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Intelligence Means Information Processing —— Based on Semantic Ontology and Bit-List Logic along with Information Equation ZOU XIAO HUI Leading Science editor in chief www.survivor99.com/pscience 86-756-5505041 [email protected] 11h00 Friday, October 6, 2006 in Spain Contribution in 5:36:18 PM Friday, January 27,2006 VII INTERNATIONAL ONTOLOGY CONGRESS From Plato’s Cave to the Internet: The Real and the Virtual Contents • • • • • • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction Semantic Ontology Bit-list Logic Information Equation Conclusion Bibliography Other Internet Resources 1. Introduction • Intelligent problems are problems in the overlap of semantic ontology and information processing. • Semantic ontology and information processing are diverse fields according to the virtual bit-list law, and partly because of this, there is not one single intelligent problem about the bit-list logic and information equation. • In this survey article we will first discuss what different philosophical and scientific projects are carried out under the headings of " semantic ontology “,” bit-list logic ” and " information equation “, then we will get the conclusion that man-com-net intelligence is information processing based on ontology. 2. Semantic Ontology 1-4 of Six Discoveries and Innovations (based on Semantic Model) • • • • • • • 2.1. Semantic Model from Semantic Triangle (ST) to Semantic Tri-Pyramid (STP) Picture 1 2.2. Six Discoveries and Innovations (based on Semantic Model) 2.2.1. M (meaning) = C (concept) + R (relation) 2.2.2. S (system) = O (object) + O (ontology) Figure 2 That’s why the sum of parts less than the all and the one. 2.2.3. Information (parted) and ontology (combined) hang together in semantic information ontology (SO or IO for short). • 2.2.4. The 4 basic types (categories) include the Object (Thing) and the Ontology (namely: Concept, Word, Relation) all in the biggest Semantic Information Ontology in which the three parts (namely: concept, word and their relation) just are as the same as the three aspects of information]. Picture 1 to show it from Semantic Triangle (ST) to Semantic Tri-Pyramid (STP) Figure 2 to show the view of that system made of ontology and object. Picture 3 to show the difference between Frege’s radiation of expression and Wittgenstein’s convergence of logic thinking on their meaning theories 2. Semantic Ontology 5-6of Six Discoveries and Innovations (based on Semantic Model) • • • • 2.2.5. Frege’s ‘word to concept and thing ’ Wittgenstein’s ‘world-thought-language’ Wittgenstein did insist on game of language. Aristotle and Kant all did insist on Relation. • Picture 3 • 2.2.6. In fact, the relation of ‘word, concept and thing’ at least should be discovered in Socrates’ time for that Plato used them to express his idea in The Republic. If Plato did insist on ideal or concept and if he did puzzle about how to avoid different meanings, then we should say that Concept was his innovation. And more the role of logic is about how to avoid different meanings. the Role of Logic for Both • Should we say that Plato was the pioneer of logic for he indirectly points out the role of logic (namely: to avoid different meanings) and he established the foundation of logic (namely: concept in which the judgment based on) for that proposition based on judgment and inference based on proposition can be go down well. Figure 4 • Our further discussing will be based on the six discoveries and innovations with both of the logic models by using both of Chinese and English (as western language) and also by using our computer processing. Figure 5 Figure 4 to show the model of (kind) 1-n (cases) and (attributes) n-1 (object) Figure 5 to show the difference of logic models between Chinese and English (as western language) 3.Bit-list Logic It is very important for us that we can use the bitlist logic in the system of any language (or any symbol), such as the tradition logic based on nature language, symbolic logic based on boolean variable, predication logic based on Frege’s symbol. Before this we should know some good methods and simple tools. 