, image maps, and use
advanced functions such
as Style Sheets and
• Easy for design due to the
WYSIWYG interface
– They do not always
generate clean HTML
Add redundant tags
Add their own tags
– They do not offer good
graphic tools to
manipulate images
– It can be hard to fix
HTML tags since every
time you open a
document, code is added.
HTML Document Structure
• HTML Document contains
• Text (content of the page)
• HTML uses the following file extensions or
suffix: .HTML or .HTM
• Embedded tags:
provides instruction for the structure, and
appearance of the content
HTML Document Structure
• The HTML document is divided into two major parts:
• HEAD: contains information about the document:
• Title of the page (which appears at the top of the browser
• Meta tags: used to describe the content (used by Search
• JavaScript and Style sheets generally require statements in the
document Head
• BODY: Contains the actual content of the document
• This is the part that will be displayed in the browser
Sample HTML Document
<TITLE> My web page </TITLE>
Content of the document
• All HTML tags are made up of a tag name and
sometimes they are followed by an optional list of
attributes which all appear between angle brackets
< >
• Nothing within the brackets will be displayed by the browser (unless
the HTML is incorrectly written and the browser interprets the tags
as part of the content)
• Attributes are properties that extend or refine the tag’s functions
Basic Syntax
 Most (but not all!) HTML tags have a start
tag and an end tag:
 <H1>Hello, world!</H1>
 Basic Document Structure
 header: information about the page, e.g.
the title.
 body: the actual content of the page.
 document starts with
 <HTML> and ends with </HTML>
Standalone tags
– There are a few HTML tags which do not use
an end tag and are used for standalone
elements on the page:
to display an image
Line break
<body bgcolor=“khaki” text=“#000000” link=“blue” vlink=“brown”
alink=“black” >
Attributes are added within a tag to extend a tag’s action.
You can add multiple attributes within a single tag.
Attributes belong after the tag name; each attribute should be separated by
one or more spaces.
Most attributes take values, which follow an equal sign “=“
after the attribute’s name.
Values are limited to 1024 characters in length.
This is Information which the browser
will ignore:
multiple spaces will appear as a single space
How are you?”
The browser will ignore the blanks and new
Hello, How are you?
<P> v. <BR> Tags
<BR>: Break
<P>: Paragraph tag. Creates more space
than a BR tag.
<HR>: Creates a Horizontal Rule
Paragraph Tag <P>
Leaves one empty line after the tag
 Multiple <P> tags with no intervening text
is interpreted as redundant by all browsers
and will display a single <P> tag
Line break <BR>
This tag breaks the line and starts text at a
new line.
 It will not add an empty line like the
paragraph tag
 Multiple <br> tags will display multiple
line breaks
Using blockquotes
Use <blockquote> …. </blockquote> to set up a “block”
of text. Nested blockquotes will further indent.
For example:
<blockquote>Tiffany was one of America's most acclaimed and multitalented artists
working in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
<blockquote>Of all of Tiffany's artistic endeavors, stained glass brought him the
greatest recognition. </blockquote></blockquote>
… will display as:
Tiffany was one of America's most acclaimed and multitalented artists
working in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Of all of Tiffany's artistic endeavors, stained glass brought him the
greatest recognition.
Comments <!-- -->
Browser will NOT display text in between
<!-- This is a comment
<!-- This is another
 I. E. uses the following tag as a comment:
<comment> this a comment
Headings: <h1> .. <h6>
You can create Headlines of various sizes on
your page
Headlines appear as bold letters
An empty line will also follow the headlines.
Used for titles
– H1 is the largest font and h6 is the smallest heading
– Headings need an end tag </h1>
Font Tags to specify color, font
type and size
<B>The Curse of Xanadu</B>
by By Gary Wolf, <I>Wired Magazine</I>
 Font tags:
 face: Arial, Courier, etc.
 size: e.g. 3, 6
 color: e.g. “RED”, “GREEN”, etc.
Text format tags
Bold: <b> some text </b> or <strong>
Italic <I> some text </I> or <em>
<HR> (Horizontal Rule) Displays horizontal line in the browser
window. The line fills the window from left to the right margins.
