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Natural dyes
Text: Chapter 12 pp 400-405
Synthetic dyes
Natural fibers: cellulose
(polysaccharides)
Cellulose Fibers
Cotton
Linen
Cellulose Derivatives
(viscose) Rayon
(viscose) Acetate
Text: Chapter 4 pp 143-149
Natural fibers: proteins
Protein Fibers: silk and wool
Text: Chapter 4 pp 143-149
Synthetic fibers:
Cellulose Derivatives
(viscose) Rayon
(viscose) Acetate
The chemical process
Making Viscose Rayon 
Text: Chapter 12 pp 406-422
Synthetic fibers:
Viscose Acetate
The chemical process
Making Viscose Acetate
Text: Chapter 12 pp 406-422
How Dyes Attach to Fibers
Mordants bind to dyes and to fibers
Acid dyes use electrostatic interactions
Text: Chapter 12 pp 406-422
How Dyes Attach to Fibers
How a reactive dye binds to fibers
Text: Chapter 12 pp 406-422
Perkins Purple
Mauveine was discovered serendipitously in 1856 by 18-year old
William Henry Perkin, who was trying to synthesize the anti-malaria
drug quinine as a challenge from his professor, August Wilhelm von
Hofmann. In one of his attempts, Perkin oxidized aniline using
potassium dichromate. Under these conditions, the aniline reacted
with toluidine impurities in it to produce a black solid, a fairly
common result in "failed" organic syntheses.
While trying to clean out his flask, Perkin discovered that some
component of the black solid dissolved in alcohol to give a purplecolored solution, which proved to be an effective dye for silk and
other textiles.
Wikipedia’s story
And this was the beginning of the chemical industry ….
Perkin Transactions
of the
Royal Society of Chemistry
UK
Major journal reporting
Organic Chemistry
Related hydrocarbon rings from petroleum
Related rings in dyes (in pigments)