3.Bit-list Logic 3.1-3.4 • 3.1. Zxh’s Tables Diagram 1 • 3.2. Zxh’s Five Fields Diagram 2 • 3.3. Method and System with Zxh’s Tables in Zxh’s Five Fields • 3.4. Three Important Discoveries and Innovations (according to Zxh’s Tables and Zxh’s Fields) • 3.4.1. The Virtual Bit-List Laws (the first important discovery and innovation) • 3.4.2. The Indirect Formalized Method (the second important discovery and innovation) • 3.4.3. The Bit-list Logic (the third important discovery and innovation) • Diagram 1 to show Zxh’s Tables (including three kinds of Tabulation according to the Virtual Bit-List law) Cooperating with Computer 3.Bit-list Logic 3.1. Zxh’s Tables Cooperating with Computer a • (including three kinds of Tabulation according to the Virtual Bit-List law) • Single-List as Single Sets with Singleness as a Linear Structure in the pure digital world； • Double-List as Layered Sets with Coordinate as Double Linear Structure in both of the digital Left List (namely the Single List Tabulation) and the Lingual（word and phrase）Right List； • Multi-List as Labeled Sets with Multi-attribute as MultiLinear Structure for that the first digital List namely the Single List，the second adding Lingual List namely the Double List, the third and four that add the list files of type with multi-attribute namely the Scientific Multi-List. 3.Bit-list Logic 3.1. Zxh’s Tables Cooperating with Computer b • Complexity can be boiled down to Motley Sets and that all sorts of the Mathematic Sets remain with Single Sets. But there are quite different between Motley Sets and Single Sets. That is why Complexity can not be reduced, and it means Motley Sets can not be reduced to Mathematic Sets at first hand contrarily Mathematic Sets also can not be developed to Motley Sets. So middle process should be discovered and invented. The result is that Motley Sets can be divided into Labeled Sets, Layered Sets, Single Sets, and the three kinds of Sets can be formatted by using Multi-List, Double-List, Single-List, that is Zxh’s Tables Cooperating with Computer. • The Eight Intelligences and Eight Processes can be interconnected in the practicable Tabulations with the computable Sets. 3.Bit-list Logic 3.2. Zxh’s Five Fields • Two Basic Engineering Fields (Formatted in the Double-List as Layered Sets in Zxh’s Tables) • The first field is sub-macrocosm only made by its simple elements； • The second field is super-subdomains made by its complicated members with parted pattern as layers evolved. • Three Managing Applied-by-User Fields (Formatted in the MultiList as Labeled Sets in Zxh’s Tables) • There are three fields known, unknown and aimed on the submacrocosm and the super-subdomains in which the parted pattern as layers evolved can be parted in benchmark and answer as frames of reference. Diagram 2 to show the frame of Indirect Formatted System within 4 kinds of basal categories 3.Bit-list Logic 3.3. Method and System with Zxh’s Tables in Zxh’s Five Fields • The Indirect Formalized Method (see: Figure 7) • The Indirect Formatted System • Each kind of the 4 basal categories at least can be divided into 8 kinds of basal domains, and then domains and topics can be departed as ours down. Figure 6 Figure 6 to show the elementary relation of Category, Domain and Topic. Form 1 - Form 5 3.Bit-list Logic 3.4. Three Important Discoveries and Innovations (according to 3 Tables and 5 Fields) 3.4.1. The Virtual Bit-List Laws Figure 7 (with Diagram 1 ) • • • • • • 3.4.1. The Virtual Bit-List Laws (the first important discovery and innovation) The first Virtual Bit-List law means that if the elements can be in sub-macrocosm, then the order of elements in sub-macrocosm must be the simplest order in the Single-List. The Second Virtual Bit-List law means that if two kinds of the members in supersubdomains can be juxtaposed as a pairs of synonymies in the Double-List, then the Left List and the Right List can be replaced from each other. The Third Virtual Bit-List law means that if two or more than two kinds of the members juxtaposed in super-subdomains can be as array as longitude and latitude, then the bit-list of grid (as ge in Chinese) can be fixed in the Double-List or in the Multi-List. The Four Virtual Bit-List law means that if two or more than two kinds of the members can not be as array as longitude and latitude juxtaposed in super-subdomains, then the bit-list of grid (as ge in Chinese) also can not be fixed in the Double-List or in the Multi-List. The Fifth Virtual Bit-List law means that if only think of the order of elements in submacrocosm and the order of members in super-subdomains, then the bit-list of grid (ge) must be the permanent virtual system as a ruler as a principle for each one of concept and its examples such as things or words. Figure 7 to show the Indirect Formalized Method in bit-list systems. 