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AP European History Thematic Review Directions: Provide relevant details and examples that fully support each of the learning objectives. THEME 1: INTERACTION OF EUROPE AND THE WORLD 1. Overarching Question: Why have Europeans sought contact and interaction with other parts of the world? (INT-1 & 2) INT-1-Assess the relative influence of economic, religious, and political motives in promoting exploration and colonization Period 1: 1450-1648-Commercial and Religious Motives Period 2: 1648-1815- Rivalry between Britain and France, worldwide economic network, commercial rivalries Period 3: 1815-1914-National rivalries, raw materials, and markets Period 4-Post-World War I mandate system INT-2-Analyze the cultural beliefs that justified European conquest of the overseas territories and how they changed over time. Period 3: 1815-1914-cultural/racial superiority and social Darwinism Period 1:1450-1648-Christianity Period 4: 1914-Present- Principle of self-determination 2. Overarching Question: What political technological, and intellectual developments enabled European contact and interaction with other parts of the world? (INT 3 & 4) INT-3-Analyze how European states established and administered overseas commercial and territorial empires. Period 1: 1450-1648-Technological advances, commercial networks Period 2: 1648-1815-mercantilism, slave-labor, diplomacy, warfare Period 3: 1815-1914-Industrial and technological developments Period 4-Mandate system INT-4-Explain how scientific and intellectual advances-resulting in more effective navigational, cartographic, and military technologyfacilitates European interaction with other parts of the world. Period 3: 1815-1914-New communication and transportation, industrial Period 1:1450-1648-Technological advances and technological developments 3. Overarching Question: How have encounters between Europe & the World shaped European culture, politics,& society? (INT-5, 6, 7, & 8) INT5 -Evaluate the impact of the Columbian Exchange-the global exchange of goods, plants, animals, and microbes-on Europe’s economy, society, and culture. Period 1: 1450-1648-shift of economic power to Atlantic states Period 2: 1648-1815- Agricultural, industrial, and consumer revolutions in Europe; expansion of slave labor INT-6-Assess the role of overseas trade, labor, and technology in making Europe part of a global economic network and encouraging the development of new economic theories and state policies. Period 1:1450-1648-Access to gold, spices, luxury goods; mercantilism; Period 2: 1648-1815-European dominated worldwide economic network; mercantilism, commercial rivalries commercial and trading centers, Columbian Exchange Period 3: 1815-1914-New means of communication and transportation; search for raw materials and markets Period 4: 1914-Present-Postwar reconstruction of industry and infrastructure; consumerism; new communication and transportation INT-7-Analzye how contact with non-European peoples increased European social and cultural diversity and affected attitudes towards race. Period 1: 1450-1648-Expansion of slave trade Period 2: Slave revolt and independence of Haiti; expansion of transatlantic slave labor system, increased exposure to non-Europeans Period 3: 1815-1914-Ideology of cultural and racial superiority; imperialist encounters with non-Europeans Period 4: 1914-Present-National self-determination; increased immigration into Europe; anti-immigrant agitation and extreme nationalist political parties INT-8-Evaluate the United States’ economic and cultural influence on Europe and responses to this influence in Europe. Period 4: 1914-Present-Emergence of the US as a world power; Wilsonian idealism; Cold War; world monetary and trade systems and geopolitical alliances; 1929 stock market crash; Marshall Plan; US influence on elite and pop culture; Green parties; revolts of 1968 4. Overarching Question: What impact has contact with Europe had on non-European societies? (INT-9, 10, & 11) INT-9-Assess the role of European contact on overseas territories through the introduction of disease, participation in the slave trade and slavery, effects on agriculture and manufacturing patterns, and global conflict. Period 1: 1450-1648-Columbian Exchange Period 2: 1648-1815-Slave trade and new consumer goods Period 3: 1815-1914-Imperial conflicts and alliances Period 4: 1914-Present-Causes of WWI, Cold War outside of Europe, Decolonization INT-10-Explain the extent of and causes for non-Europeans’ adoption of or resistance to European cultural, political, or economic values and institutions and explain the causes of their reactions. Period 3: 1815-1914-Latin American Revolutions; Responses to Period 2: 1648-1815-Influence of the French Revolution imperialism Period 4: 1914-Present-Independence movements and mandates INT-11-Explain how European expansion and colonization brought non-European societies into