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Intelligence Means Information Processing
—— Based on Semantic Ontology and Bit-List Logic
along with Information Equation
ZOU XIAO HUI
Leading Science editor in chief
www.survivor99.com/pscience
86-756-5505041
[email protected]
11h00 Friday, October 6, 2006 in Spain
Contribution in 5:36:18 PM Friday, January 27,2006
VII INTERNATIONAL ONTOLOGY CONGRESS
From Plato’s Cave to the Internet: The Real and the Virtual
Contents
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Introduction
Semantic Ontology
Bit-list Logic
Information Equation
Conclusion
Bibliography
Other Internet Resources
1. Introduction
• Intelligent problems are problems in the overlap of
semantic ontology and information processing.
• Semantic ontology and information processing are
diverse fields according to the virtual bit-list law, and
partly because of this, there is not one single intelligent
problem about the bit-list logic and information equation.
• In this survey article we will first discuss what different
philosophical and scientific projects are carried out under
the headings of " semantic ontology “,” bit-list logic ” and
" information equation “, then we will get the conclusion
that man-com-net intelligence is information processing
based on ontology.
2. Semantic Ontology
1-4 of Six Discoveries and Innovations (based on Semantic Model)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2.1. Semantic Model
from Semantic Triangle (ST) to Semantic Tri-Pyramid (STP) Picture 1
2.2. Six Discoveries and Innovations (based on Semantic Model)
2.2.1. M (meaning) = C (concept) + R (relation)
2.2.2. S (system) = O (object) + O (ontology) Figure 2
That’s why the sum of parts less than the all and the one.
2.2.3. Information (parted) and ontology (combined) hang together in
semantic information ontology (SO or IO for short).
• 2.2.4. The 4 basic types (categories) include the Object (Thing)
and the Ontology (namely: Concept, Word, Relation) all in the
biggest Semantic Information Ontology in which the three parts
(namely: concept, word and their relation) just are as the same as
the three aspects of information].
Picture 1
to show it from Semantic Triangle (ST) to Semantic Tri-Pyramid (STP)
Figure 2
to show the view of that system made of ontology and object.
Picture 3
to show the difference between Frege’s radiation of expression and
Wittgenstein’s convergence of logic thinking on their meaning theories
2. Semantic Ontology
5-6of Six Discoveries and Innovations (based on Semantic Model)
•
•
•
•
2.2.5. Frege’s ‘word to concept and thing ’
Wittgenstein’s ‘world-thought-language’
Wittgenstein did insist on game of language.
Aristotle and Kant all did insist on Relation.
•
Picture 3
• 2.2.6. In fact, the relation of ‘word, concept and thing’ at
least should be discovered in Socrates’ time for that
Plato used them to express his idea in The Republic. If
Plato did insist on ideal or concept and if he did puzzle
about how to avoid different meanings, then we
should say that Concept was his innovation. And more
the role of logic is about how to avoid different meanings.
the Role of Logic for Both
• Should we say that Plato was the pioneer of logic for he
indirectly points out the role of logic (namely: to avoid
different meanings) and he established the
foundation of logic (namely: concept in which the
judgment based on) for that proposition based on
judgment and inference based on proposition can be go
down well. Figure 4
• Our further discussing will be based on the six
discoveries and innovations with both of the logic
models by using both of Chinese and English (as
western language) and also by using our computer
processing. Figure 5
Figure 4
to show the model of (kind) 1-n (cases) and (attributes) n-1 (object)
Figure 5
to show the difference of logic models between Chinese and English
(as western language)
3.Bit-list Logic
It is very important for us that we can use the bitlist logic in the system of any language (or any
symbol), such as the tradition logic based on
nature language, symbolic logic based on
boolean variable, predication logic based on
Frege’s symbol. Before this we should know
some good methods and simple tools.
