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```Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Faculty of Architecture
Department of Building Energetics and Services, www.egt.bme.hu
Electric
Power
Demand
COMPLEX 1
&
of
Buildings
DIPLOMA
Design Aid
András Majoros, Emil Vetési, Levente Filetóth
Edited by Levente Filetóth
2014 February
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Department of Building Energetics and Services, www.egt.bme.hu
3 3 4 6 9 12 13 13 17 18 CALCULATION AND DESIGN TASK DELIVERABLES 1. PROBABLE ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY OF THE BUILDING 1.1. TRANSFORMER STATIONS 1.2. BACKUP AND EMERGENCY POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS 1.3. PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS 2. CALCULATING THE ELECTRIC POWER DEMAND OF THE PROJECT 2.1. ELECTRIC POWER DEMAND OF NON-­‐RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 2.2. ELECTRIC POWER DEMAND OF RESIDENTIAL-­‐TYPE BUILDINGS 3. REQUIREMENTS OF ELECTRIC SWITCH-­‐ROOMS ______________________________________________________________________________________
Épületek villamos ellátása, KOMPLEX 1. és DIPLOMA tervezési segédlet
2.
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Department of Building Energetics and Services, www.egt.bme.hu
The goal of the electric power demand calculations are to forecast the method of the
electric supply of the building and to design and determine the corresponding
required electrical utilities.
The following is an approximate electric power demand calculation. The actual,
realized electric power demand of the building may differ up to approximately 25%
compared to the results calculated here. At the early design stages we do not have
detailed and precise information about the building to perform more accurate
calculations. The purpose of this electrical calculation is to determine the probable
electric supply method and to forecast the area and the number and the area of
the corresponding electric switch-rooms, battery rooms, transformer rooms or
to host diesel power generators, etc.
Deliverables
1.
Describe the probable method of the electric power
supply of the building (this should be determined by the
preliminary submission of the design project).
2.
Calculate the electric power demand of the building.
3.
Determine the number and size of the rooms and areas
required for the electric power supply. Please indicate these
rooms in the architectural design documentation.
Please submit the lighting design deliverables as part of the "Building Energetics
and Services" booklet.
______________________________________________________________________________________
Épületek villamos ellátása, KOMPLEX 1. és DIPLOMA tervezési segédlet
3.
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Department of Building Energetics and Services, www.egt.bme.hu
1.
Probable electric power supply of the building
The probable electric supply method of the building depends on:
●
●
the expected sum of the simultaneous electric power demand, and
the site and the surroundings of the building.
The site of the building usually determines its electric power infrastructure and supply
methods. The electric power infrastructure depends on the building density of the plot
(downtown, suburbs, rural, etc.). The structure and the density of the plot determine
the electrical power demand [kW/km2] of the area, which forecasts the probable
electrical infrastructure as well.
The electrical devices in the buildings are utilizing 0.4 kV (400/230 V) network. The
power network is underground cable network in case of dense downtown areas and
air cable network supported by columns in case of suburbian and rural areas.
This electrical network is always supplied by a transofrmer. The transformer supplied
by a mid-range electrical network:
in dense, downtown areas the transformer is supplied by a 10kV
electric power network, this is a so called 10/0.4 kV transformer. In
such areas the low- and mid-power electrical networks are
underground cable infrastructures,
in suburbian and rural areas the transformer is supplied by a 20kV
air-cable power network, this is a so called 20/0.4 kV transformer. In
such areas the low- and mid-power electrical networks are open air
cable infrastructures supported by columns.
The electric power demand of the building may vary between the range of a couple of
10kW and couple of 100kW, depending on the size and the function of the building. If
the specific power demand of the building is relatively small, it can be considered to
provide the electric power supply using the available 0.4 kV underground- or
overhead line network. In such case the existing electric network must have
adequate free capacity to supply the demand of the new building. The actual value of
this „realtively small” demand might vary depending on the location and on the
building in the practice such information must be provided by the corresponding
electric authorities.
______________________________________________________________________________________
Épületek villamos ellátása, KOMPLEX 1. és DIPLOMA tervezési segédlet
4.
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Department of Building Energetics and Services, www.egt.bme.hu
When developing the semeseter design projects, we consider, that the required
electric power demand can be provided using the 0.4 kV network, if the forecasted
electric power consumption of the building is bellow:
•
•
200 kW in case of downtown area,
100 kW in case of suburbian, rural area.