global economic, diplomatic, military, and cultural networks. Period 1: 1450-1648-Exploration motives and mercantilism; est. of Period 2: 1648-1815-Colonial rivalry and warfare; revolution across the empires; slave trade and new goods; money economy Atlantic; slave trade; diplomacy and colonial wars Period 3: 1815-1914-Imperialist motives; racial Darwinism; responses and resistance to imperialism Period 4: 1914-Present-World War I and Cold War outside Europe; nationalism and decolonization; colonial emigration to Europe; guest workers THEME 2: POVERTY AND PROSPERITY 1. Overarching Question: How has capitalism developed as an economic system? (PP-1, 2, 3, 4, & 5) PP-1: Explain how and why wealth generated from new trading, financial, & manufacturing practices & institutions created a market and then a consumer economy. Period 1: 1450-1648-Rise of mercantilism Period 2: 1648-1815-Market economy; European dominated worldwide econ. Network; new ideas of free trade and free market; art and literature reflected the values of commercial society; consumer revolution of the 18th century. Period 3: 1815-1914-Great Britain’s Industrial dominance; industrialization of continental Europe; Second industrial revolution; development of heightened consumerism Period 4:1914-Present-Postwar economic growth; increased imports of United States technology and pop culture; mass production, new food technologies, and industrial efficiency PP-2:Identify the changes in agricultural production and evaluate their impact on economic growth and the standard of living in preindustrial Europe. Period 2: 1648-1815-Agricultural revolution, importation of ag. Period 1:1450-1648-Commericialization of agriculture; codification of Products from Americas serfdom PP-3: Explain how geographic, economic, social, and political factors affected pave, nature and timing of industrialization in western and eastern Europe. Period 4:1914-Present-Russia’s incomplete industrialization Period 3: 1815-1914-Industrial dominance of Great Britain; Industrialization in continental Europe; Second Industrial Revolution; Areas lagging in industrialization; Russian reform and modernization PP-4: Explain how the development of new technologies and industries, as well as new means of communication, marketing, and transportation, contributed to expansion of consumerism and increased standards of living & quality of life in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Period 3: 1815-1914-New technology and communication; mass Period 4:1914-Present-medical technologies; mass production, food marketing; efficient methods of transport; new industries technologies, industrial efficiency, communication, transportation; new modes of reproduction PP-5: Analyze the origins, characteristics, & effects of the post-WWII economic miracle & the economic integration of Europe (EU) Period 4:1914-Present-World monetary and trade systems; European economic and political integration; postwar economic growth and welfare benefits; creation of consumer culture; profession careers for women; the baby boomers; increased immigration to Europe 2. Overarching Question: How has the organization of society changed as a result of or in response to the development & spread of capitalism? (PP 6, 7, & 8) PP-6: Analyze how expanding commerce and industrialization from the 16th -19th centuries led to growth of cities and changes in the social structure most notably a shift from a landed to a commercial elite? Period 1: 1450-1648-commercial and professional groups gained Period 2: 1648-1815-Increased immigration to cities power; new social patters; expansion of cities; challenges to traditional political and social structures Period 3: 1815-1914-development of new classes; migration from rural to urban areas; government reforms of cities. PP-7: Explain how environmental conditions, the Agricultural Revolution, and industrialization contributed to demographic changes, the organization of manufacturing, and alterations in the family economy. Period 1: 1450-1648-family was primary social and economic Period 2: 1648-1815-the putting out system; Agricultural Revolution institution and population growth; new demographic patterns; effects of commercial revolution Period 3: 1815-1914-mechanization and the factory system; rapid population growth; altered family structure and relations PP-8: Analyze socialist, communist, and fascist efforts to develop responses to capitalism and why these efforts gained support during times of economic crisis. Period 3: 1815-1914-evolution of socialist ideology; labor unions Period 4:1914-Present-the Russian Revolution; fascism; the Great Depression 3. Overarching Question: What were the causes and consequences of economic and social inequality? (PP-9, 10, 11, & 12) PP-9: Assess how peasants across Europe were affected by and responded to the policies of landlords, increased taxation, and the price revolution of the early modern period? Period 