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MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) Answers to questions about the immediate mechanisms for a behavior are called
A) cognitive mapping.
B) proximate causes.
C) conclusions.
D) ultimate causes.
2) The evolutionary explanations for behavior are called the
A) proximal causes.
B) evolutionary schematic.
C) selected advantage.
D) ultimate causes.
3) When a nipple is placed in a newborn babyʹs mouth, the infant will immediately begin to suckle.
This is an example of
A) imitation.
B) imprinted behavior.
C) innate behavior.
D) classical conditioning.
4) Which of the following statements regarding behavior is true?
A) Fixed action patterns are learned behavior sequences.
B) A fixed action pattern is under strong genetic control.
C) A learned behavior triggers a fixed action pattern.
D) Innate behaviors are performed the same way in all members of a genus.
5) Which of the following is an example of a fixed action pattern?
A) the way a graylag goose retrieves an egg that has rolled out of the nest
B) the way female digger wasps find their nests
C) the imprinting of baby goslings on their mother
D) habituation in the cnidarian Hydra
6) When building a nest, a female Fisherʹs lovebird cuts long strips of vegetation and carries them to
the nest site one at a time in her beak. The female peach-faced lovebird cuts short strips and carries
them to the nest tucked under back feathers. Hybrid female offspring cut intermediate-sized strips
and attempt to tuck them under back feathers before carrying them in their beak. What does this
demonstrate about behavior?
A) There is a genetic basis to behavior.
B) Environment is important in forming behaviors.
C) Lovebirds can be trained easily.
D) Behavior can be learned from parents.
7) Many rats were tested for their ability to learn a maze. The average number of errors for a total of
14 trials was 64 per rat. The rats that made the fewest errors were bred to each other, and the
offspring were tested in a similar way. This process was repeated for seven generations, at which
point the average number of errors for 14 trials was 36. This experiment demonstrates that
A) natural selection has a role in the evolution of fixed action patterns but not in the evolution of
behavior involving learning.
B) maze-learning ability has a genetic basis.
C) maze-learning ability depends mainly on early contact with adept parents.
D) learned behavior cannot be inherited.
8) Cross-fostering experiments with Norway rat pups showed that in their response to stress
A) cross-fostered pups resembled their biological mothers more than their foster mothers.
B) genetics was the only important factor.
C) environment was the critical factor, not genetics.
D) both genetics and the environment played a clear role.
9) The modification of behavior based upon specific experiences defines
A) conditioning.
B) habituation.
C) imprinting.
D) learning.
10) When you successfully study with the stereo on in the background, you are demonstrating
A) habituation.
B) associative learning.
C) imprinting.
D) conditioning.
11) You are told that the song of males among a particular songbird species has an innate component
but is also largely learned. Nestling males imprint on their fatherʹs song and then sing it
themselves when they reach sexual maturity. Which of the following observations would lead you
to doubt this information?
A) A male chick fostered in the nest of a different species grows up to sing the song of its foster
B) A male chick who is reared in isolation but hears tape recordings of his speciesʹ song grows
up to sing normally.
C) A male chick reared in isolation but introduced as an older juvenile into an aviary containing
normal males of his species sings his speciesʹ song.
D) A male chick who is reared in isolation but hears tape recordings of a different speciesʹ song
grows up to sing that speciesʹ song.
12) Which of the following behaviors would be unlikely to involve imprinting?
A) A nestling male songbird raised in the nest of a different species grows up to sing the song of
his foster species.
B) A songbird that engages in solitary migration using star navigation returns each year to the
district where it was hatched.
C) A nestling male sparrow learns the ʺdialectʺ of song that is used in his native district.
D) A migrating mother gazelle leaves her calf hidden in grass while she feeds and always
returns to the correct patch of grass.
13) A male turkey that imprinted onto a human at hatching is transferred as an older juvenile to a
flock of ʺnormalʺ turkeys. When this turkey reaches sexual maturity, he will probably try to court
A) immature male turkeys.
B) humans.
C) mature female turkeys.
D) male, female, or immature turkeys indiscriminately.
14) A grayling butterfly will normally fly toward the sun. This is an example of
A) phototropism.
B) kinesis.
C) migration.
D) taxis.
