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The Internet and New
The Media Converge
Chapter 2
The Internet and Cell Phones
“A fresh approach to fostering innovation in
the mobile industry will help shape a new
computer environment that will change the
way people access and share information in
the future.”
— Eric Schmidt, Google Chairman
The Internet’s History
Begun by the Defense Department’s ARPA
(Advanced Research Project’s Agency)
Survivable communications in a post—
nuclear war world
Nicknamed the “Net”
No central authority, therefore no way to
decapitate in wartime
This effort gave birth to the Internet.
Figure 2.1
Bulletin Boards
Bulletin boards listed information.
 Health issues
 Computer programs
 Employment services
As Internet use proliferated, entrepreneurs
took notice.
The Net Widens
Microprocessors—miniature circuits that
could process and store electronic signals—
were the first signal of the Net’s marketability.
Using microprocessors, the first personal
computers were created.
By the mid-1980s, fiber optic cables were the
standard for speedy data transmission.
By the time ARPAnet ended in the 1980s, the
foundation was laid for a new mass medium.
The World Wide Web
Tim Berners-Lee developed the World Wide
Web at CERN in the late 1980s.
HTML (HypterText Markup Language):
Allows computers to communicate
With Web browsers, users can navigate the
Internet Structure Today
Internet Service Providers (ISP) = big
Interpersonal communication
Connecting users to their proprietary Web
Search engine reliability varies.
Direct marketing dream come true
Media Convergence
Internet offers unprecedented
communication opportunities:
Interactive content
Hub for converging media
Participatory media: People become
producers rather than just consumers of
• What are the positive and negative
aspects of a decentralized, unhierarchical
Web 2.0
Web 2.0: a rapid and robust environment that
has become a place where music, television
shows, radio stations, newspapers, and
movies coexist
Has moved toward being an interactive and
collaborative medium
Instant messaging (IM)
Wiki Web sites
Social networking sites (MySpace, Facebook)
Dividing Up the Web
Four companies dominate Web 2.0.
AOL: Once the industry leader, suffered setbacks
from merging with Time Warner in 2000
Microsoft: Dominated the Internet with the merger
of its Windows and Internet Explorer programs
Yahoo!: Established in 1994 as the main Internet
search engine, now best known for its popular
Google: Established breakthrough search engine
in 1998, currently dominates search market
What Google Owns
• Google Web Search
• Google Blog Search
• Google News
• Google Book Search
• Google Scholar
• Google Finance
• Google Maps
• Google Images
• Google Video
• Google Earth
• Google Sky
• Ganji (Chinese language
Web Sites and Services
• Blogger
• Gmail
• Postini (security and
anti-spam service)
• iGoogle
• YouTube
• Knol
• Picasa/Panoramio
• Adwords
• Adsense
• Doubleclick
• Feedburner (ads for blogs
and RSS feeds)
Software and Apps
• Google Docs
• Google Calendar
• Google Checkout
• Google Desktop
• Google Glossary
• Google Groups
• Google Talk
• Gapminder’s Trendalyzer
Software (visualization
• Google Mobile
• Google SMS
• Google Maps
• GrandCentral
• Zipdash
• dMarc
(digital audio
• Maestro (digital
Regulatory Issues
Little regulation on the Web
In a world where information rules
Merger mania with telecoms
Everybody wants to dominate
Staggering amounts of money involved
Google dominates advertising
Online Alternatives
Open-source software
Digital archiving
Open Content Alliance
What are the potential benefits and
dangers of user-created Web content?
The Challenge to Keep Personal
Information Private
Everything you buy with a credit card
Every Web site you search
Every form you fill out
All can be combined into a database about
Modern marketing relies on such data.
 E-commerce’s popularity despite the risks
 Cookies
Opt-in, opt-out policies
Digital Divide
Digital divide
 The growing contrast between “information
haves” and “information have-nots”
The reality of the digital divide
 In the United States
 Between the U.S. and the rest of the world
Nicholas Negroponte’s $100 laptop project
Will the Internet’s promise be crowded
out by commercial interests?
How has mass customization
changed the way users interact with
the Internet?