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Chapter 2: Ancient Middle East & Egypt 3200 B.C.- 500 B.C. Section 1: City-States of Ancient Sumer • Fertile Crescent curves from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea • Mesopotamia is a region in the Fertile Crescent • It lies between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Sumer: World’s 1st civilization developed in southeastern Mesopotamia • Sumerians had to cooperate in order to prevent the massive floods that occurred year round from destroying their farms and villages. • Clay and water were used to create the bricks that built • Sumerians traded along the rivers, and trade allowed the cities to thrive. Sumerian Civilization Takes Shape • Sumerians had a social hierarchy, a system for ranking groups. Ruling Family, Leading Officials, High Priests Lesser Priests, Scribes, Merchants, Artisans Peasant Farmers • In Sumerian society, women held a higher social standing. However, women were still not treated equally. Sumerian Religion • Polytheistic- Worshipping many gods. • Gods controlled all aspects of life. It was important to keep the divine beings happy. This would in turn keep their city-states safe. • Ziggurat- Large stepped platform Sumerian Writing • Cuneiform • Earliest form of known writing • A stylus was used on a clay tablet. • Myths, prayers, laws, contracts, and monetary exchanges Sumer Lasting Legacy • Cuneiform • Astrology • Mathematics • Epic of Gilgamesh Section 2: Invaders, Traders, and Empire Builders • Sargon • Ruler of Akkad, conquered neighboring citystates of Sumer. He expanded his territory and created the world’s first empire. Once Sargon died, his empire crumbled. • Hammurabi • King of Babylon. Created a set of laws referred to as Hammurabi’s Code. It consists of close to 300 laws. • Civil Law: Private rights and matters. Such as, business contracts, property, taxes, marriage and divorce. • Criminal Law: Deals with offenses against others. Such as, robbery, assault, and murder. “Eye for an eye” or “life for a life”. • Improved irrigation, organized a well trained army, New Empires and Ideas • Hittites • They were able to extract iron from ore, this knowledge changed the way weapons were created. • Modified the chariot to allow for three man to ride. One driver, and an and an additional soldier to fight the enemy. New Empires and Ideas • Assyrians • Most feared warriors in all of history • They captured Babylon and spoke of their conquests everywhere. • Strict laws within the household, women had their own quarters, and had to wear veils in public. • Nebuchadnezzar • Rebuilt Babylon and surrounded the city with a moat and brick wall (85 feet thick) • Hanging Gardens of Babylon Persians Establish a Huge Empire • The walls around Babylon could not keep out the Persians. • Persian Kings had a policy of tolerance. They respected the customs of the groups in the empire. • Darius I • Set up a bureaucracy- system of government with departments led by officials who followed a set of guidelines and rules. • He repaired and built hundreds of miles of roads. • Encouraged the use of coins for goods and services in order to link the entire empire together economically. • Zoroaster • Taught monotheism, belief in one god Ahura Mazda. Phoenicians • Due to the location in close proximity, to the sea, the Phoenicians were sailors and traders. • The sea gave the Phoenicians sand in which they created glass. As well as a tiny sea snail that produced a purple dye. • The Phoenicians set up colonies, a territory settled and ruled by people from another land. These colonies allowed for better trade between countries and continents. • Most significant contribution from the Phoenicians was the alphabet. Each symbol represents a basic sound. The Greeks added to this and thus gave us the alphabet that we use today. Chapter 2, Section 5 •Roots of Judaism Israel Ancient Israelites Shape a Unique Belief System Israelites also known as Hebrews They were monotheistic They believed in an all-knowing, all- powerful God who was present everywhere. The Israelites recorded events and laws in the Torah The Torah, their most sacred text, includes the first five books of the Hebrew Bible (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy). The Hebrew Bible includes a total of 24 books. Additional laws and customs were written in a much later written text, the Talmud. The Ancient Israelites According to the Torah, a man by the name of Abraham lived near Ur in Mesopotamia; about 2000 B.C. he and his family migrated to Canaan. He is considered to be the father of the Israelite people. The Israelites believe that God made a covenant with Abraham: 1. God declared that He would have a special relationship with Abraham and his descendants 2. God declared Canaan would one day belong to the Israelites. Making Canaan their “promised land” Moses • An Israelite named Moses later renewed God’s covenant with the Israelites. Many Israelites migrated to Egypt due to famine and became enslaved according to the Book of Genesis. In the Book of Exodus, Moses tells the Israelites that in return for faithful obedience to God, God will lead them out of bondage and into the promised land. Moses leads the Israelites out of bondage and 40 years later they reached Canaan. However, Moses died just before they arrived. The Kingdom of Israel David Solomon The Torah tells of 12 separate tribes of Israel that had feuded up until 1000B.C. Then David, a strong and wise king, united these tribes into a single nation. Son of David, followed in his fathers footsteps and turned the city of Jerusalem into an impressive capital. It had many beautiful temples in which were dedicated to God. Israel Under Solomon The building project under Solomon required such high taxes and so much forced labor that revolts started after his death about 922 B.C. Because of the revolts the kingdom split into two: Israel in the North and Judah in the South. They remained independent for about 200 yrs. But eventually fell to more powerful peoples. In 722B.C. the Assyrians conquered Israel and in 586B.C. Babylonian armies captured Judah. Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Judaism Teaches About Law and Morality Law was central to the Israelites and the Torah included many laws. Some laws deal with everyday matters such as cleanliness and food preparation. Others define criminal acts. The Torah also establishes moral principles. Israelite society was patriarchal. A family’s oldest male relative was the head of the household and arranged marriages for his daughters. Prophets, spiritual leaders who interpreted God’s will, reminded the Jewish people of their duties. The prophets also taught a strong code of ethics (moral standards of behavior) The Ten Commandments At the heart of Judaism are the Ten Commandments, a set of laws that Jews believe God gave to them through Moses. The first four commandments stress religious duties toward God, such as keeping the Sabbath, a holy day of rest and worship. The last six address conduct toward others.