3.Bit-list Logic
3.1-3.4
• 3.1. Zxh’s Tables Diagram 1
• 3.2. Zxh’s Five Fields Diagram 2
• 3.3. Method and System with Zxh’s Tables in Zxh’s
Five Fields
• 3.4. Three Important Discoveries and Innovations
(according to Zxh’s Tables and Zxh’s Fields)
• 3.4.1. The Virtual Bit-List Laws (the first important
discovery and innovation)
• 3.4.2. The Indirect Formalized Method (the second
important discovery and innovation)
• 3.4.3. The Bit-list Logic (the third important
discovery and innovation)
•
Diagram 1
to show Zxh’s Tables (including three kinds of Tabulation according to
the Virtual Bit-List law) Cooperating with Computer
3.Bit-list Logic
3.1. Zxh’s Tables Cooperating with Computer
a
• (including three kinds of Tabulation according to the
Virtual Bit-List law)
• Single-List as Single Sets with Singleness as a Linear
Structure in the pure digital world;
• Double-List as Layered Sets with Coordinate as Double
Linear Structure in both of the digital Left List (namely
the Single List Tabulation) and the Lingual(word and
phrase)Right List;
• Multi-List as Labeled Sets with Multi-attribute as MultiLinear Structure for that the first digital List namely the
Single List,the second adding Lingual List namely the
Double List, the third and four that add the list files of
type with multi-attribute namely the Scientific Multi-List.
3.Bit-list Logic
3.1. Zxh’s Tables Cooperating with Computer
b
• Complexity can be boiled down to Motley Sets and that all sorts of
the Mathematic Sets remain with Single Sets. But there are quite
different between Motley Sets and Single Sets. That is why
Complexity can not be reduced, and it means Motley Sets can not
be reduced to Mathematic Sets at first hand contrarily Mathematic
Sets also can not be developed to Motley Sets. So middle process
should be discovered and invented. The result is that Motley Sets
can be divided into Labeled Sets, Layered Sets, Single Sets,
and the three kinds of Sets can be formatted by using Multi-List,
Double-List, Single-List, that is Zxh’s Tables Cooperating with
Computer.
• The Eight Intelligences and Eight Processes can be
interconnected in the practicable Tabulations with the computable
Sets.
3.Bit-list Logic
3.2. Zxh’s Five Fields
• Two Basic Engineering Fields (Formatted in the Double-List as
Layered Sets in Zxh’s Tables)
• The first field is sub-macrocosm only made by its simple elements;
• The second field is super-subdomains made by its complicated
members with parted pattern as layers evolved.
• Three Managing Applied-by-User Fields (Formatted in the MultiList as Labeled Sets in Zxh’s Tables)
• There are three fields known, unknown and aimed on the submacrocosm and the super-subdomains in which the parted pattern
as layers evolved can be parted in benchmark and answer as
frames of reference.
Diagram 2
to show the frame of Indirect Formatted System within 4 kinds of basal
categories
3.Bit-list Logic
3.3. Method and System with Zxh’s Tables
in Zxh’s Five Fields
• The Indirect Formalized Method (see:
Figure 7)
• The Indirect Formatted System
• Each kind of the 4 basal categories at
least can be divided into 8 kinds of basal
domains, and then domains and topics
can be departed as ours down. Figure 6
Figure 6
to show the elementary relation of Category, Domain and Topic.
Form 1 - Form 5
3.Bit-list Logic
3.4. Three Important Discoveries and Innovations
(according to 3 Tables and 5 Fields)
3.4.1. The Virtual Bit-List Laws Figure 7 (with Diagram 1 )
•
•
•
•
•
•
3.4.1. The Virtual Bit-List Laws (the first important discovery and innovation)
The first Virtual Bit-List law means that if the elements can be in sub-macrocosm,
then the order of elements in sub-macrocosm must be the simplest order in the
Single-List.
The Second Virtual Bit-List law means that if two kinds of the members in supersubdomains can be juxtaposed as a pairs of synonymies in the Double-List, then the
Left List and the Right List can be replaced from each other.
The Third Virtual Bit-List law means that if two or more than two kinds of the
members juxtaposed in super-subdomains can be as array as longitude and latitude,
then the bit-list of grid (as ge in Chinese) can be fixed in the Double-List or in the
Multi-List.
The Four Virtual Bit-List law means that if two or more than two kinds of the members
can not be as array as longitude and latitude juxtaposed in super-subdomains, then
the bit-list of grid (as ge in Chinese) also can not be fixed in the Double-List or in the
Multi-List.
