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The Sun as the prime example of stellar
structure and evolution
The Sun
Close-up of a G2 Main Sequence
Stellar Interior
The Solar Interior…the prime
application of the equations of stellar
Density in the solar interior
Temperature in the Solar Interior
The “Faint Young Sun Paradox”
The Neutrino Sun
Solar Neutrino Experiments
Helioseismology: Eigenmodes of the
The Solar Atmosphere
Layers of the Solar Atmosphere
• Photosphere
• Chromosphere
• Corona
Granules in
the Solar
The Chromosphere-region of partially
ionized hydrogen
The Solar Corona
What is it? How did it get that way?
Corona shines at level of one millionth the
photosphere. It is Thompson scattered
To understand astronomical
objects, astronomers take
The spectrum of the corona reveals
its most interesting characteristic
The dominant ionization state
depends on the
temperature…example N
The X-Ray Sun
The Temperature Profile in the Solar
The key to understanding the
corona is the solar magnetic field
Above the corona: direct
magnetometer measurements
in the solar wind
The Flowing Medium of the Solar Wind