15) After many hours of observation, Jennifer noticed that a squirrel in her backyard seemed to retreat
up a certain tree every time it was frightened. At the base of that tree was a wheelbarrow. Jennifer
wondered how the squirrel found the same tree each time. Perhaps it simply knew to use the tree
with the wheelbarrow. That night, Jennifer moved the wheelbarrow a few feet over and placed it
against another tree. The next day, the squirrel retreated up the new tree, with the wheelbarrow
resting at its base. This experiment suggests that the squirrel was using
A) social learning.
B) habituation.
C) spatial learning.
D) imprinting.
16) A blue jay hides hundreds of nuts throughout the fall and finds them throughout the winter and
spring. The blue jay is most likely finding the stored food by using
A) kinesis.
B) social learning.
C) imprinting.
D) a cognitive map.
17) The most extensive study of cognitive maps has involved animals that
A) hibernate.
B) build nests.
C) burrow extensive tunnels into the ground.
D) migrate.
18) Squirrels on a bird feeder seem to be able to figure out how to steal seeds no matter what people
do to prevent it. Yesterday, Jeremy hung out a new bird feeder design, and sure enough, by the
end of the day the squirrels found a way to get to the seeds. The squirrels most likely figured out
how to get the seeds through
A) imprinting.
B) spatial learning.
C) trial-and-error learning.
D) the use of cognitive maps.
19) In England, at a time when milk was still delivered to doorsteps each morning in foil -capped glass
bottles, a songbird called the great tit started pecking through the caps and drinking the cream in
the necks of the bottles. This behavior spread through the great tit population in a matter of years.
The emergence and spread of this behavior probably depended on
A) trial and error learning plus social learning.
B) trial and error learning plus habituation.
C) habituation plus social learning.
D) trial and error learning plus imprinting.
20) The baby bobcats watched as their mother stalked a rabbit and pounced, catching a meal that was
shared by all. The next day, two of the young bobcats were seen stalking a field mouse, which
quickly escaped from the inexperienced hunters. The young bobcats were learning how to hunt by
the process of
A) social learning.
B) associative learning.
C) imprinting.
D) habituation.
21) A big difference between social learning and imprinting is that
A) social learning has a primarily genetic basis.
B) social learning is not limited to a sensitive period.
C) imprinting can only take place among members of the same species.
D) imprinting does not involve a reward.
22) Several primates have been taught to communicate with humans using sign language. This
supports the view that animals other than humans can learn through the process of
A) cognition.
B) trial and error learning.
C) imprinting.
D) social learning.
23) You lose track of your friend in a store and start looking for her. Which of the following things that
you could do represents the use of a search image?
A) You go to the department in the store where your friend most likes to shop.
B) You return to the last place you saw your friend.
C) You think about what color clothing she wore and look for that color.
D) You ask a woman if she has seen anyone around this part of the store.
24) An insectivorous bird has the choice of eating (1) meadow beetles, which are abundant and large
but expose the bird to hawk predation; (2) under-a-rock beetles, which are large and fatty but
hard to obtain; and (3) under-a-leaf beetles, which are easy to obtain but small. The bird has
nestlings to feed. As an optimal forager, it will
A) concentrate on under-a-rock beetles because they are energy-rich.
B) eat one kind of beetle at a time (first under-a-leaf, then meadow, then under-a-rock),
switching to a new kind when the old kind becomes scarce.
C) concentrate on under-a-leaf beetles because they are easy and safe.
D) eat all three kinds of beetles, balancing the energy spent and the risks incurred against the
energy gained.
25) The sending of, reception of, and response to signals constitute animal
A) associative learning.
B) problem-solving.
D) communication.
C) cost-benefit analysis.
26) Organisms that are nocturnal are more likely to communicate using
A) touch and taste.
B) sight and sound.
C) smell and sound.
D) sight and smell.
27) Based on von Frischʹs work on honeybee communication, which of the following types of
information will be communicated to other workers by a honeybeeʹs ʺdanceʺ?
A) the quality of the nectar
B) the direction of the nectar source
C) the color of the flowers producing the nectar
D) the distance of the nectar source from the nearest water
28) During the spring, male sage grouse gather in an open area and strut about, erecting their feathers
in a fanlike display. They also make booming sounds using their inflated air sacs. The function of
this dance is to
A) frighten off smaller birds from the territory.
B) imprint the younger male birds.
C) select the showiest females and mate.
D) attract the attention of females.