Red text: 20kV air cable; Blue text: 0,4kV air cable; Green text: Phone, TV cable
The location and cable interface of the transformer may vary, the actual power supply
solution depends on the type of the mid-range electric power network and the
proposed location of the transformer station (inside or outside of the building).
The followings must also be considered and elaborated when deciding about
the power supply of the building:
1.1.
Forecast the necessity of a transformer station: if a transformer station is
requied, its location and charactersitics must be considered when creating a
transformer station inside or outside of the building,
1.2.
Decide about emergency and backup power supplies,
1.3.
Consider using renewable energy (sun, wind or water) to generate electricity.
______________________________________________________________________________________
Épületek villamos ellátása, KOMPLEX 1. és DIPLOMA tervezési segédlet
5.
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Department of Building Energetics and Services, www.egt.bme.hu
1.1. Transformer stations
In dense, downtown areas where the transformer is supplied by a 10 kV electric
power network:
•
•
inside the building in a transformer room,
outside of the building in a dedicated, prefabricated, uni-body transofmer
station.
In suburbian and rural areas where the transformer is supplied by a 20 kV overhead
line network:
•
•
•
as a „column” transofmator placed in a public area,
outside of the building in a dedicated, prefabricated, uni-body transformer
station (in such case a 20kV cable connection is required between the
transofmer and the building),
inside the building in a transformer room (in such case a 20kV cable
connection is required between the transofmer and the overhead line
network).
Transformer stations outside the building (above ground and underground)
Column transformer stations
______________________________________________________________________________________
Épületek villamos ellátása, KOMPLEX 1. és DIPLOMA tervezési segédlet
6.
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Department of Building Energetics and Services, www.egt.bme.hu
The main sizes of a 630 kVA-es transformer: 140 x 95 x 160 cm, weight: 2000 kg.
Please consider the following rules when designing a transformer station inside the
building:
•
the transformer station must be located on the ground floor or on the first
basement level,
•
the transformer station must be located on the external building envelope
(one of the walls of the station must be ab external wall),
•
the floor area of a station is about 10 m ,
•
the internal headroom of the station must be at least 2,6 m.
2
If the transformer station is located on the ground floor only one external door must
be provided towards the exterior of the building.
If the transformer station is located on the first basement level, a 1,4 m wide
service well must be provided to access the station from the outside. Besides the
service well, an internal door must also be provided to be able to access the
transformer station from the inside of the building.
Floor plan schemes of a 630 kVA transformer station (must be located on the ground
floor or on the first basement level of the building, along an exterior wall)
______________________________________________________________________________________
Épületek villamos ellátása, KOMPLEX 1. és DIPLOMA tervezési segédlet
7.
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Department of Building Energetics and Services, www.egt.bme.hu
Floor plan and section sketch of a 630 kVA transformer station
______________________________________________________________________________________
Épületek villamos ellátása, KOMPLEX 1. és DIPLOMA tervezési segédlet
8.
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Department of Building Energetics and Services, www.egt.bme.hu
1.2. Backup and emergency power supply systems
Depending on the function of the building, and the possible danger caused by the
absence of electric power provided from the grid (hospitals, concert halls, factories,
airports, fire stations, etc.), a backup and/or an emergency power supply might also
be necessary.
These are the main criterias to be considred when deciding about emergency and
backup power supply systems:
•
the power demand of those electric devices must be calculated that requires
backup power,
•
the maximum allowed time duration must be determined that is allowed
between the power failure of the grid and the initialization of the backup
system (how long can de building be without electric power: only milliseconds, or a couple of minutes?).
Based on the above criteria, there are two main type of power backup systems
•
•
batteries and
diesel-engine powered generators.
Batteries must be used if it is important to provided uninterrupted power supply
(UPS) for the building. Diesel power generators require about one minute initilazation
time.
Diesel engine powered generators
______________________________________________________________________________________
Épületek villamos ellátása, KOMPLEX 1. és DIPLOMA tervezési segédlet
9.
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Department of Building Energetics and Services, www.egt.bme.hu
Floor plan and section of a diesel powered generator room located inside the building
______________________________________________________________________________________
Épületek villamos ellátása, KOMPLEX 1. és DIPLOMA tervezési segédlet
10.
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Department of Building Energetics and Services, www.egt.bme.hu
These are the main rules to consider when designing a diesel-engine powered
generator:
•
the generator can be located inside the building or outside, as a standalone
unit,
•
if it is inside the building, it is recommended to locate the generator close to
the external building shell (easier maintenance, noise, exhaust gases, etc.)
