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Indirect Statement
What Is Indirect Statement?
In English an indirect statement consists of a independent
clause that uses a verb of thinking, knowing, hearing,
perceiving, etc., and a dependent noun clause which is
usually introduced by the word that.
Example: Niobe said that she had many sons and
daughters.
Niobe dixit se multos filios et multas filias habere.
Nota bene: se is an important reflexive pronoun which
often introduces indirect statements. It reflect the
subject and can mean: he, she, it, or they
Some Latin verbs that introduce indirect statement are:
audio – I hear
scio -- I know
ostendo -- I show
sentio -- I feel
dico -- I say
monstro – I show
video – I see
cerno -- I discern
(cog)nosco --I recognize
How to Translate an Indirect Statement
The translation of the infinitive in the indirect statement depends
upon the tense of the main verb.
If the main verb is present tense and the infinitive is present
tense then the infinitive will be translated as a present tense
verb.
Example:
Present Active Infinitive
Dico pueros vocare.
I say that the boys are calling.
Present Passive Infinitive
Dico pueros vocari.
I say that the boys are called.
How to Translate an Indirect Statement
If the main verb is past tense and the infinitive is present
tense then the infinitive will be translated as a past tense
verb.
Example:
Present Active Infinitive
Dixi pueros vocare.
I said that the boys called.
Present Passive Infinitive
Dixi pueros vocari.
I said that the boys were called.
How to Translate an Indirect Statement
If the main verb is present tense and the infinitive is perfect
tense then the infinitive will be translated with the helping
verb “have.”
Example:
Perfect Active Infinitive
Dico pueros vocavisse.
I say that the boys have called.
Perfect Passive Infinitive
Dico pueros vocatos esse.
I say that the boys have been called.
How to Translate an Indirect Statement
If the main verb is past tense and the infinitive is perfect
tense then the infinitive will be translated with the helping
verb “had.”
Example:
Perfect Active Infinitive
Dixi pueros vocavisse.
I said that the boys had called.
Perfect Passive Infinitive
Dixi pueros vocatos esse.
I said that the boys had been called.
How to Translate an Indirect Statement
If the main verb is present tense and the infinitive is future
tense then the infinitive will be translated with the helping
verb “will.”
Example:
Future Active Infinitive
Dico pueros vocaturos esse.
I say that the boys will call.
How to Translate an Indirect Statement
If the main verb is past tense and the infinitive is future tense
then the infinitive will be translated with the helping verb
“would.”
Example:
Future Active Infinitive
Dixi pueros vocaturos esse.
I said that the boys would call.
How to Translate an Indirect Statement
Memorize the chart below to assist you in translating an indirect statement.
Main Verb
Infinitive
Translation of the
Infinitive
Present
Present
Present
Past
Present
Past
Present
Perfect
Have verbed
Past
Perfect
Had verbed
Present
Future
Will verb
Past
Future
Would verb
Choose the correct form of the infinitive:
Caesar says that he will conquer Gaul.
Caesar dicit se Galliam ____________.
a. victurum esse
b. victum esse
c. vincere
d. vicisse
next
Choose the correct form of the infinitive:
Caesar said that Gaul had been conquered by him .
Caesar dixit Galliam a se ______________.
a. victuram esse
b. Victam esse
c. vincere
d. vicisse
next
Choose the correct form of the infinitive:
Caesar says that he conquered Gaul.
Caesar dicit se Galliam _____________.
a. victurum esse
b. victum esse
c. vincere
d. vicisse
next
Choose the correct form of the infinitive:
Caesar says that he has conquered Gaul.
Caesar dicit se Galliam ____________
a. victurum esse
b. victum esse
c. vincere
d. vicisse
next
Choose the correct form of the infinitive:
Caesar said that he would conquer Gaul.
Caesar dixit se Galliam _________________.
a. victurum esse
b. Victum esse
c. vinci
d. vincere
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