Download N S C A Ch 12 Flexibility, Body Weight, Balls NSCA Ch 12

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Flexibility, BodyWeight, and Stability
Ball Exercise
By Amanda Tang
Flexibility Training
• Raining to allow joints to move freely through a full, normal, range of
motion for any particular sport. Amount of flexibility that is necessary
depends on the sport
• Goal is to achieve strength combined with flexibility that can allow a
client to better control his or her movements
• Also important in injury prevention (tight muscles)
• Follows the warm up period
• Should never be used as warm up, should only be done after core
temperature has been elevated to a point where light perspiration begins.
• If sport is dynamic, such as basketball, flexibility training prior to activity
and after the warmup is recommended
• If activity is less dynamic, such as cycling and stair climbing, flexibility
training can be performed after training session
Benefits of Flexibility Training
• Flexibility training is important to those interested in fitness
because of the role that optimum flexibility plays in improving
movements performance and reducing the opportunity for injury
• Helps eliminate awkward and inefficient movement by allowing
joints to move freely though a full normal ROM
• Most common injuries with poor flexibility include lower back pain
resulting from tight quadriceps, iliopsoas, and back muscles
Factors Affecting Flexibility
• Joint Structure
• Muscle and Connective Tissue
• Hyperlaxity
• Age
• Sex
• Temperature
• Activity Level
• Resistance Training
Elasticity and Plasticity
• The ability to return to original resting length after a passive stretch
• Provides a temporary change in length
• Muscle only has this property
The tendency to assume a new and greater length after a passive stretch,
even after the load is removed
• Ligaments and tendons have this property and the other
• Stretching techniques should be designed primarily to produce a this
form of elongation if a permanent increase in ROM is the goal
• increase blood flow to the muscle
• increase in the sensitivity if nerve receptors
• increase in the disassociation of oxigen from hemoglobin to
• increase in the speed of nerve impulse trasmissions
• reduction in muscle viscosity
• lowering of the energy rates of metabolic chemical reaction
Types of Warm Ups
Passive Warm-Up
Specific Warm-Up
Warm up that involves methods such as
hot showers, heating pads, or massages
Advantageous in that it dies not prefatigue
client, however, not practical
Warm up that includes movements that are
an actual part of the activity, such as slow
jogging before a run, or light bench presses
before a progressing to workout weight
Best method because it warms up core
body temp and serves as rehearsal of the
event, allowing complex skills to be
performed more effectively
General Warm-Up
Warm up that involves basic activities that
require movement of the major muscle
groups, such as jogging, cycling, or
jumping rope
Increases HR, blood flow, deep muscle
temp, respiration rate, viscosity of joint
fluids and perspiration
More appropriate when goal is preparing
the body for physical activity
Body-Weight and Stability Ball Exercises
• Improved balance, joint stability, proprioception and
neuromuscular control decrease the incidence of injury
• Heart rate response and oxygen consumption increase
• Strength, stability , balance, posture, proprioception ,and flexibility
in pregnancy, these adaptation result in stronger abdominal muscle
which help to support the baby, decrease the incidence of back pain,
and reduce the changes of accidental falls 262
Types of Flexibility Training
Ballistic Stretching
Static Stretching
Most common method for flexibility training.
Uses a slow, constant speed, with the stretched
position held for 30 seconds.
Involves relaxing and lengthening the muscles.
Does not activate stretch reflex because of low
speed, thus, risk of injury lower.
As stretch is held to a slight discomfort, tension
should reduce, if it does not, tension should be
(bouncing) Rapid, jerkey, uncontrolled
movements used as a stretching technique. Body
parts put into motion, and momentum takes it
through the ROM until the muscles are stretched
to the limit.
No longer an acceptable method for increasing
1. Increases danger of exceeding extensibility
limits of tissue
2. Requires higher energy
3. Greater likelihood of muscle soreness
4. Activation of stretch reflex creates muscle
tension that prevents a full stretch.
Increasing length of time over 30 seconds shows
no improvements.
No real disadvantage if done correctly. Although
it may negatively affect dynamic activity
(running, jumping, etc) if done prior.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation
Originally developed as a technique to relax muscles that demonstrate
increased tone or activity.
Accepted as a very effective, most superior, method of increasing ROM.
Usually performed with a partner and use passive, and active
movements (concentric, isometric)
Most common method is the "Hold-Relax Method"
-take joint into static stretch while relaxed
-after 10 sec, contract muscle for 6 sec with strong isometric contraction
against an external force.
-partner should not allow client to move
-after 2-3sec rest, passive stretch performed for 30 sec. resulting in greater
Activation of golgi tendon results in less muscle tension in second
Injury potential is high and this should not be done one youngsters or
untrained. Also more time consumming and other methods increase
ROM effectively and more easily.
Dynamic Stretching
Similar to ballistic, but no bouncing, and includes sports
specific movements.
More movement specific than static stretching
May be the most appropriate type of flexibility training
for improving movement capability before a workout. If
additional flexibility is needed, performance of static
flexibility exercises post workout is effective.
Study Question #1
After completing a warm-up, a client should immediately perform
flexibility exercises before which of the following activities?
a. Singles tennis
b. Rowing machine
c. Stationary bike
d. Stair climber
Answer to #1
• After completing a warm-up, the client should immediately
perform flexibility exercises before playing single tennis so that the
increase blood flow to the muscles and the chances for injuries are
Study Question #2
Which of the following is a benefit of performing warm-up activities?
a. Muscle blood flow increases
b. Muscle viscosity increases
c. Nerve impulse velocity decreases
d. Nerve receptor sensitivity decreases
Answer to #2
• You want the blood to flow better so that your warmed up and that
your less prone to injures and your performance is better
Study Question #3
Compared to static stretching, which of the following is a
disadvantage of ballistic stretching?
a. Decreased danger of overstretching the target tissue
b. Increased amount of energy is needed to perform the exercises
c. Decreased likelihood of becoming sore after stretching
d. Increased passivity of the stretch reflex
Answer to #3
• Increases danger of exceeding extensibility limits of tissue
Study Question #4
A 6-foot, 9-inch (206 centimeter), 230-pound (105 kilogram) male client has been
preparing for the upcoming basketball season and has been preforming traditional
resistance training for the past six months. His personal trainer decides to introduce
stability ball exercises into the client’s program. Which of the following guidelines
apply to this client?
Due to the client’s weight, the personal trainer should slightly under inflate the
b. When determining correct ball size, the client’s thighs should be parallel to the
ground when siting on the ball with the feet flat on the bottom
Because the ball is unstable and the client is so tall, slight deviations from
correct technique are acceptable
d. Since the client had been performing resistance training exercises for so long,
the personal trainer should direct the client to stop resistance training and
preform only stability ball exercises
Answer to #4
• When you square up your body your spine is in line than way you
will get results faster and perform better
Applied Knowledge
The personal trainer determines that a client needs to emphasize that
flexibility and muscular fitness of the hip extensors so the client can
become better conditioned to play tennis.
• Forward lunge: gluteus maximus, hamstrings (also: iliopsoas,
rectus femoris)
• Reverse lunge walk: gluteus maximus, hamstring (also: iliopsoas,
rectus femoris)
• Walking side lunge: gluteus maximus, hamstring (also: iliopsoas,
rectus femoris)