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Transcript
Biodiversity
What is Biodiversity?
• "The variability among living organisms from all sources
including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems
and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this
includes diversity within species, between species and of
ecosystems" --Convention on Biological Diversity
• "Variability within nature" --UK Biodiversity Action Plan
• "Wide array of ecosystems, ecological processes, species
and genes" --Environment Canada
Biodiversity Loss
• Species extinction and habitat loss
• Today, biodiversity loss is 1000 times higher than the rates
found in the fossil record
http://www.glogster.com/media/4/12/37/46/12374610.gif
Causes of Biodiversity Loss
•
•
•
•
•
•
Habitat Destruction
Invasive Species
Over exploitation
Climate Change
Overpopulation
Pollution
http://www.iucn.org/iyb/about/biodiversity_crisis/
glacier
mt.com
Why Do We Need Biodiversity?
•
•
•
•
Ecosystem services - $16-$64 trillion
Research - e.g. discovery of new medicine
Aesthetic value
Food Security
http://www.iucn.org/iyb/about/biodiversity/
How To Fix Biodiversity Loss
• What is the market failure?
o Under provision of a public good
o Lack of information
o Externality
o incomplete property rights
• What policies address this?
o Command and Control Regulation
o Public Education
o Permitting
o Tax Incentives
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/
US Biodiversity Policy
The USA has no official national biodiversity policy. However, there are key pieces of
legislation that help define US biodiversity policy.
- US government policy has been primarily focused on conservation efforts for most of
history
- US Fish and Wildlife Service (http://www.fws.gov/)
• US government's wildlife and conservation agency
- Recent development
• US government position moving closer to support an international biodiversity
agreement. (http://blogs.forbes.com/francisvorhies/2011/07/27/us-getting-seriousabout-international-biodiversity-policy/)
US - Key National Legislation
•
The Lacey Act (1900) (http://www.fws.gov/news/newsreleases/LACEYACT.html)
o
The first environmental piece of legislation. Provides the ability for the federal government to
regulate invasive species populations. Evolved over the 20th century to reflect the challenges of
the time.
•
The Migratory Bird Conservation Act (1929) (http://www.fws.gov/refuges/realty/mbcc.html)
 Provision provided that allows the Federal government to rent/buy land that can be protected
to preserve the natural habitat for migratory bird
 The Clean Water Act (1948 (http://www.usclimatenetwork.org/policy/resource-database/clean-air-actand-wildlife-fact-sheet)
 Affects fish and wildlife that are dependent on water for their survival.
The Clean Air Act (1963) (http://www.usclimatenetwork.org/policy/resource-database/clean-air-actand-wildlife-fact-sheet)
 Has helped restore ozone in the atmosphere which is vital to the protection of trees
and assisted in the mitigation of acid rain that devatstates natural habitat.
• Endangered Species Act of 1969 (1973) (http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/ESACT.HTML)
o Often cited as the US's landmark biodiversity legislation (more info on the next slide).
• Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act (1980) (http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/FWCON.HTML)
o Allocates substantial funding to the states to assist with conservation efforts of natural habitats.
UK's Approach to Biodiversity
• Convention on Biological Diversity
o International Treaty for the "conservation and sustainable
use of biological diversity" (CBD)
• Biodiversity Action Plan
o Inventories potentially threatened species and habitats
o Creates plans to protect species and habitats
o The 4 countries of the UK have all designed their own
Action Plans
• Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981
o Protects wildlife and habitats of the UK
o Amended to comply with EU directives
www.jncc.defra.gov.uk
EU Biodiversity Policies
• Habitat Directive
o Protects 1000 animals and plant species and
200 "habitat types" (EU)
• Bird Directive
o Protects birds and their habitats
• Natura 2000
o EU-wide network of protected areas
• EU biodiversity strategy to 2020
o Goal to stop biodiversity loss by 2020
o Focus on EU and the globe
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/
Biodiversity in Canada
• 1973 Canada Wildlife Act
o Creates national wildlife areas
• 1990 Wildlife Policy for Canada
o emphasized the restoration of biodiversity and ecological
processes
• Migratory Birds Convention Act 1994
o Protects birds from hunting and trafficking
o Establishes Migratory Bird Refuges
• 1995 Canadian Biodiversity Strategy
o produced by a group including federal, provincial and
territorial governments
o Guide to carrying out Canada's commitments under the
Convention of Biodiversity
http://canadianbiodiversity.mcgill.ca/english/legislation/legislation.htm
Canadian Provinces
• Ontario
o The Managed Forest Tax Incentive Program
 A voluntary program administered by the MNR to provide lower
property taxes to participating landowners who agree to conserve
and actively manage their forests.
o
Conservation Land Tax Incentive Program
 provides property tax relief to those landowners who agree to protect
the natural heritage value of their property
• British Columbia
o Ecological Services Act
 Preserves land to protect species and habitats
o Wildlife Act
 Creates wildlife areas, protects endangered species,
and regulates invasive species
http://www.mnr.gov.on.ca/en/Business/Biodiversity/2ColumnSubPage/STEL02_166973.html
http://wcel.org/sites/default/files/Biodiversity%20law%20and%20policy%20in%20British%20Columbia.pdf
Conclusions
• Comparatively speaking, the US has no official national
biodiversity plan while the UK and Canada have national
long-term biodiversity plans.
• The most used policies are direct regulation and provision
of information
• We may be going into a 6th mass extinction period, so it is
very important to act now!
Questions?