1: 1450-1648-commericialization of agriculture and abolition of Period 2: 1648-1815-migration from rural areas to cities traditional rights PP-10: Explain the role of social inequality in contributing to and affecting the nature of the French Revolution and subsequent revolutions throughout the 19th and 20th Centuries. Period 2: 1648-1815-The French Revolution; Napoleon’s domestic reforms; challenge of rational and empirical thought to traditional values and ideas Period 3: 1815-1914-development of ideologies; concert of Europe; political revolts and revolutions; national unification and liberal reforms; Marx’ critique of capitalism Period 4:1914-Present-the Russian Revolution; PP-11: Analyze the social and economic causes and consequences of the Great Depression in Europe. Period 4:1914-Present-increased popularity of fascism; the Great Depression; belief in progress breaks down PP-12: Evaluate how the expansion of a global consumer economy after WWII serves as a catalyst to opposition movements in Eastern and Western Europe. Period 4:1914-Present-collapse of USSR; criticism of US technology and pop culture; Green parties; revolts of 1968 4. Overarching Question: How did individuals, groups, & the state respond to economic and social inequality? (PP 13, 14, 15, & 16) PP-13: Analyze how cities and states have attempted to address the problems brought about by economic modernization, such as poverty and famine, through regulating morals, policing marginal populations, and improving public health. Period 1: 1450-1648-Governent regulation of public morals; Period 2: 1648-1815-Policing of marginal groups Period 3: 1815-1914-Overcrowding in cities; government reform of cities Period 4:1914-Present-Expansion of social welfare programs PP 14: Explain how industrialization elicited critiques from artists, socialists, workers’ movements, and feminist organizations. Period 3: 1815-1914-socialist critiques of capitalism’ political Period 4:1914-Present-Belief in progress breaks down; criticism of US movements and social organizations; Romantic writers’ response to the technology and pop culture Industrial Revolution; Marx’s critique of capitalism; realist and materialist themes in art and literature PP 15: Analyze efforts of government and nongovernmental reform movements to respond to poverty and other social problems in the 19th and 20 centuries. Period 3: 1815-1914-labor laws and social welfare programs; Period 4:1914-Present-The Russian Revolution; expansion of social government expansion of functions; response of political movements welfare programs in Central and Eastern Europe; perestroika and social organizations. PP16: Analyze how democratic, authoritarian, and totalitarian governments of the left and right attempted to overcome the financial crisis of the 1920s and 1930s. Period 4:1914-Present-Lenin’s New Economic Policy; Stalin’s economic modernization; dependence on American investment capital’ attempts to rethink economic policies. THEME 3: OBJECTIVE KNOWLEDGE AND SUBJECTIVE VISIONS 1. Overarching Question: What roles have tradition sources of authority (church and classical antiquity) played in the creation and transmission of knowledge? (OS-1,2,3,& 4) OS-1: Account for the persistence of traditional and folk understandings of the cosmos and causation, even with the advent of the Scientific Rev. Period 1: 1450-1648-Continued appeal of alchemy and astrology; oral culture of peasants; pop culture OS-2: Analyze how religious reform in the 16th and 17th centuries, the expansion of printing, and the emergence of civic venues such as coffee houses and salons challenged the control of the church over the creation and dissemination of knowledge. Period 1: 1450-1648-new methods of scholarship and new values; Period 2:1648-1815-new public venues and print media; natural invention of printing; Protestant and Catholic reformations religion; religious toleration OS-3: Explain how political revolution and war from the 17th century on altered the role of the church in political and intellectual life and the response of religious authorities and intellectuals to such challenges. Period 1: 1450-1648-new political and secular systems of law; balance Period 2:1648-1815-nationalization of the Catholic Church; deof power; conflicts among religious groups Christianization; toleration of Christian minorities and civil rights granted to Jewish populations Period 3: 1815-1914-Conservative attempts to strengthen adherence to religious authotiries Period 4: 1914-Present-continues role of organized religion OS 4-Explain how a worldview based on science and reason challenged and preserved social order and roles especially the roles of women. Period 1: 1450-1648-Renaisaance and Reformation debates Period 2:1648-1815-arguments over exclusion of women from public life Period 3: 1815-1914-Cult of domesticity; radical and republican advocates of suffrage and citizenship; feminists and feminist