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Diamond cubic crystal structure.
Silicon makes up 25.7% of the Earth's crust.
Most of it is in the form of silicon dioxide,
also known as silica: Sand, amethyst, agate,
quartz, rock crystal, chalcedony, flint, jasper,
and opal
Czochralski single-crystal growth process
Bridgman-Stockbarger technique
~ 10-11 Torr
less than
10-4 Torr
3. W.T. Tsang, “From Chemical Vapor Epitaxy to Chemical Beam Epitaxy”.
J. Cryst. Growth. 95, 121 (1989)
Silicon band gap energy at 300 K = 1.12 eV = 1107nm
<111> plane
Phonon (lattice)
Angle between <100> and
<111> planes is 54.7 degree
Silicon band gap energy at 300 K = 1.12 eV = 1107nm
Donors: group V
Phosphorus (P)
Arsenic (As)
Acceptors: group III
Boron (B)
Aluminium (Al)
p side is higher doped.
Russell Ohl in 1939, discovered the PN barrier
and is generally recognized for patenting the modern
solar cell (US Patent 2402662, "Light sensitive device").
Dose and energy requirements
of major ion implantation
applications (species shown
roughly in order of decreasing
D [cm2/s] (RT)
D [cm2/s] (1.3kK)
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