•
the noise of the generator, the diesel fuel tank and the heavy weight of the
engine must all be considered.
Approximate room size of a diesel generator inside the building:
•
20 kVA unit: 4 m x 6 m, openings cca.: 1,8 m2,
•
1600 kVA unit: 5 m x 12 m, openings cca.: 10 m2.
The following tables presents various battery types and their corresponding sizes and
weights.
Power
[VA]
600
1000
1600
2200
3000
Power
[kVA]
50
80
120
170
Dimensions
[mm]
A
H
B
430
630
160
430
630
160
430
630
160
550
630
160
550
630
160
Weight
[kg]
m
49
49
49
63
63
Dimensions
[mm]
A
H
B
1200 2200
800
1200 2200
800
1200 2200
800
1200 2200
800
Weight
[kg]
m
1000
1100
1300
1500
Batteries must have a well ventilated, dry room where the temperature is between +5
and +30 °C. A battery charging station must also be located in a separate room, next
to the batteries. The charging station requires about 1,5 m2 room.
______________________________________________________________________________________
Épületek villamos ellátása, KOMPLEX 1. és DIPLOMA tervezési segédlet
11.
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Department of Building Energetics and Services, www.egt.bme.hu
1.3. Photovoltaic panels
Photovoltaic - or PV - panels can be used to use the renewable solar energy to
generate electric power. The typical "cell" size of the PV systems are cca. 125x125
mm. These cells are usually forming a "panel", ready to be installed on the building.
PV systems ususally generate 12V or 24V direct current (DC), therefore a so called
"inverter" must also be installed to provide 220V (or 110V), 50Hz alternating current
(AC).
PV panel installation examples
The capacity of the PV panels determined by the number of installed PV panels:
•
•
•
•
Sizes of a typical PV panel: cca. 80 cm x 150 cm,
Thickness: cca. 4-6 cm,
Weight: cca. 15-30 kg.
Generated electricity: 160-280 W/panel.
In Hungary it is recommended to install PV panels oriented towards the South, with
an approx. 45 degrees inclination/
PV panel installed on a pitched roof with tiles covering
______________________________________________________________________________________
Épületek villamos ellátása, KOMPLEX 1. és DIPLOMA tervezési segédlet
12.
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Department of Building Energetics and Services, www.egt.bme.hu
High visual demand: 20 W/m2, such functions and rooms would be:
exhibition rooms, cosmetics, etc.
A [m2]: sum of floor areas of the rooms having similar visual demand.
2.1.2. HVAC & Mechanical systems
The building or building parts might be equipped with heating, ventilation, air
conditioning and similar systems and/or equipment (pumps, engines and motors, etc.
are connected to HVAC), their overall power demand is:
PHVAC [kW]:
please refer to the electric demand chapters of the heating,
ventilation, water-supply, air-conditioning design aid, also available
2.1.3. Technology & Equipment
The overall electric power demand of all other technological electric devices and
equipment in the building must be also considered and calculated (electric cookers,
elevators, computers, coffee machines, etc.), their overall power demand is:
Ptechnology [kW]: please develop a detailed list of all electric devices and equipment
of the building to determine their power demand with the help of the
consultant.
The following table lists some typical electric devices and equipment, you may use
these values and also add project specific devices elements if necessary!
______________________________________________________________________________________
Épületek villamos ellátása, KOMPLEX 1. és DIPLOMA tervezési segédlet
14.