movements Period 4: 1914-Present-continues role of organized religion; family responsibilities; economic changes; feminism; gay and lesbian movements 2. Overarching Question: How and why did Europeans come to rely on the scientific method and reason in place of traditional auth? OS-5-Analyze hoe the development of Renaissance humanism, the printing press, and the scientific method contributed to the emergence of a new theory of knowledge and conception of the universe. Period 1: 1450-1648-Revivial of classical texts; new methods of Period 2:1648-1815-Rational and empirical thought; new print media scholarship; invention of the printing press; visual arts of the Renaissance; Science based on observation, experimentation and math OS-6-Explain how European exploration and colonization was facilitated by the development of the scientific method and led to a re-examination of cultural norms. Period 1: 1450-1648-Advances in navigation, cartography, and military Period 2:1648-1815 technology Period 3: 1815-1914-Industrial and technological developments; Imperial encounters with non-European peoples. OS 7: Analyze hoe and to what extent the Enlightenment encouraged Europeans to understand human behavior, economic activity, and politics as governed by natural laws. Period 2: 1648-1815-challenge of rational and empirical thought; challenge of new political and economic theories; revival of public sentiment and feeling OS-8-Explain the emergence, spread, and questioning of scientific, technological, and positivist approaches to addressing social problems. Period 2: 1648-1815-application of principles of the Scientific Period 3: 1815-1914-labor laws and social welfare programs; liberal, Revolution to society and hum institutions; new public venues and print radical, republican, and socialist ideologies; government responses to media industrialization; responses of political movements and social organizations; turn toward realist and materialist worldview; new relativism and loss of confidence in objective knowledge Period 4: 1914-Present-challenges to the belief in progress; benefits and challenges of science and technology OS-9-Explain how new theories of government and political ideologies attempted to provide a coherent explanation for human behavior and the extent to which they adhered to or diverged from traditional explanations based on religious beliefs. Period 1: 1450-1648-secular models for political behavior; concept of Period 2:1648-1815-absolute monarchy; alternatives to absolutism; sovereign state and secular systems of law liberal revolution; radical Jacbobin republic; political models of Locke and Rousseau; political theories such as that of Locke Period 3: 1815-1914-Ideologies; political revolts and revolutions Period 4: 1914-Present-Fascist rejection of democracy; glorification of war and nationalism 3. Overarching Question: How and why did Europeans come to value subjective interpretations of reality? (OS 10, 11, 12, & 13) OS 10-Analyze the means by which individualism, subjectivity, and emotion came to be considered a valid source of knowledge. Period 1: 1450-1648-Humanists valued the individual Period 2:1648-1815-empahsis on private life in the arts; revival of public sentiment and feeling Period 3: 1815-1914-liberal, radical, and republican emphasis on individual rights; romanticism’s emphasis; relativism in values and emphasis on subjective sources of knowledge Period 4: 1914-Present-Challenge to confidence in science and human reason; self-expression and subjectivity in the arts OS-11-Explain how and why religion increasingly shifted from a matter of public concern to one of private belief over the course of European history. Period 1: 1450-1648-Humanists secular models for individual and Period 2:1648-1815-rational analysis of religious practices political behavior; new interpretations of Christian doctrine and practice; adoption of religious pluralism Period 4: 1914-Present-continued role of organized religion OS-12-Analyze how artists used strong emotions to express individuality and political theorists encouraged emotional identification with the nation. Period 4: 1914-Present-Fascist nationalism Period 2:1648-1815-revivial of public sentiment and feeling Period 3: 1815-1914-nationalism; national unification and liberal reform; romanticism; Freudian psychology OS-13-Explain how and why modern artists began to move away from realism and toward abstraction and the non-rational, rejecting traditional aesthetics. Period 3: 1815-1914-romantic break with Neoclassical forms and Period 4: 1911-Present-experimentation,. Self-expression, and rationalism; shift to subjective abstract and expressive in the arts subjectivity in the arts THEME 4: STATES AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS OF POWER 1. Overarching Questions: What forms have European governments taken, and how have these changed over time (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, )? SP 