29) Which of the following is communicated by courtship displays?
A) The male represents a threat to other males.
B) The individuals are of different species.
C) The individuals intend to hurt each other.
D) The individuals are of the same species and of the opposite sex.
30) The need for intense parental care of offspring favors mating systems that are
A) monogamous.
B) lifelong.
C) promiscuous.
D) polygamous.
31) The certainty of paternity is greatest in organisms that
A) use internal fertilization.
B) mate and lay eggs at the same time.
C) have extensive parental care.
D) are promiscuous.
32) Endocrine disruptors on reproductive behavior affect behavior by
A) mimicking a hormone or enhancing hormone activity.
B) increasing social behavior.
C) impairing the immune system.
D) reinforcing mating rituals.
33) Which of the following terms broadly describes any kind of interaction between two or more
A) foraging behavior
B) dominance hierarchy
C) competition
D) social behavior
34) Territories are typically used for activities such as
A) feeding, mating, and rearing young.
C) feeding and identification of kin.
B) migration and feeding.
D) identification of kin and rearing young.
35) Which of the following situations represents an example of territorial behavior?
A) Digger wasps are able to recognize the pattern of landmarks around their nests.
B) Gannets breed in dense colonies. Each gannet defends the area within the beakʹs reach of its
nest, but gannets feeding at sea are indifferent to each other.
C) Sow bugs become more active and move around randomly if they find themselves in a dry
D) Troops of monkey species use well-defined, widely overlapping ranges. Troops avoid
encountering each other and are aggressive if they meet.
36) Which of the following would be an example of agonistic behavior?
A) Ants mark their trails by releasing pheromones.
B) A dog raises its hackles, bares its teeth, and stands high to appear threatening.
C) A male ruffed grouse spreads its tail and beats its wings to attract a female.
D) A honeybee does a waggle dance to indicate the direction of food.
37) Agonistic behavior
A) is typically used to determine access to food, mates, or territories.
B) usually causes serious injury to one or both of the combatants.
C) is rare among vertebrates.
D) increases the number of individuals who mate.
38) Pecking order in chickens is an example of
A) alpha order.
C) agonistic behavior.
B) mating behavior.
D) dominance hierarchy.
39) Which of the following situations could represent kin selection in action?
A) You inexplicably forget to use birth control, and a child results.
B) You help your friend with linguistics, and your friend helps you with biology.
C) You help your brother pay for his childrenʹs college tuition, even though he may not be able
to pay you back.
D) When your mother gets old, you help her pay her property taxes.
40) From a sociobiological perspective, altruism is a behavior that
A) has the potential to enhance the altruistʹs fitness at a later point in time.
B) occurs only in the social insects.
C) does not have a genetic basis.
D) will always be selected against.
41) Which of the following statements about chimpanzee behavior is true?
A) Alpha males assert their status by making plant stems into tools for food extraction.
B) Only female chimpanzees are organized in a dominance hierarchy.
C) Social primates do not show reconciliation or pacification-type behaviors.
D) Grooming behavior is crucial to maintaining relationships within chimpanzee groups.
42) Human social behavior appears to be
A) unrelated to genetics.
B) a product of our genes, external influences, and environment.
C) determined by the environment.
D) exclusively a product of our genes.
43) What type of behavior is illustrated by the bird in this figure?
A) foraging
C) mating behavior
B) territoriality
D) fixed action pattern
44) What type of behavior is illustrated by the bird in this figure?
A) foraging
C) territoriality
B) fixed action pattern
D) mating behavior
45) Which of the following conclusions is supported by this graph?
A) Wagtails get more calories per second of handling time with smaller flies than with larger
B) Prey size does not affect the number of calories gained per second of handling time by
C) Wagtails get more calories per second of handling time with larger flies than with smaller
D) Wagtails get more calories per second of handling with 7-mm flies than with either larger or
smaller ones.
Answer Key
1) B
2) D
3) C
4) B
5) A
6) A
7) B
8) C
9) D
10) A
11) C
12) D
13) B
14) D
15) C
16) D
17) D
18) C
19) A
20) A
21) B
22) A
23) C
24) D
25) D
26) C
27) B
28) D
29) D
30) A
31) B
32) A
33) D
34) A
35) B
36) B
37) A
38) D
39) C
40) A
41) D
42) B
43) D
44) B
45) D