3.Bit-list Logic 3.4. Three Important Discoveries and Innovations (according to 3 Tables and 5 Fields) • 3.4.2. The Indirect Formalized Method (the second important discovery and innovation) • The Indirect Formatted Method is based on the Double-List which is quite suited for both of the digital computer (artificial intelligent) and the nature language user (human intelligent). And the Indirect Formatted System is made of the three kinds of Tabulations namely Single-List, Double-List and Multi-List. 3.Bit-list Logic 3.4. Three Important Discoveries and Innovations (according to 3 Tables and 5 Fields) • 3.4.3. The Bit-list Logic (the third important discovery and innovation) • The bit-list logic can captain all kinds of the other logic, such as the tradition logic based on nature language used by any user (as common human intelligent) , symbolic logic based on boolean variable used by any digital computer (as artificial intelligent), predication logic based on Frege’s symbol used by any expert (as especial human intelligent). Form 1 to show the 8 kinds of formal information in formal systems. Form 2 to show the 8 kinds of semantic information in learning systems. Form 3 to show the 8 bit-list sub-systems of essential information (as e.g.) in bit-list systems. Form 4 to show the 8 kinds of domain information on nature object. Form 5 to show the system of thing (object) and information (ontology). 4.Information Equation 4.1. Information • 4.1.1 Formal Information • All kinds of formal information can be changed into digital form as data in the fields of communication and computer science. So we say that ‘formal information’ can be unified. • Formal information should be reused in the 8 formal subsystems such as Zi or word, formula or expressions, picture, form or table, wave, image, 3D and movie. • It is proved that any kind of the 8 forms in the fields of formal information can be easily put into digital form by using a computer. • That is to say our computer as artificial intelligence is good at processing any kind of the 8 formal systems as formal information. 4.Information Equation 4.1. Information • • • • • 4.1.2 Semantic Information All kinds of semantic information can be reduced to domain content as knowledge in the fields of philosophy and sciences. So we say that ‘semantic information’ can be unified. Semantic information would be reduced to the 8 learning sub-systems as basic domains of philosophy and 7 sciences (namely: nature science, artificial science, mental science or ideaistic science, social science, symbolic science, logic science, mathematics science). It is proved that any kind of the 8 basic domains in the fields of semantic information can be indirectly put into Zxh’s Tables with digital form and its equivalent form namely any kind of the 8 forms in the fields of formal information by using a computer easily. That is to say Man-Com-Net Intelligence linked the human intelligence (such as we) and artificial intelligence (such as our computers) are good at processing both semantic information (as any kind of the 8 basic domains) and formal information (as any kind of the 8 forms). 4.Information Equation 4.1. Information • 4.1.3 Essential Information • All kinds of essential information can be reduced to the bit-list systems which can be shown by using Zxh’s Tables. So we say that ‘essential information’ can be unified both in the 8 formal sub-systems and the 8 learning sub-systems. • The 8 kinds of essential information in bit-list systems (namely Zxh’s Tables that only include three kinds of Tabulations) would be separately introduced to the user (who is good at processing semantic information) and the computer (it is good at processing formal information). 4.Information Equation 4.1. Information • 4.1.4. Object or Nature Ontology in philosophy and in Science • It is apparent that the ontology in philosophy would probe into Nature Information. For instance, the Object in the nature world could be expressed by human with the CA as software or invented ontology. In this way, we may understand the nature ontology much easier, such as the information of macrostructure (e.g.: outer space of universe) and microstructure (e.g.: elementary particle) along with the biologic systems (e.g.: virus, bacteria, actinomycete, epiphyte, plant and animal) in-between. 