1-Explain the emergence of civic humanism and new conceptions of political authority during the Renaissance as well as subsequent theories and practices that stressed the political importance and rights of the individual. Period 1: 1450-1648-civic humanism and secular theories; art in service Period 2:1648-1815- challenges to absolutism; French Revolution; of the state; growth of sovereign nation-states Enlightenment principles; social contract and capitalism; state patronage and new political ideals in art Period 3: 1815-1914-political ideologies; growth of regulatory states; political movements and parties Period 4: 1914-Present- industrialized warfare; women’s rights; dissenting groups in politics SP 2-Explain the emergence of and theories behind the New Monarchies and absolute monarchies and evaluate the degree to which they were able to centralize power in their states. Period 1: 1450-1648-new monarchs and the rise of nation-states; Period 2:1648-1815-absolutism; English Civil War and the Dutch absolutism and it challengers; control over religion; religious wars Republic SP 3-Trace the changing relationship between states and ecclesiastical authority and the emergence of the principle of religious toleration. Period 1: 1450-1648-seculat political theories; state control over Period 2:1648-1815- absolutist religious policies; napoleon and the religion; Reformation and religious conflict; religious wars Concordat of 1801; religious toleration; Period 3: 1815-1914-political ideologies and religion; conservatism Period 4: 1914-Present- post World War II religious conflicts; Second Vatican Council and immigration SP 4-Analyze how new political and economic theories from the 17th Century and the Enlightenment challenged absolutism and shaped the development of constitutional states, parliamentary governments, and the concept of individual rights. Period 2:1648-1815-French Revolution; Enlightenment and natural Period 3-1815-1914-ideologies of change; mass political movements rights; liberalism (Locke and Adam Smith) and reform; post-1815 Revolutions; national unification and nationbuilding. SP5-Assess the role of colonization, the Industrial Revolution, total war, and economic depressions in altering the government’s relationship to the economy both in overseeing economic activity and addressing its social impact. Period 1: 1450-1648-colonization and mercantilism; Period 2:1648-1815- French revolutionary equality and warfare; commercial revolution; Period 3: 1815-1914-British and Continental industrialization ; Second industrial recolution; government regulation and reform; Period 4: 1914-Present- post-1945 economic unity; Russian Revolution; Great Depression; economic miracle and welfare state; planned economies in Eastern Europe. SP 6-Explain how new ideas of political authority and the failure of diplomacy led to world wars, political revolutions; and the establishment of totalitarian regimes in the 20th century. Period 4:1914-Present-Causes of World War I; Versailles Settlement; Appeasement and WWII; Bolshevik Revolution and Stalin; Fascism 2. Overarching Question: In what ways and why have European government moved toward or reacted against representative and democratic principles and practices ( SP-7, 8, & 9)? SP7-Explain the emergence of representative government as an alternative to absolutism. Period 1: 1450-1648-limits to absolutism; Period 2: 1648-1815-constitutionalism; French Revolution; Enlightenment principles in politics; social contract and capitalism Period 3: 1815-1914-ideologies of liberation; mass movements and reform; revolutions from 1815 to 1848; nationalism and unification SP 8-Explain how and why various groups, including communists and fascists, undermined parliamentary democracy through the establishment of regimes that maintained dictatorial control while manipulating democratic forms. Period 4: 1914-Present-Nazi aggression and Blitzkrieg; Bolshevik Revolution and Stalin; Rise of fascism SP 9-Analyze how various movements for political and social equality-such as feminism, anti-colonialism, and campaigns for immigrants’ rights-pressured governments and redefined citizenship. Period 2: 1648-1815-French Revolution-women and minorities; natural Period 3: 1815-1914-ideologies of liberation; workers, feminists, and rights; religious toleration-Jewish people; reform; responses to imperialism-nationalism; Period 4: 1914-Present-decolonization; collapse of communism; feminism; post-1945 critics and dissenters 3. How did civil institutions develop apart from governments, and what impact have they had upon European states (SP10, 11, 12)? SP10-Trace the ways in which new technologies, from the printing press to the Internet have shaped the development of civil society and enhanced the role of public opinion. Period 1: 1450-1648- Printing press Period 2:1648-1815- civil society and literacy Period 3: 1815-1914- Second industrial Revolution-transportation