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Department of Building Energetics and Services, www.egt.bme.hu
Buffet and tea-kitchen
Electric equipment
Coffe and tea maker
Microwave owen
Cattle
Fridge
Deep freezer
Pn
[kW]
0,7 – 1,2
0,5 – 2,0
2,0 – 2,5
0,2
0,5
Electric equipment
Grill
Toaster
Turmix machine
Air exhauster
Pn
[kW]
0,7 – 1,0
0,8 – 1,6
0,4
0,2 – 0,3
Generic kitchen
Electric equipment
Dishwasher
Kitchen robot machine
Meat grinder
Pn
[kW]
3,5 – 5,0
0,2 – 0,6
1,0
Electric equipment
Freezer
Grill
Other equipment
Pn
[kW]
0,2
0,8 – 3,3
2,0 – 3,0
Indutrial kitchen
Electric equipment
Electric cooker
Electric boiler
Freezer
Freezer cupboard
Pn
[kW]
5,0 – 12,0
12,0
0,5
0,8 – 1,2
Electric equipment
Dishwasher
Electric frier
Dishwasher
Other equipment
Pn
[kW]
3,0 – 8,0
5,0
3,0 – 8,0
3,0 – 6,0
Elevators, escalators
Electric equipment
Hydraulic elevator (max. 30 m), residential building
Hydraulic elevator (max. 30 m) public building
Wire-suspended elevator (max. 30 m) residential building
Wire-suspended elevator (max. 30 m) public building
Wire-suspended elevator without machinery room (max. 9 m)
Elevator without machinery room (max. 9 m)
Small industrial elevator (250 kg)
Panorama elevator (1250 kg)
Industrial elevator (2000 kg)
Escalator (max. 40 m)
Escalator (max. 150 m)
Hospital elevator (2500 kg)
Pn
[kW]
7,0 – 28,0
10,0 – 75,0
2,0 – 8,0
3,0 – 25,0
2,2
1,1
1,2 – 1,5
25 – 31,0
5,0 – 7,0
7,0 – 90,0
5,0 – 20,0
6,0 – 8,0
Most of the elevators require an additional, standalone machinery room with specific
______________________________________________________________________________________
Épületek villamos ellátása, KOMPLEX 1. és DIPLOMA tervezési segédlet
15.
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Department of Building Energetics and Services, www.egt.bme.hu
Doctors' examination room
Electric equipment
Dentist chair
Hand and gloves cleaner
Light therapy equipment
Water cleaner
Pn
[kW]
0,2 – 0,5
0,02
0,1 – 0,2
0,05
Electric equipment
Dentis X-Ray
Mobile X-Ray
X-Ray viewer
Pn
[kW]
2,0
13 - 15
0,05
Hospital
Electric equipment
Surgeon small equipment
Labor equipment
Diagnostic X-Ray
Pn
[kW]
0,7 – 0,8
0,1 – 1,2
55,0
Electric equipment
Lab drier
Air handling devices
Surgeon equipment
Pn
[kW]
0,5 – 1,0
0,1 – 0,2
8 – 10,0
Swimming pool
Electric equipment
Hydro-pool (3-5 person)
Hydro-pool (6-8 person)
Hydro-pool with heater
Solarium
Pn
[kW]
2,5 - 6,0
6,5 - 8,5
+3,0 - 5,0
9,0 - 11,0
Electric equipment
Sauna (3-5 person)
Sauna (8-12 person)
Sauna with heat-sinker
Infra sauna
Finnish-sauna (2-3 fő)
Pn
[kW]
4,5
22,0
6,0
1,5 - 2,5
3,0
Other equipment
Electric equipment
Washing machine
Washing machine with drier
Drier
Pn
[kW]
2,2 – 3,3
3,3
2,1 – 3,3
Electric equipment
Sewing machine
Hair drier
Vacuum cleaner
Pn
[kW]
0,1 – 2,0
0,4 – 2,0
0,2 – 1,6
Office and IT equipment
Electric equipment
Smoke, fire alarm and similar systems (smoke, fire, secutiry, etc.)
Consumer electronic devices (tv, video, CD/DVD-players, speakers, etc.)
Security systems
Projetors
Computer systems (computer, scanner, printer, etc.)
Pn
[kW]
0,5-5,0
0,1-10,0
0,5-2,5
0,2-0,6
0,6 – 1,2
______________________________________________________________________________________
Épületek villamos ellátása, KOMPLEX 1. és DIPLOMA tervezési segédlet
16.
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Department of Building Energetics and Services, www.egt.bme.hu
2.2. Electric power demand of residential-type buildings
The electric power demand of residential buildings and other buildings with
residential units (such as hotels or hospitals) can be determined using a slightly
different manner. This calculation method can be used for building having at least
one residential unit. Such buildings can be divided into two main parts:
●
●
Residential units: their electric power demand is Presidential [kW], and
Non-residential areas: their power demand is Pnon-residential [kW].
In case of residential units we do not investigate and calculate all the electric devices
and equipment in detail, but we consider these units as one single „equipment” and
we determine its power demand using statistical data with the help of the following
formula:
P residential [kW] = P residential units [kW] + Pnon-residential [kW].
where:
P residential = eunit n Punit [kW],
where
n: the number of the flats or residential units,
Punit [kW]: the electrical demand of the residential unit:
•
•
•
•
unit with electric cooker: 11,04 kW,
unit without electric cooker: 6,9 kW,
hotel room: 2,3 kW,
weekend house: 3,3 ... 7,36 kW.
eunit: simultaneity coefficient:
eunite== 0, 2 +
0,8
n