It’s useful to separate sections of your document
You can use attributes with <hr> such as
– <hr width=“70%”>
Lists are used to organize items in the
browser window:
Unordered list: Bulleted list (most popular), list
items with no particular order
 Ordered list: Numbered list
 HTML supports two types of Lists:
 Ordered Lists (OL): e.g. 1,2,3
 UnOrdered Lists (UL): e.g. bullets.
 Basic Syntax:
<LI>Item 1
<LI>Item 2
Unordered list:
– Unordered list: Bulleted list
(most popular), lists items
with no particular order
<LI> Banana
• Banana
Ordered list:
Numbered list:
<LI> Banana
1. Banana
2. Grape
Hyperlinks (Anchor Tag):
Hyperlinks are used for linking:
within the same page (Named tags)
To another page in your web site (Relative Link or local
To another page outside your web site (Absolute or remote
Email Link
Hyper Links: are highlighted and underlined text.
When you click on it, it takes you to another
page on the web.
<A command=“target”>highlighted text</A>
Absolute Link: These are links to another page
outside of your web site. These links specify the
entire URL of the page:
<A HREF=“”>NYU Web Site</A>
NYU Web Site
Relative Link: These are links to another
page in your site so you do not have to
specify the entire URL.
<A HREF=“index.html”>Go back to main page</A>
Go back to main page
Targeted Links
A tag includes a target attribute. If you
specify target=“_blank”, a new
browser window will be opened.
<A HREF=“”
target="_blank”> NYU</A>
More on this when we get to frames...
Email Link:
You can someone at:
<a href=“”>Send email to
HTML Tables
Tables represent a simple mechanism for
creating rows and columns of data.
This is a great tool for laying out the
content of any web page, especially when
you omit the border by using:
… border = “0” …
Tables are very widely used and supported
by all common browsers.
Tables use a very simple tag structure.
Use < body bgcolor = “ …” > for a
background color with a hex version of a
web-safe color:
<body bgcolor = “ccffff”>
For a tiled background using an image file:
<BODY background="backgroundPicture.gif">
HTML - Tables
Tables tags starts with
<TABLE> tag, then
<TR> defines table rows.
<TD> Table data or <TH> Table Header can follow the <TR> tag
Each <TR> represents one row in the table.
The number of rows is determined by the number of <TR>
The number of cells in each row is determined by the number of <TH> (Table
Header) and/or <TD> (Table data) tags contained within that row.
<TH> text will be in bold, and centered
<tr> <td> cell 1
<th> cell 2
<th> cell 3 </tr>
<tr> <td> cell 4
<td> cell 5
<td> cell 6 </tr>
<tr> <td> cell 7
<td> cell 8
<td> cell 9 </tr>
Basic Tag Structure
<TR >
TR: Table Row
TH: Table Heading
<TD>71 1/16</TD>
<TD>46 15/16</TD>
TD: Table Data
Every <TD> must have a matching
Every <TR> must have
a matching </TR>.
Table Attributes
<TABLE ALIGN=“left" BORDER=0 BGCOLOR=“cyan“ width=600 cellpadding=0
Align: "left", "center" or "right“ - "left" is the default
Border: thickness of the border in pixels - 0 for no borders
Bgcolor: is background color in HEX or as a name color
Background=url (works with IE only)
Cellpading=n (n is number of pixels (space) between cell content and its border
Cellspacing=n (n is number of pixels (space) between cells)
Height=n (height of table in pixels or percentages 100%)
Width=n (Width of table in pixels or percentages 100%)
Scrolling text using the
<marquee> tag
<head><title> scrolling text</title></head>
<marquee><font face=”sand">Welcome to my
website! Be sure to visit again!</marquee>
HTML and Multimedia
<img src= "logoblue.gif" width="153"
height="31" border="0" alt="W I R E D">
 Image Attributes
src: URL or filename for the image
width/height: not required
border: not required.
alt: recommended for users running a text browser.
Adding multimedia files
<a href=“filename.extension> listen to sound file </a>
<a href=“sound1.wav> listen to sound file </a>
<a href=“> view movie clip </a>
Multimedia Filetypes
File Type
Extention/Mime type
plain text:
HTML document:
GIF image:
.gif or .jpg or .png
Acrobat file:
AIFF sound file:
.aiff .au . wav
QuickTime movie:
MPEG movie:
.mpeg or .mpg