and communication; Period 4: 1914-Present-mass media and propaganda; total war and higher standard of living SP 11-Analyze how religious and secular institutions and groups attempted to limit monarchial power by articulating theories of resistance to absolutism and by taking political action. Period 1: 1450-1648- English Civil War; religious minorities; religious Period 2: 1648-1815- England and the Dutch Republic; French wars and religious pluralism Revolution; Enlightenment ideals; Locke and Adam Smith Period 3: 1815-1914-Ideologies of change; Post 1815 Revolutions SP 12-Assess the role of civic institutions in shaping the development of representative and democratic forms of government? Period 2: 1648-1815- growth of civil society Period 3: 1815-1914-mass political movements and parties Period 4: 1914-Present- women and feminism; post 1945 dissenting groups 4. Overarching Question: How and why did changes in warfare affect diplomacy, the European State System, and the balance of power (SP 13 and 14)? SP13-Evaluate how the emergence of new weapons, tactics, and methods of military organization changed the scale and cost of warfare, required the centralization of power, and shifted the balance of power? Period 1: 1450-1648- early modern military revolution; exploration and Period 2:1648-1815- French revolutionary warfare; Napoleonic tactics colonization; and warfare Period 3: 1815-1914- industrialization of warfare; second industrial revolution and imperialism Period 4: 1914-total warfare, 1914-1918; World War II; Nuclear weapons and the Cold War; post-1945 nationalist/separatist movements and guerilla warfare; genocide and nuclear war SP14-Analyze the role of warfare in remaking the political map of Europe and in shifting the global balance of power in the 19th and 20th centuries. Period 3: 1815-1914- Congress of Vienna and Concert of Europe; Period 4: 1914-Present-World War I; Versailles Agreement; World War Crimean War; Unification of Germany and Italy; II; Cold War; Decolonization; Fascist aggressions; Ethnic cleansing and the Balkans 5. Overarching Question: How did the concept of a balance of per emerge, develop, and eventually become institutionalized (SP15, 16, 17, 18, & 19)? SP 15-Assess the impact of war, diplomacy, and overseas exploration and colonization on European diplomacy and balance of power until 1789. Period 1: 1450-1648- Peace of Westphalia and balance of power; Period 2:1648-1815- dynastic and colonial wars; French Revolutionary colonial empires Wars; Commercial rivalries and warfare SP 16-Explain how the French Revolution and the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars shifted the European balance of power and encouraged the creation of a new diplomatic framework. Period 2:1648-1815-French revolutionary warfare; Napoleonic Wars Period 3:1815-1914-Congress of Vienna settlement SP 17-Explain the role of nationalism in altering the European balance of power, and explain attempts made to limit nationalism as a means to ensure continental stability. Period 2: 1648-1815-Fraternite and citizen armies; Napoleonic Warfare Period 3: 1815-1914-Post 1815 nationalism; Congress of Vienna and Metternich; Conservative Realpolitik; Unification of Germany and Italy; Nationalism as a motive for imperialism; imperial conflicts and colonial nationalism Period 4: 1914-Present-nationalism and the cause of WWI; national self-determination and League of Nations; fascism and “new racial order”; Cold War and collapse of communism; European unity; Post-1945 nationalist and separatist movements; colonial independence movements; fascism and extreme nationalism; Eastern European resistance to communism and Balkan conflicts; immigration and anti-immigration groups. SP 18-Evaluate how overseas competition and changes in the alliance system upset the Concert of Europe and set the stage for WWI. Period 3: 1815-1914-Crimean War and Conservative nationalism; Period 4: 1914-present-Causes of World War I unification of Germany and Italy; Imperialism (rivalries and conflicts) SP 19-Explain the ways in which the Common Market and the collapse of the Soviet Empire changed the political balance of power, the status of the nation-state, and global political alliances. Period 4: 1914-Present-Cold War and collapse of communism; European Unity; Collapse of Communism and Balkan conflicts. THEME FIVE: INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY 1. Overarching Question: What forms have family, class and social groups taken in European history and how have the changed over time? (IS 1, 2, 3, 4, & 5) IS 1: Explain the characteristics, practices, and beliefs of traditional communities in preindustrial Europe and how they were challenged by religious reform. Period 1: 1450-1648-Alchemy and astrology; hierarchy and social status; subsistence agriculture; family economy, gender roles , European marriage pattern; folk culture and communal norms IS-2-Explain how