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Group Influences
Chapter 9
Reference Groups
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
What is a reference group?
Group influence
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Group types
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Primary
Secondary
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Brand community
Formal v. informal groups
Aspiration v. dissociative
Conformity
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Peer pressure
Social Power
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Types of power
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Referent
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Legitimate

Expert
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Reward
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Coercive
Reference Group Influences
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Types
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Informational
Utilitarian
Value-expressive
Value & Reference groups
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Utilitarian
Hedonic
Influence on Product Selection
Necessity
Luxury
Public
Jeans
Sailboat
Private
Toilet paper
Gum
Reference Group Influence
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What makes people susceptible to group
influence?
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Attention to social comparison information
Separateness-connectedness
Connected self-schema
Social influence and embarrassment
Word-of-mouth Marketing
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Characteristics
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Organic
Amplified
Cheaper and more
influential
Positive & negative
word-of-mouth
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Consumer expertise
Online capabilities
Social networking
Word-of-mouth Marketing
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Buzz marketing
Guerilla marketing
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Viral marketing
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Ford Focus
Cloverfield
The Dark Knight
Stealth marketing
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Tactics
Word-of-mouth Marketing
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Opinion leaders
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Characteristics
Market mavens
Surrogate consumers
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Rachel on Friends
Diffusion processes
Household Decision-Making
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Traditional Structure
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Family
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Nuclear
Extended
Emerging trends
Household life cycle
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Boomerang kids
Sandwich generation
Household Decision-Making
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Purchasing roles
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Influencer
Gatekeeper
User
Decision-maker
Purchaser
Sex roles
Power of children
Consumer socialization
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