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Active Networks
Network Management
Network Management
Where did the concept AN come
 Emerged from discussions within the broad
DARPA research community in 1994 and 1995
on the future direction of networking systems.
Network Management
Why we need AN ?
Since there are several problems with today’s networks:
 Difficulty of integrating new technologies and standards into the
shared network infrastructure;
 Poor performance due to redundant operations at several
protocol layers;
 Difficulty of accommodating new services in the existing
architectural model
Network Management
What’s the motivation of
 Aims at producing a new open networking platform, flexible and
extensible at runtime
1. To accommodate the rapid evolution and deployment of
network technologies;
2. To provide the increasingly sophisticated services demanded by
user applications.
To ease the deployment of new network services.
Network Management
Activenet Principles
AN have some important features:
 Dynamic Composition of Network Services
 Fine Granularity of Control
 Rapid response to network events
Network Management
AN: Application Programming
 In traditional networks: API is fixed and is difficult to
modify and customize.
 In AN: to create an extensible/programmable network API
by providing a robust programming environment
so that:
1) nearly any customized programs can be executed
2) new services can be dynamically created.
Network Management
Benefits from AN-API
 Users/third parties can create services to their specific applications
by composing services from various building blocks/components.
 The degree of programmability of AN-API may range from
a simple list of fixed-size parameters to a turing-complete
Language capable of describing any effective computation.
Network Management
Other AN features:
 Dynamic Composition of Network Services
Composite network services can take on a variety
of forms, depending on API
 Fine Granularity of Control
1. A single pkt can modify the node behavior seen by all
pkts arriving at the node
2. A single pkt modifies the behavior seen only by that
one pkt.
 Rapid response to network events
AN can rapidly respond to asynchronous network events by
co-locating control algorithms with network elements
Network Management
Activenet Technologies
 In-Band Approach: Active Packets
The current passive packets are replaced by active miniature
programs that are encapsulated in transmission frame and
executed at active node along their path.
 Out-of-Band Approach: Open programmable Networks
maintaining the existing packet/cell format, and providing
a discrete mechanism that supports the downloading of
Network Management
Active Packets: An In-Band
 Capsules (MIT)
propose an integrated approach in which active capsules
containing data and programs replace the traditional passive
network packets
Data Payload
 Smart Packets (DARPA-BBN)
SP can carry programs which are executed at each node the packet
visits in the network. Their goal is to add programmability to
management and diagnostic packets.
A specific language for SP
called Sprocket.
Network Management
Open Programmable Networks:An Out-of Band
Separating the injection of programs from the processing of messages
may be particularly attractive when the selection of programs is made
by network administrators and must be carefully controlled.
 Switchware (U. of Pennsylvania)
 Switchlets (U. of Cambridge)
 Broadband Kernel: X-Bind (U. of Columbia)
 Miblets (U. of Toronto)
Network Management
Activenet Applications
 Open signaling ( U. of Southern California)
P: Current signaling protocols like UNI or RSVP only
specify the QoS but not how to obtain it.
S: If signaling is carried out by active programs with universal
encoding in signaling messages and accesses a well understood
open interface at each router so that it carries out reservations
for the endpoints ……
Network Management
Activenet Applications
 Introduction of New Internet Services (MIT)
P: In traditional networks, it will take a long time to deploy
a new services.
S: ANTS (Active Network Toolkit System)
show that the diversity of services facilitated by active networking
Network Management
 Java-based active networking implementation
 Runs in user-space within a user-space implementation of IPv6
 Three key components:
1.capsules nodes: provide API for capsule processing routines
and execute those routines safely.
3.code distribution mechanism: ensure that capsule processing
routines are automatically and dynamically transferred to the
active nodes where they are needed.
Network Management
Challenge and Open
 Minimizing overall packet processing
 Ease the management of Active Networks
 Build reliable distributed systems for authentication/authorization
of using Active Networks resources
 Integration of different Active Networks technologies
 Security issues
 Performance issues
 Active networks format and Standards
Network Management
Third Intermediate Report
I. Stergiou
A. Sgora
Creation of a short manual
Definition of an exercise (around six subjects)
Deadline: 25/06/03
Network Management
Fourth Intermediate Report
Objects-based Management (CORBA)
Management based on Active Networks
I. Stergiou
A. Sgora
Deadline: 25/06/03
Network Management
End of Sixth Lecture
Network Management