the growth of commerce and changes in manufacturing challenged the dominance of corporate groups and traditional estates. Period 1: 1450-1648-rise of commercial and professional groups; Period 2: 1648-1815-Agricultural Revolution and cottage industry; financial and commercial innovations; prices revolution and Urban migration and poverty commercial agriculture; urban expansion and problems Period 3: 1815-1914- industrialization and bourgeoisie IS-3-Evaluate the role of technology, from the printing press to modern transportation and telecommunications, in forming the transforming society. Period 1: 1450-1648- printing press-Renaissance and Reformation; Period 2:1648-1815- civil society and publishing; exploration and colonization Period 3: 1815-1914- industrialization; Second industrial revolution and mass production; transportation and consumerism; governmental reform of infrastructure; industry and empire Period 4: 1914- Present-technology as destructive and improving standard of living IS 4-Analyze how and why the nature and role of the family has changed over time. Period 1: 1450-1648- family, gender roles, and marriage patterns; Period 2:1648-1815- consumerism and privacy in the home; European marriage pattern and new concepts of childhood Period 3: 1815-1914-companionate marriage and domesticity Period 4: 1914- women in the workforce, feminism, and the baby boom; gay and lesbian movements IS 5-Explain how and why class emerged as a basis for identity and led to conflict in the 19th and 20th centuries. Period 3: 1815-1914-new industrial classes; protective legislation and leisure; socialism and anarchism; worker movements and reformers; post 1815 Revolutions Period 4: 1914-Present-Russian and Bolshevik revolutions 2. Overarching question: How and why have tensions arisen between the individual and society over the course of European History (IS-6, 7, & 8) IS 6-Evaluate the causes and consequences of persistent tensions between women’s role and status in the public versus private sphere. Period 1: 1450-1648- family economy; Renaissance and Reformation Period 2:1648-1815- French Revolution; Napoleonic Code; debates on women; communal norms and enforcement Enlightenment and natural rights; Period 3: 1815-1914-companionate marriage and domesticity; radicalism and feminism; feminism in reform movements Period 4: 1914- total war, post 1945 feminism, and political opportunities IS 7-Evaluate how identities such as race, ethnicity, and class have defined the individual in relationship to society. Period 1: 1450-1648- slave trade; new economic elites and hierarchy Period 2:1648-1815- nobles and absolutism; French Revolution and attack on feudalism/manorialism; Napoleon and meritocracy; expansion of slave trade Period 3: 1815-1914-industrialization and class; middle and working class families; post-1815 ideologies; mass political movements and governmental reform; interaction with and responses by colonies; social Darwinism and Marxism Period 4: 1914- Present-nazi racism and the Holocaust; Post-1945 nationalist and separatist movements; total war and genocide; youth, gay/lesbian, immigration dissenter IS 8-Evaluate how the impact of war on civilians has affected loyalty to and respect for the nation-state. Period 4: 1914-Present-World War I and total war on the home front; Russian Revolution and Civil War; Spanish Civil War and World War II, Destructive effects of technology; total war and genocide. 3. Overarching Question: How and why has the status of specific groups within society changed over time (IS 9 &10) IS 9-Assess the extent to which women participated in and benefited from the shifting values of European society from the 15th century onward. Period 1: 1450-1648-Renaissance and Reformation Period 2:1648-1815- French Revolution; Napoleonic; Enlightenment; Salons; consumerism and family life; privacy; commercial revolution Period 3: 1815-1914-industrialization, protective legislation, and leisure; Post 1815 ideologies of change; mass political movements and feminism; Period 4: 1914- Present-military production, economic recovery IS 10-Analyze how and why Europeans have marginalized certain populations (defined as “other”) over the course of their history. Period 1: 1450-1648-religious minorities; colonial conquest; urban Period 2:1648-1815- Reign of Terror and counterrevolution; migrants and regulation of morals; communal norms and witchcraft Napoleonic empire Period 3: 1815-1914- Nationalism, anti-Semitism, and chauvinism; persistence of serfdom and feudalism; racial Darwinism and the “White Man’s Burden”; imperial influenced art and colonial independence movements; Social Darwinism Period 4: 1914- Present- Fascist racism and the Holocaust; Post-1945 nationalist and separatist movements; mandates and decolonization; Kulaks and Great Purges; fascist propaganda; Balkan conflicts and wars; guest workers and immigration; total war and genocide; post1945 dissenting groups.