The Fifth Virtual Bit-List law means that if only think of the order of elements in submacrocosm and the order of members in super-subdomains, then the bit-list of grid
(ge) must be the permanent virtual system as a ruler as a principle for each one of
concept and its examples such as things or words.
Figure 7
to show the Indirect Formalized Method in bit-list systems.
3.Bit-list Logic
3.4. Three Important Discoveries and
Innovations (according to 3 Tables and 5 Fields)
• 3.4.2. The Indirect Formalized Method (the
second important discovery and innovation)
• The Indirect Formatted Method is based on the
Double-List which is quite suited for both of the
digital computer (artificial intelligent) and the
nature language user (human intelligent). And
the Indirect Formatted System is made of the
three kinds of Tabulations namely Single-List,
Double-List and Multi-List.
3.Bit-list Logic
3.4. Three Important Discoveries and
Innovations (according to 3 Tables and 5 Fields)
• 3.4.3. The Bit-list Logic (the third important
discovery and innovation)
• The bit-list logic can captain all kinds of the
other logic, such as the tradition logic based on
nature language used by any user (as common
human intelligent) , symbolic logic based on
boolean variable used by any digital computer
(as artificial intelligent), predication logic based
on Frege’s symbol used by any expert (as
especial human intelligent).
Form 1
to show the 8 kinds of formal information in formal systems.
Form 2
to show the 8 kinds of semantic information in learning systems.
Form 3
to show the 8 bit-list sub-systems of essential information (as e.g.) in
bit-list systems.
Form 4
to show the 8 kinds of domain information on nature object.
Form 5
to show the system of thing (object) and information (ontology).
4.Information Equation
4.1. Information
• 4.1.1 Formal Information
• All kinds of formal information can be changed into
digital form as data in the fields of communication and
computer science. So we say that ‘formal information’
can be unified.
• Formal information should be reused in the 8 formal subsystems such as Zi or word, formula or expressions,
picture, form or table, wave, image, 3D and movie.
• It is proved that any kind of the 8 forms in the fields of
formal information can be easily put into digital form by
using a computer.
• That is to say our computer as artificial intelligence is
good at processing any kind of the 8 formal systems as
formal information.
4.Information Equation
4.1. Information
•
•
•
•
•
4.1.2 Semantic Information
All kinds of semantic information can be reduced to domain content as
knowledge in the fields of philosophy and sciences. So we say that
‘semantic information’ can be unified.
Semantic information would be reduced to the 8 learning sub-systems as
basic domains of philosophy and 7 sciences (namely: nature science,
artificial science, mental science or ideaistic science, social science,
symbolic science, logic science, mathematics science).
It is proved that any kind of the 8 basic domains in the fields of semantic
information can be indirectly put into Zxh’s Tables with digital form and its
equivalent form namely any kind of the 8 forms in the fields of formal
information by using a computer easily.
That is to say Man-Com-Net Intelligence linked the human intelligence
(such as we) and artificial intelligence (such as our computers) are good at
processing both semantic information (as any kind of the 8 basic domains)
and formal information (as any kind of the 8 forms).
4.Information Equation
4.1. Information
• 4.1.3 Essential Information
• All kinds of essential information can be reduced to the
bit-list systems which can be shown by using Zxh’s
Tables. So we say that ‘essential information’ can be
unified both in the 8 formal sub-systems and the 8
learning sub-systems.
• The 8 kinds of essential information in bit-list systems
(namely Zxh’s Tables that only include three kinds of
Tabulations) would be separately introduced to the user
(who is good at processing semantic information) and
the computer (it is good at processing formal
information).
4.Information Equation
4.1. Information
• 4.1.4. Object or Nature Ontology in philosophy and in
Science
• It is apparent that the ontology in philosophy would
probe into Nature Information. For instance, the Object in
the nature world could be expressed by human with the
CA as software or invented ontology. In this way, we may
understand the nature ontology much easier, such as the
information of macrostructure (e.g.: outer space of
universe) and microstructure (e.g.: elementary particle)
along with the biologic systems (e.g.: virus, bacteria,
actinomycete, epiphyte, plant and animal) in-between.