4.Information Equation 4.2. Information Equation • 4.2. Information Equation • It is proved that the Information Equations can be differentiated into three equivalences and two kinds of ‘nn or 2n ’ and ‘n2 ’as digital form, so the Information Equations of them also can be differentiated into two equivalences in which the others (such as Shannon’s) all belong to the digital form of ‘nn or 2n ’ but mine that chooses the digital form of ‘n2 ’ here. Figure 7 to show the 4 kinds of information equations and the 4 basal categories. Figure 8 to show the 2 Kinds of Information Equations and the 4 Basal Categories 4.Information Equation 4.2. Information Equation • • • • • • • • • • 4.2.1 The 4 Kinds of Special Equations The 4 Kinds of Information Equations and the 4 Basal Categories Ontology (namely information) Category Style Note Characteristic or Condition 1 concept I = K / S Knowledge / Semantic Sciolistic Human Intelligence 2 word I = D / FData / Formal Ignorant Artificial Intelligence 3 relation I = n n numbers noted in Bit-List Omniscient God-Intelligence Object (namely substance) Category Style Note Characteristic or Condition 0 thing I=E/m Energy / Mass (c c = E / m ) iff c = n 4.Information Equation 4.2. Information Equation • 4.2.2 The 2 Kinds of Super Equations • The 2 Kinds of Information Equations and the 4 Basal Categories • To probe into： • a + bi + cj + dk = 0 • f(x，y，z，ict) = 0 5. Conclusion • Intelligence of Man-Com-Net Is information processing based on ontology • Notes ( the Basic Concepts ) : • Information ( = formal information + semantic information ) • Ontology ( = term + knowledge ) • Knowledge ( = concept + relation )] • Intelligence ( = information processing ) • Processing ( = parting + combining ) ( =input, feedback, management, storage, output, transmitting ) Abstract • It is my view of Cosmical Mind (including all interconnected intelligences in the universe) that intelligence means information processing. Here I will only introduce my view of Finite Mind (including person’s wisdom and computer’s information processing along with their interconnected intelligences in our living world), such as (Person’s ) Eight Intelligences[1] and (computer’s ) Eight Processes[2] along with their interconnecting especially in Zxh’s Tables(including three kinds of Tabulation according to the Virtual Bit-List law) Cooperating with Computer. • Diagram 1 shows Zxh’s Tabulations Cooperating with Computer. • There are three kinds of Tabulations showing in Diagram 1,thereinto,firstly，the Single-List as Single Sets is a Linear Structure with Singleness in the pure digital world； secondly, the Double-List as Layered Sets is Double Linear Structure with Coordinate in both of the digital Left List (namely the Single List Tabulation) and the Lingual （word and phrase）Right List；thirdly, the Multi-List as Labeled Sets is Multi-Linear Structure with Multi-attribute for that the first digital List namely the Single List，the second adding Lingual List namely the Double List, the third and four that add the list files of type with multiattribute namely the Scientific Multi-List. • It was discovered that all sorts of the Complexity can be boiled down to Motley Sets and that all sorts of the Mathematic Sets remain with Single Sets. But there are quite different between Motley Sets and Single Sets. That is why Complexity can not be reduced, and it means Motley Sets can not be reduced to Mathematic Sets at first hand contrarily Mathematic Sets also can not be developed to Motley Sets. So mesne process and middle taches should be discovered and invented. The result is that Motley Sets can be divided into Labeled Sets, Layered Sets, Single Sets, and the three kinds of Sets can be formatted by using Multi-List, Double-List, Single-List, that is Zxh’s Tables Cooperating with Computer. The Eight Intelligences and Eight Processes can be interconnected in the practicable Tabulations with the computable Sets. • ----------------------------------------------------------------------------• [1] linguistic-verbal, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalist • [2] input, feedback, management (parting, combining ), storage, output, transmitting