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Measuring innovation:
Main definitions - Part II
South East Asian Regional Workshop on Science, Technology and Innovation Statistics
Hanoi, Viet Nam
5-8 December 2011
Luciana Marins
www.uis.unesco.org
Innovation activities (1)
 Innovation activities: all scientific, technological,
organisational, financial and commercial steps
which (intended to) lead to the implementation of
innovations;
 Some
innovation activities are themselves
innovative, others are not novel but necessary;
 R&D not directly related to the development of a
specific innovation.
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Innovation activities (2)
 For product and process innovations:
• Intramural (in-house) R&D;
• Acquisition of (extramural) R&D;
• Acquisition of other external knowledge;
• Acquisition of machinery, equipment and other capital
goods;
• Other preparations for product and process innovations;
• Market preparations for product innovations;
• Training.
www.uis.unesco.org
Innovation activities (3)
 Preparations for marketing innovations:
• Activities
related
to
the
development
implementation of new marketing methods;
and
• It includes acquisition of other external knowledge and
of machinery, equipment, and other capital goods and
training;
• Expenditures for using these methods in daily business
are NOT included.
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Innovation activities (4)
 Preparations for organisational innovations:
• Activities
undertaken
for
the
planning
implementation of new organisation methods;
and
• It includes acquisition of other external knowledge and
of machinery, equipment, and other capital goods and
training.
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Kinds of innovation activities
 Successful - resulted in the implementation of a new
innovation (not necessarily commercially successful);
 Ongoing - work in progress, which has not yet
resulted in the implementation of an innovation;
 Abandoned
- before the implementation of an
innovation.
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Classifying firms by degree of
innovativeness
 Innovative firm:
• Implemented an innovation;
• Not necessarily a commercial success;
 Innovation-active firm:
• Had innovation activities - ongoing and/or abandoned;
• Regardless of implementation;
 Potentially innovative firm:
• Innovation efforts but no achieved results;
• Key element for innovation policy;
• (Annex).
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Factors influencing innovation
 Objectives: Motives for innovating;
 Effects: Observed outcomes of innovations (Table 9);
• Impacts on firm performance;
• Time lag;
 Hampering factors:
• Reasons for not starting innovation activities at all;
• Factors that slow innovation activity or have a negative
effect on expected results (Table 10).
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Linkages
 Linkages: connections with other agents;
 Source, cost, level of interaction;
 Types of external linkages:
• Open information sources;
• Acquisition of knowledge and technology;
• Innovation co-operation.
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Sources for transfers of
knowledge and technology
Open
Sources for
information purchases of
sources
knowledge
&
technology
Cooperation
partners
Internal sources within the enterprise:
R&D / Production / Marketing / Distribution
Other enterprises within the enterprise group
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External market and commercial sources:
Competitors
Other enterprises in the industry
Clients or customers
Consultants / consultancy firms
Suppliers
Commercial laboratories
Public sector sources:
Universities and other higher education institutions
Government / public research institutes
Private non profit research institutes
Specialised (semi) public innovation support services
General information sources:
Patent disclosures / Professional conferences, meetings,
literature and journals / Fairs and exhibitions /
Professional associations, trade unions / Other local
associations / Informal contacts or networks / Standards
or standardisation agencies / Public regulations
*
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Appropriability
 Ability of enterprises to appropriate gains from
innovation activities:
• Formal
methods: patents, registration of design,
trademarks, copyrights, confidentiality agreements,
trade secrecy;
• Informal methods: secrecy that is not covered by legal
agreements, complexity of product design, lead time
advantage over competitors.
www.uis.unesco.org
Developing countries
 Developing
countries

3rd
OM
standards,
adaptations;
 LA: the Bogota Manual (RICYT, 2001);
 UIS: Annex to 3rd OM…
 Innovation Surveys in Developing Countries.
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Characteristics of innovation in
developing countries
 Size and structure;
 Instability;
 Informality;
 Particular economic and innovation environments;
 Reduced innovation decision-making powers;
 Weak innovation systems;
 Characteristics of innovation.
www.uis.unesco.org
Innovation measurement in
developing countries
 Potentially innovative firm;
 Measurement priorities - why / what / how:
• Innovation capabilities (HR, Linkages, ICTs);
• Expenditure on innovation activities;
• Organisational innovation.
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Adaptations
 ICTs in innovation surveys
 Linkages
• Agents + Types + Location;
 Innovation Activities
•
•
•
•
•
Hardware purchase and Software purchase (split);
Industrial design and Engineering activities (split);
Lease or rental of machinery, equipment and other capital goods;
In-house software system development;
Reverse engineering.
 Human resources and training
 Quality and environmental management
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Methodological issues for developing
country contexts
 Weakness of statistical systems;
 Questionnaire design;
 Survey application;
Will be discussed
later
 Frequency;
 Publication;
 Difficulties…
• Lack of appreciation of the importance of innovation;
• Managers are secretive about finance;
• Lack of adequate legislative base.
www.uis.unesco.org
Thank you!
http://www.uis.unesco.org
[email protected]
www.uis.unesco.org