4.Information Equation
4.2. Information Equation
• 4.2. Information Equation
• It is proved that the Information Equations can
be differentiated into three equivalences and two
kinds of ‘nn or 2n ’ and ‘n2 ’as digital form, so
the Information Equations of them also can be
differentiated into two equivalences in which the
others (such as Shannon’s) all belong to the
digital form of ‘nn or 2n ’ but mine that chooses
the digital form of ‘n2 ’ here.
Figure 7
to show the 4 kinds of information equations and the 4 basal categories.
Figure 8
to show the 2 Kinds of Information Equations and the 4 Basal
Categories
4.Information Equation
4.2. Information Equation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
4.2.1 The 4 Kinds of Special Equations
The 4 Kinds of Information Equations and the 4 Basal Categories
Ontology (namely information)
Category
Style Note Characteristic or Condition
1 concept I = K / S
Knowledge / Semantic Sciolistic
Human Intelligence
2 word
I = D / FData / Formal Ignorant Artificial Intelligence
3 relation
I = n n numbers noted in Bit-List
Omniscient
God-Intelligence
Object (namely substance)
Category
Style Note Characteristic or Condition
0 thing
I=E/m
Energy / Mass (c c = E / m ) iff c = n
4.Information Equation
4.2. Information Equation
• 4.2.2 The 2 Kinds of Super Equations
• The 2 Kinds of Information Equations and
the 4 Basal Categories
• To probe into:
• a + bi + cj + dk = 0
• f(x,y,z,ict) = 0
5. Conclusion
• Intelligence of Man-Com-Net Is information processing based on
ontology
• Notes ( the Basic Concepts ) :
• Information ( = formal information + semantic information )
• Ontology ( = term + knowledge )
• Knowledge ( = concept + relation )]
• Intelligence ( = information processing )
• Processing ( = parting + combining ) ( =input, feedback,
management, storage, output, transmitting )
Abstract
• It is my view of Cosmical Mind (including all
interconnected intelligences in the universe) that
intelligence means information processing. Here I will
only introduce my view of Finite Mind (including person’s
wisdom and computer’s information processing along
with their interconnected intelligences in our living world),
such as (Person’s ) Eight Intelligences[1] and
(computer’s ) Eight Processes[2] along with their
interconnecting especially in Zxh’s Tables(including three
kinds of Tabulation according to the Virtual Bit-List law)
Cooperating with Computer.
• Diagram 1 shows Zxh’s Tabulations Cooperating with
Computer.
• There are three kinds of Tabulations showing in Diagram
1,thereinto,firstly,the Single-List as Single Sets is a
Linear Structure with Singleness in the pure digital world;
secondly, the Double-List as Layered Sets is Double
Linear Structure with Coordinate in both of the digital Left
List (namely the Single List Tabulation) and the Lingual
(word and phrase)Right List;thirdly, the Multi-List as
Labeled Sets is Multi-Linear Structure with Multi-attribute
for that the first digital List namely the Single List,the
second adding Lingual List namely the Double List, the
third and four that add the list files of type with multiattribute namely the Scientific Multi-List.
• It was discovered that all sorts of the Complexity can be boiled down
to Motley Sets and that all sorts of the Mathematic Sets remain with
Single Sets. But there are quite different between Motley Sets and
Single Sets. That is why Complexity can not be reduced, and it
means Motley Sets can not be reduced to Mathematic Sets at first
hand contrarily Mathematic Sets also can not be developed to
Motley Sets. So mesne process and middle taches should be
discovered and invented. The result is that Motley Sets can be
divided into Labeled Sets, Layered Sets, Single Sets, and the three
kinds of Sets can be formatted by using Multi-List, Double-List,
Single-List, that is Zxh’s Tables Cooperating with Computer. The
Eight Intelligences and Eight Processes can be interconnected in
the practicable Tabulations with the computable Sets.
• ----------------------------------------------------------------------------• [1] linguistic-verbal, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic,
spatial, intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalist
• [2] input, feedback, management (parting, combining ), storage,
output, transmitting