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Transcript
Chapter 29 Magnetism
Ferromagnetism
• Poles – Location where the
magnetic effect is the strongest
– North pole – pole of a freely
suspended magnet which points
towards geographic north
– South pole - pole of a freely
suspended magnet which points
towards geographic south
•
•
Like pole repel,
Unlike poles attract
Magnetic fields and field lines
FE  qE
FG  mg
FM  f (q, v, B)
Field Type
gravity
electric
magnetic
Caused By
mass
charge
moving charge
Navigation with magnetism
• Magnetic declination
• Angle of dip
• Earth’s north pole is a
south pole magnetically
Magnetic field empirical
observations
• The force is proportional to charge
• The force is proportional to
charge’s speed
• When the velocity vector is parallel
to the field there is no force
• The force is perpendicular to both
the velocity and field vectors
• The force on a positive moving
charge is opposite that on a
negative moving charge
• The force on is proportional to the
sin of the angle between the
velocity vector and the magnetic
field.
FB  q v B sin 
FB  qv  B
Right Hand Rule
Cross product review
C  AB
A
C  A B sin 
ˆi
C  Ax
Bx
ˆj
Ay
By

kˆ
Az
Bz
B
Units
N
N
 B  Tesla  T  m 
A

m
C
s
Weber Wb
4
4
Tesla 


10
Gauss

10
G
2
2
m
m
Earth’s magnetic field is about 0.5 G
Differences Between Electric and
Magnetic Fields
• Work
– The electric force does work in displacing a
charged particle
– The magnetic force associated with a steady
magnetic field does no work when a particle is
displaced
• This is because the force is perpendicular to
the displacement
4.
A proton travels with a speed of 3.00 × 106 m/s at an
angle of 37.0° with the direction of a magnetic field of 0.300 T
in the +y direction. What are (a) the magnitude of the magnetic
force on the proton and (b) its acceleration?
6.
An electron is accelerated through 2 400 V from rest
and then enters a uniform 1.70-T magnetic field. What are (a)
the maximum and (b) the minimum values of the magnetic
force this charge can experience?
8.
At the equator, near the surface of the Earth, the
magnetic field is approximately 50.0 μT northward, and the
electric field is about 100 N/C downward in fair weather. Find
the gravitational, electric, and magnetic forces on an electron
in this environment, assuming the electron has an
instantaneous velocity of 6.00 × 106 m/s directed to the east.
Active Figure 29.18
(SLIDESHOW MODE ONLY)
Bending of an Electron Beam
• Electrons are
accelerated from rest
through a potential
difference
• Conservation of
energy will give v
• Other parameters can
be found
Force on a charge moving in a
magnetic field
Radius:
Velocity:
Frequency:
Period:
mv
r
qB
qBr
v
m
qB

m
2m
T
qB
Motion of a Particle, General
• If a charged particle
moves in a magnetic
field at some arbitrary
angle with respect to
B, its path is a helix
• Same equations apply,
with
v  v v
2
y
2
z
Active Figure 29.19
(SLIDESHOW MODE ONLY)
Application: velocity selector
F  FE  FM  qE  qv  B
0  q E  q v B
v
E
B
Active Figure 29.23
(SLIDESHOW MODE ONLY)
Application: mass spectrometer
First Stage: velocity selector
v
E
Bin
Second Stage: photographic film
and a new magnetic field, B’
FM  q v Bo,in
m
q Bo,in r
v

v
m
r
2
q Bo,in Bin r
E
Active Figure 29.24
(SLIDESHOW MODE ONLY)
29.
The magnetic field of the Earth at a certain location is
directed vertically downward and has a magnitude of 50.0 μT. A
proton is moving horizontally toward the west in this field with a
speed of 6.20 × 106 m/s. (a) What are the direction and
magnitude of the magnetic force the field exerts on this charge?
(b) What is the radius of the circular arc followed by this proton?
32.
A proton moving freely in a circular path perpendicular
to a constant magnetic field takes 1.00 μs to complete one
revolution. Determine the magnitude of the magnetic field.
39.
A singly charged positive ion moving at 4.60 × 105 m/s
leaves a circular track of radius 7.94 mm along a direction
perpendicular to the 1.80-T magnetic field of a bubble chamber.
Compute the mass (in atomic mass units) of this ion, and, from
that value, identify it.
Application: Hall effect
V
Which way is the current in
the wire depicted in both
pictures?
What would a voltmeter
show if hooked up to the
opposite sides of this wire?
I
V
Which was observed?
Conclusion: the charge
carrier is negative, probably
an electron
Application: Hall effect
Magnitude of the
Hall Voltage
d
V
I
Once the charge
redistributes in the wire,
equilibrium is reached
qE H  qvd B
VH
 vd B
d
I  nAv d q
BId
VH 
nqA
And there is a force on a current
carrying wire due to a magnetic field
FM
  
vd
q
 + 
  
B
FM  qv  B
What direction is the force on this particle?
And there is a force on a current
carrying wire due to a magnetic field
FM
  
vd
q
 + 
  
B
Fwire  Nqv  B  nA qv  B
I  nA vd q
If magnetic field is not uniform:
Fwire  IL  B
dFwire  Ids  B
Torque on a current loop in a
uniform magnetic field
Fwire  IL  B
bottom view
F1  IaB
F2  IaB
b
b
b
b
  F1  F2  IaB  IaB  IabB
2
2
2
2
side view
 max  IAB
A  Area  ab
Torque on a current loop in a
uniform magnetic field
b
b
  F1 sin   F2 sin 
2
2
 IabBsin   IABsin 
  IA  B  IAnˆ  B
Define: magnetic dipole moment
  IA  IAnˆ
   B
Application: Galvanometer
Application: DC Motor
Active Figure 29.14
(SLIDESHOW MODE ONLY)
Application: DC motor commutator
13.
A wire 2.80 m in length carries a current of 5.00 A in a
region where a uniform magnetic field has a magnitude of
0.390 T. Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic force on the
wire assuming the angle between the magnetic field and the
current is (a) 60.0°, (b) 90.0°, (c) 120°.
21.
A small bar magnet is suspended in a uniform 0.250-T
magnetic field. The maximum torque experienced by the bar
magnet is 4.60 × 10–3 N · m. Calculate the magnetic moment
of the bar magnet.
54.
A 0.200-kg metal rod carrying a current of 10.0 A
glides on two horizontal rails 0.500 m apart. What vertical
magnetic field is required to keep the rod moving at a constant
speed if the coefficient of kinetic friction between the rod and
rails is 0.100?
Wires carrying current create
magnetic fields