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Chapter 5 Study Guide Meet the Nutrients 1. What are nutrients? What happens if one nutrient is missing from a persons diet? Chemicals the body needs to work properly. The rest of the nutrients don’t work as well because all team members (nutrients) are needed. 2. Identify the six basic types of nutrients. What are the main uses of nutrients in the body? Carbohydrates; proteins; fats; water; vitamins; minerals. Provide energy; build and repair cells; regulate body processes. 3. What are the similarities and differences between complex and simple carbohydrates? Similarities- both are sources of energy; both come from plan foods. Differences- complex are starches and are combined in foods with other nutrients; simple are sugars and are often in foods that contain few nutrients. 4. Why is fiber an important part of a healthy diet? Needed for healthy digestive system; may reduce risk of cancer and heart disease. 5. Name four jobs that fat performs in the body. Any four: supplies fatty acids; keeps skin and cells healthy; transports certain vitamins; keeps food in stomach longer so you don’t feel hungry; provides reserve stores of energy. 6. What is the role of protein in the body? Builds new cells; repairs injured cells; needed for growth; helps fight off disease. 7. How are complete and incomplete proteins similar? How are they different? Alike: Both are protein and contain amino acids. Different: Complete found in animal food sources and contain all essential amino acids in the right amounts; incomplete come from plant food sources and lack one or more of the essential amino acids. 8. Why does the body need water each day? Replace moisture lost through breathing; perspiration and waste. 9. What is the major difference between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins? Fat-soluble mix only with fat and can be stored in body; water-soluble mix only with water and aren’t generally stored. 10. What role do minerals play in the body? Minerals are involved in many body processes and are found in cells, fluids, muscles, and bones. 11. What are three factors that help determine how much of each nutrient you need each day? Age, activity level, and gender 12. What are phytochemicals? Why are they important? Natural chemicals found in most fruits and vegetables. They may help prevent disease. Nutrient Match Up Nutrient Functions 1. Cushions vital organs- C 2. provides energy for the body- B 3. Builds new cells- E 4. Heals wounds- G 5. Repairs injured cells- E 6. Keeps a normal heart beat- D 7. Keeps skin healthy- C 8. Keeps nerves and muscles healthy- A 9. Helps fight off disease- E 10. Insulates body from heat and cold- C 11. Promotes Good Night Vision- F Nutrients A. B Vitamins B. Carbohydrates C. Fat D. Potassium E. Protein F. Vitamin A G. Vitamin C Nutrients for Health 1. Cara’s grandmother is in the hospital with a broken hip. The doctor says her grandmothers bones are very weak and brittle. Cara’s mother is concerned about the strength of her bones and Cara’s. What nutrients would be especially important in their diets? How might they alter their diets to help strengthen their bones? Calcium and vitamin D- drink more milk; eat milk; and egg-based foods like pudding or custard 2. Jeremy had a skateboarding accident that gave him many cuts, scrapes and bruises. What nutrient is important in helping him heal? How could he get more of this nutrient in his diet? Protein- eat more foods from animal sources, such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs and dairy products. 3. Chandra has had trouble lately seeing at night. What nutrient in her diet might help improve her night vision? How could she get more of the nutrient in her food? Vitamin A- Eat more dairy products; egg yolk; liver; yellow-orange and dark green fruits and vegetables. 4. Derrick has been told that his cholesterol is high for a teen. If he gets it under control soon, it probably will not create health problems for him. With what nutrient is cholesterol associated? How could Derrick alter his diet to help reduce his cholesterol? Fat- eat less food that contains cholesterol, such as meat, poultry, fish, egg yolks, and dairy products.