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The Romans: The Early Republic (Circa 753 BC – 140 BC)
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Founding of Rome
o Tiber River
o Romulus & Remus
o April 21, 753 BC
o Monarchy
o Senate
 Council of Elders
The Kingdom of Rome
o Legendary Kings
 Romulus - Latin
 Numa Pompilius - Sabine
 Tullus Hostilius - Latin
 Ancus Marcius - Latin/Sabine
 Lucius Tarquinius Priscus - Etruscan
 Servius Tullius - Etruscan
 Lucius Tarquinius Superbus – Etruscan
o Etruscan influence
 Clothes
 Insignia
 Alphabet
 Religion
Fall of Monarchy
o Lucius Tarquinius Superbus
o Tarquin the Proud
o Sextus Tarquinius
o Rape of Lucretia
o Res Publica – The Republic
Government of the Republic
o Senate
o Magistrates
o Consul
o Imperium
o Praetor
o Proconsul & Propraetor
o Dictator
o Quaestor, Aedile, & Censor
Struggle of Orders
o Patrician Vs Plebian
o Tribune
o Hortensian Law - 287 BC
o Concilium Plebis
 People's Assembly or General Assembly
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Rome Expands
o Federation of Latin Tribes
 War with Etruscans
o Gaul Sacks Rome - 390 BC
o Samnite Wars – 200s BC
 Military reorganization
 Roman Legion
o Greek Colonies
 Tarentum
 Pyrrhus of Epirus
 “Pyric Victory”
o Citizenship
Punic Wars
o Carthage V. Rome
o First Punic War
 264 – 241 BC
 Roman Navy
 Sicily – First Roman Province
o Corsica and Sardinia - 238 BC
o Carthage in Spain
 Hamilcar - 237 BC
 Hannibal - 221 BC
o Second Punic War
 Siege of Saguntum
 March over the Alps
 Quintus Fabius Maximus
 Hannibal’s Victories
 Trebia
 Lake Trasimene
 Cannae
 Publius Cornelius Scipio
 Battle of Zama
 202 BC
 Decisive Battle
 Scipio Africanus
Hellenistic Wars
o 1st Macedonian War
 Phillip V - Macedon
 Second Punic War
o 2nd Macedonian War
 Phillip V – Macedon
 Attempts at expansion
o Roman–Syrian War
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 Antiochus III
o 3rd Macedonian War
 Perseus
o Corinth Destroyed – 146 BC
Later Struggles and Expansion
o Third Punic War
 Marcus Cato
 “The Elder”
 Carthago delenda est
 Scipio Amelianus
o Pergamum
 King Attalus III
o Maccabean Revolt (against the Selucid Empire)
 Antiochus IV Epiphanies
 Mattathias the Hasmonean
 The Sons of Matthias – The Maccabees
 Judah
 Johnathan
 Simon
 Guerilla warfare
 Hanukah
 Maccabean / Hasmonean Dynasty
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