* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Biodiversity What is Biodiversity? • "The variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems" --Convention on Biological Diversity • "Variability within nature" --UK Biodiversity Action Plan • "Wide array of ecosystems, ecological processes, species and genes" --Environment Canada Biodiversity Loss • Species extinction and habitat loss • Today, biodiversity loss is 1000 times higher than the rates found in the fossil record http://www.glogster.com/media/4/12/37/46/12374610.gif Causes of Biodiversity Loss • • • • • • Habitat Destruction Invasive Species Over exploitation Climate Change Overpopulation Pollution http://www.iucn.org/iyb/about/biodiversity_crisis/ glacier mt.com Why Do We Need Biodiversity? • • • • Ecosystem services - $16-$64 trillion Research - e.g. discovery of new medicine Aesthetic value Food Security http://www.iucn.org/iyb/about/biodiversity/ How To Fix Biodiversity Loss • What is the market failure? o Under provision of a public good o Lack of information o Externality o incomplete property rights • What policies address this? o Command and Control Regulation o Public Education o Permitting o Tax Incentives http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/ US Biodiversity Policy The USA has no official national biodiversity policy. However, there are key pieces of legislation that help define US biodiversity policy. - US government policy has been primarily focused on conservation efforts for most of history - US Fish and Wildlife Service (http://www.fws.gov/) • US government's wildlife and conservation agency - Recent development • US government position moving closer to support an international biodiversity agreement. (http://blogs.forbes.com/francisvorhies/2011/07/27/us-getting-seriousabout-international-biodiversity-policy/) US - Key National Legislation • The Lacey Act (1900) (http://www.fws.gov/news/newsreleases/LACEYACT.html) o The first environmental piece of legislation. Provides the ability for the federal government to regulate invasive species populations. Evolved over the 20th century to reflect the challenges of the time. • The Migratory Bird Conservation Act (1929) (http://www.fws.gov/refuges/realty/mbcc.html) Provision provided that allows the Federal government to rent/buy land that can be protected to preserve the natural habitat for migratory bird The Clean Water Act (1948 (http://www.usclimatenetwork.org/policy/resource-database/clean-air-actand-wildlife-fact-sheet) Affects fish and wildlife that are dependent on water for their survival. The Clean Air Act (1963) (http://www.usclimatenetwork.org/policy/resource-database/clean-air-actand-wildlife-fact-sheet) Has helped restore ozone in the atmosphere which is vital to the protection of trees and assisted in the mitigation of acid rain that devatstates natural habitat. • Endangered Species Act of 1969 (1973) (http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/ESACT.HTML) o Often cited as the US's landmark biodiversity legislation (more info on the next slide). • Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act (1980) (http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/FWCON.HTML) o Allocates substantial funding to the states to assist with conservation efforts of natural habitats. UK's Approach to Biodiversity • Convention on Biological Diversity o International Treaty for the "conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity" (CBD) • Biodiversity Action Plan o Inventories potentially threatened species and habitats o Creates plans to protect species and habitats o The 4 countries of the UK have all designed their own Action Plans • Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981 o Protects wildlife and habitats of the UK o Amended to comply with EU directives www.jncc.defra.gov.uk EU Biodiversity Policies • Habitat Directive o Protects 1000 animals and plant species and 200 "habitat types" (EU) • Bird Directive o Protects birds and their habitats • Natura 2000 o EU-wide network of protected areas • EU biodiversity strategy to 2020 o Goal to stop biodiversity loss by 2020 o Focus on EU and the globe http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/ Biodiversity in Canada • 1973 Canada Wildlife Act o Creates national wildlife areas • 1990 Wildlife Policy for Canada o emphasized the restoration of biodiversity and ecological processes • Migratory Birds Convention Act 1994 o Protects birds from hunting and trafficking o Establishes Migratory Bird Refuges • 1995 Canadian Biodiversity Strategy o produced by a group including federal, provincial and territorial governments o Guide to carrying out Canada's commitments under the Convention of Biodiversity http://canadianbiodiversity.mcgill.ca/english/legislation/legislation.htm Canadian Provinces • Ontario o The Managed Forest Tax Incentive Program A voluntary program administered by the MNR to provide lower property taxes to participating landowners who agree to conserve and actively manage their forests. o Conservation Land Tax Incentive Program provides property tax relief to those landowners who agree to protect the natural heritage value of their property • British Columbia o Ecological Services Act Preserves land to protect species and habitats o Wildlife Act Creates wildlife areas, protects endangered species, and regulates invasive species http://www.mnr.gov.on.ca/en/Business/Biodiversity/2ColumnSubPage/STEL02_166973.html http://wcel.org/sites/default/files/Biodiversity%20law%20and%20policy%20in%20British%20Columbia.pdf Conclusions • Comparatively speaking, the US has no official national biodiversity plan while the UK and Canada have national long-term biodiversity plans. • The most used policies are direct regulation and provision of information • We may be going into a 6th mass extinction period, so it is very important to act now! Questions?